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peppercorns which freeholders pay their landlord to spicuous. The whole surface of both sides of acknowledge that they hold all from him. Boyle. the leaves is marked with numerous minute reFolks from mud-walled tenement

sinous spots, in which the essential oil resides. Bring landlords peppercorn for rent. Prior. The foot-stalks are about half an inch in length,

Scatter o'er the blooms the pungent dust round on the under side, angular above, quite Of pepper, fatal to the frosty tribe. Thomson. smooth. The flowers we have not seen. What

PEPPER, piper, in natural history, an aroma- Mr. White has sent as the ripe capsules of this tic berry of a hot dry quality, chiefly used in tree (although not attached to the specimens of seasoning. Pepper is principally used by us in the leaves) grow in clusters, from six to eight in food, to assist digestion : but the people in the each, sessile and conglomerated. These clusters East Indies esteem it as a stomachic, and drink are supported on angular alternate foutstalks, a strong infusion of it in water by way of giving which form a kind of panicle. Each capsule is them an appetite ; they have also a way of mak- about the size of a hawthorn berry, globular, ing a fiery spirit of fermented fresh pepper with but as it were cut off at the top, rugged on the water, which they use for the same purposes. outside, hard and woody, and of a dark brown They have also a way of preserving the common color. At the top is a large orifice, which shows and long pepper in vinegar, and eating them af- the internal part of the capsule divided into terwards at meals. There are three kinds of four cells, and having a square column in the pepper at present used in the shops, the. black, centre, from which the partitions of the cell arise. the white, and the long pepper.

These partitions extend to the rim of the capsule, I. PEPPER, Black, is the fruit of the piper, and terminate in four small projections, which and is brought from the Dutch settlements in the look like the teeth of a calyx. The seeds are East Indies.

numerous, small, and angular. The name of II. PEPPER, Long, is a dried fruit, of an inch pepper-mint tree has been given to this plant by or an inch and a half in length, and about the Mr. White, on account of the very great resemthickness of a large goose quill : it is of a brown- blance between the essential oil drawn from its ish gray color, cylindrical in figure, and produced leaves and that obtained from the pepper-mint on a plant of the same genus.

(mentha piperita) which grows in England. This III. Pepper, WHITE, is factitious, being pre- oil was found by Mr. White 10 be much more pared from the black in the following manner : efficacious in removing all cholicky complaints --they steep this in sea-water, exposed to the heat than that of the English peppermint, which he of the sun for several days, till the rind or outer attributes to its being less pungent and more arobark loosens; they then take it out, and, when it matic. A quart of the oil had been sent by him is half dry, rub it till the rind falls off; then they to Mr. Wilson. The tree appears to be undoubtdry the white fruit, and the remains of the rind edly of the same genus with that cultivated in blow away like chaff. A great deal of the heat some greenhouses in England, which M. L'Heof the pepper is taken off by this process, so that ritier has described in bis Sertum Anglicum by the white kind is more fit for many purposes the name of eucalyptus obliqua, though it is than the black. However, there is a sort of na- commonly called in the gardens metrosideros tive white pepper produced on a species of the obliqua; but we dare not assert it to be the same same plant; which is much better than the fac. species, nor can this point be determined till titious, and indeed little inferior to the black. the flowers and every part of both be seen and PEPPER, BARBARY. See CAPSICUM.

compared : we have compared the best specimens Pepper, GUINEA. See Capsicum.

we could procure of each, find no specific PEPPER, JAMAICA. See Myrtus and Pic difference. The eucalyptus obliqua has, when

dried, an aromatic flavor, somewhat similar to PEPPER, Poor Man's. See LEPIDIUM. our plant. We have remarked, indeed, innu

PEPPER, Water, a liquor prepared by putting merable minute white spots, besides the resinous common black pepper, grossly powdered, into ones, on both surfaces of the leaves in some spean open vessel of water. In a few days it ac- cimens of the garden plant, which are not to be quires a pellicle or thin surface, which is com- seen in ours; and the branches of the former are posed entirely of animalcules excellently adapted rough, with small scaly tubercles. But how for microscopical observation.

far these are constant we cannot tell. The obPEPPER GRASS. See PILULARIA.

