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As we cut and then file; as we chisel and then grind: so has he cultivated himself. How grave is he and dignified! How majestic and distinguished! Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten." That expression—" as we cut and then file," indicates the work of learning. "As we chisel and then grind," indicates that of self-culture. "How grave is he and dignified!" indicates the feeling of cautious reverence. "How commanding and distinguished," indicates an awe-inspiring deportment. "Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten," indicates how, when virtue is complete and excellence extreme, the people cannot forget them.

5. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, "Ah! the former kings are not forgotten." Future princes deem worthy what they deemed worthy, and love what they loved. The common people delight in what they delighted, and are benefited by their beneficial arrangements. It is on this account that the former kings, after they have quitted the world, are not forgotten.

The above third chapter of commentary explains resting in the highest excellence.

IV. The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations?" So, those who are devoid of principle find it impossible to carry out their speeches, and a great awe would be struck into men's minds :—this is called knowing the root.

The above fourth chapter of commentary explains the root and the issue.

II. Bk I. Sect. I . iv. 3. The former kings are Wan and Woo, the founders of the Chow dynasty. According to Ying-ta, "this paragraph illustrates the business of having the thoughts sincere." According to Choo He, it tells that how the former kings renovated the people, was by their resting in perfect excellence, so as to be able, throughout the empire and to future ages, to effect that there should not be a single thing but got its proper place.

i. Explanation Of The Root And The Branches. See the Analects, XII. xiii., from which we understand that the words of Confucius terminate at " no litigations," and that what follows is from the compiler. According to the old commentators, this is the conclusion of the chapter on having the thoughts made sincere, and that this is the .root. Hut V. 1. This is called knowing the root.

2. This is called the perfecting of knowledge.

The above fifth chapter of commentary explained the meaning of " investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent," but it u now lost. I have ventured to take, the views of the scholar Ch'ing to supply it, as follows:The meaning of the expression, "The perfecting of knowledge depends on the investigation of things," is this :If we w ish to carry our knowledge to the utmost, we must investigate the principles of all things we come into contact with, for the intelligent mind of man is certainly formed to know, and there is not a single thing in which its principles do not inhere. But so long as all principles are not investigated, man's knowledge is incomplete. On this account, the Learning for Adults, at the outset of its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles, and pursue his investigation of them, till he reaches the extreme point. After exerting himself in this way for a long time, he will suddenly find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended, and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is called the perfection of knowledge.

VI. 1. What is meant by "making the thoughts sinaccording to Choo He, it is the illustration of illustrious virtue which is the root, while the renovation of the people is the result therefrom. Looking at the words of Confucius, we must conclude that sincerity was the subject in his mind.

5. On The Investigation Of Things, And Carrying Knowledge To The Utmost Extent. 1. This is said by one of the Ch'ing to be '' superfluous text." 2. Choo He considers this to be the conclusion of a chapter which is now lost. But we have seen that the two sentences come in, as the work stands in the Le-ke, at the conclusion of what is deemed the classical text. It is not necessary to add anything here to what has been said there, and in the prolegomena, on the new dispositions of the work from the time of the Sung scholars, and the manner in which Choo He has supplied this supposed missing chapter.

6. On Having The Thoughts Sincere. 1. The sincerity of the core," is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad smell, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

2. There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man, he instantly tries to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds him, as if he saw his heart and reins;—of what use is his disguise? This is an instance of the saying —" What truly is within will be manifested without." Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

3. Tsang the philosopher said, "What ten eyes behold, what ten hands point to, is to be regarded with reverence!"

4. Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must make his thoughts sincere.

The above sixth chapter of commentary explains making the thoughts sincere.

thoughts obtains, when they move without effort to what is right and wrong; and, in order to this, a man must be especially on his guard in Aw solitary moments. 2. An enforcement of the concluding clause im, the last paragraph. "His heart and reins" is, literally, " the lungs and liver," but with the meaning which we attach to the expression substituted for it. The Chinese make the lungs the seat of righteousness, and the liver the seat of benevolence. 3. The use of "Tsang the philosopher " at the beginning of this paragraph (and extending, perhaps, over to the next) should suffice to show that the whole work is not his, as assumed by Choo He. "Ten" is a round number, put for many. The recent commentator, Lo Chungfan, refers Tsang's expressions to the multitude of spiritual beings, servants of Heaven or God, who dwell in the regions of the air, and are continually beholding men's conduct. But they are probably only an emphatic way of exhibiting what is said in the preceding paragraph. 4. This paragraph is commonly referred to Tsang Sin, but whether correctly so or not cannot be positively affirmed. It is of the same purport as the two preceding, showing that hypocrisy is of no use. Compare Mencius, VII, Pt. I. xxi. 4. It is only the first of these paragraphs from which we can in any way ascertain the views of the writer on making the thoughts sincere. The other paragraphs contain only illustration or enforcement. Now, the gist of the first paragraph seems to be in "allowing no self-deception." After knowledge has been carried to the utmost, this remains to be done, and it is not true that, when knowledge has been completed, the thoughts become sincere. This fact overthrows Choo He's interpretation of the vexed passages in what he calls the text of Confucius.

VII. 1. What is meant by "The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind," may be thus illustrated :—If a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same, if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

2. When the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we hear and do not understand; we eat and do not know the taste of what we eat.

3. This is what is meant by saying that the cultivation of the person depends on the rectifying of the mind.

The above seventh chapter of commentary explains rectifying the mind and cultivating the person.

VIII. 1. What is meant by " The regulation of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person," is this: —Men are partial where they feel affection and love; partial where they despise and dislike; partial where they stand in awe and reverence; partial where they feel sorrow and compassion; partial where they are arrogant and rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world who love, and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love,-or who hate, and yet know the excellences of the object of their hatred.

2. Hence it is said, in the common adage, "A man does not know the wickedness of his son; he does not know the richness of his growing corn."

3. This is what is meant by saying that if the person be not cultivated, a man cannot regulate his family.

The above eighth chapter of commentary explains cultivating the person and regulating the family.

IX. 1. What is meant by "In order rightly to govern

Let the student examine his note appended to this chapter, and he will gee that Choo was not unconscious of this pinch of the difficulty.

7. On Personal Cultivation As Dependent On The Rectification Of The Mind.

8. The Necessity Of Cultivating The Person, In Order To The Regulation Of The Family. The lesson here is evidently, that men are continually falling into error, in consequence of the partiality of their feelings and affections. How this error affects their personal cultivation, and interferes with the regulating of their families, is not specially indicated.

9. On Regulating The Family As The Means To The Well-ordeb

Vol. t. 18

his State, it is necessary first to regulate his family," is this :—It is not possible for one to teach others, while he cannot teach his own family. Therefore, the ruler, without going beyond his family, completes the lessons for the State. There is filial piety:—therewith the sovereign should be served. There is fraternal submission :—therewith elders and superiors should be served. There is kindness :—therewith the multitude should be treated.

2. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, "Act as if you were watching over an infant." If a mother is really anxious about it, though she may not hit exactly the wants of her infant, she will not be far from doing so. There never has been a girl who learned to bring up a child, that she might afterwards marry.

3. From the loving example of one family, a whole State becomes loving, and from its courtesies, the whole State becomes courteous, while, from the ambition and perverseness of the one man, the whole State may be led to rebellious disorder;—such is the nature of the influence. This verifies the saying, "Affairs may be ruined by a single sentence; a kingdom may be settled by its one man."

4. Yaou and Shun led on the empire with benevolence, and the people followed them. Kee" and Chow led on the empire with violence, and the people followed them. The orders which these issued were contrary to the practices which they loved, and so the people did not follow them. On this account, the ruler must himself be possessed of the good qualities, and then he may require them

Ing OF THE State. 1. There is here implied the necessity of self-cultivation to the rule, both of the family and of the State; and that being supposed to exist, it is shown how the virtues that secure the regulation of the family Iiave their corresponding virtues in the wider sphere of the State. 2. See the Shoo-king, Pt V. Bk IX. 9. Both in the Shoo-king and here, some verb, like act, must be supplied. This paragraph seems designed to show that the ruler must be carried on to his object by an inward, unconstrained feeling, like that of the mother for her infant. Lo Chung-fan insists on this as harmonizing with " to love the people," as the second object proposed in the Great Learning. 3. Sow certainly and rapidly the influence of the family extends to the State. The " one man" is the ruler. "I, the one man," is a way in which the emperor speaks of himself; see Analects XX. i. 5. 4. An illustration of the last part of the last paragraph. But from the examples cited, the sphere of influence is extended from the State to the empire, and the family, moreover, does not

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