liquity in the leaves, one side being shorter at PEPPER-MINT. See MENTHA.

the base than the other, as well as somewhat PEPPER-MINT TREE, in botany, the eucalyptus narrower all the way up, as in the Begonia piperita. In a journal of a voyage to New South nitida of the Hortus Kewensis, is remarkable in Wales, by John White, esq., we have a plate of both plants. Mr.White's figure represents a branch this tree, with the following account of it:- of the pepper-mint tree in leaf : on one side of it “This tree grows to the height of more than 100 part of a leaf separate, bearing the gall of some feet, and is above thirty feet in circumference. insect; on the other the fruit above described.' The bark is very smooth, like that of the poplar. PEPPER-POT. See CAPSICUM. The younger branches are long and slender, an- PEPPER-WORT. See LEPIDIUM. gulated near the top; but as they grow older the PEPUSCH (John Christopher), Mus. D., and angles disappear. Their bark is smooth, and of F. R. S., one of the greatest theoretic or scientific a reddish brown. The leaves are alternate, musicians of modern times, was born at Berlin lanceoli le, pointed, very entire, smooth on both in 1667. In 1680, when not fifteen, he had made sides, and remarkably unequal or oblique at such proficiency on the harpsichord that he was their base; the veins alternate, and not very con- appointed to teach music to the prince royal of


Fr. por


to court.

Prussia. About 1700 he came over to England, tion of his very interesting Diary, by lord Brayand was engaged at Drury Lane. The popularity brooke. of Handel kept him in the secondary rank; but Pepys' ISLANDS, a name given to Falkland Pepusch chose a new track for himself, and Islands. taught music in the full sense of the word ; i. e. PERA, one of the suburbs of Constantinople, the principles of harmony and the science of where ambassadors and Christians usually reside. composition,-not to children or novices, but to See ConstanTINOPLE. professors of music themselves, who attended PERACUTE, adj. Lat. peracutus. Very him ; so much were his talents and judgment sharp or violent. respected. In 1713 the University of Oxford Malign, continual peracute fevers, after most danadmitted him Doctor of Music. In 1724 he gerous attacks, suddealy remit of the ardent heat. accepted an offer from Dr. Berkeley to go with

Hartey. him to Bermudas, as professor of music in his

PERADVENTURE, udv. & n. s. intended college; but ihe ship being wrecked he aventure. Perhaps; may be; by chance; as a returned to London, and married Frances Mar- noun-substantive, doubt or question. garet De L'Epine, who had made a fortune of For a good man peradventure summan dar die. 10,000 guineas by her voice. His fortune and

Wiclif. Rom. 5. reputation were now at their height. At the desire Peradventure there be fifty righteous within the of Messrs. Gay and Rich he composed the mu- city; wilt thou also destroy and not spare the place sic for the Beggar's Opera. In 1737 he was

for the fifty righteous that are therein ?

Genesis xviii. 24. chosen organist for the Charter House. In 1740 his wife died, and a short time after their only was such peradventure as had been no whit less un

That wherein they might not be like unto either, He wrote An Account of the Ancient lawful.

Houket. Genera of Music, which was read before the As you return, visit my house ; let our old acRoyal Society, and published in the Phil. Trans. quaintance be renewed ; perudventure I will with you for October, November, and December, 1736 ;

Shakspeare. and was soon after chosen F.R.S. He died What peradventure may appear very full to me, July 20th, 1752, aged eighty-five.

may appear very crude and mained to a stranger. PEPYS (Samuel), F. R. S., secretary to the

Digby. admiralty in the reigns of Charles II. and James Though men's persons ought not to be hated, yet II., was born at Brampton in Huntingdonshire, without all perudventure their practices justly may

South. of an ancient family of the same name, of Cottenham in Cambridgeshire, and educated at St.

PERAGRA'TION n. s. Lat. perugro. The Paul's school, London, whence he was removed act of passing through any state or space. Obto Magdalen College, Cambridge. He early

solete. acquired the patronage of the earl of Sandwich,

A month of peragration is the time of the moon's who employed him as secretary in the expedition revolution from any part of the zodiack unto the same for bringing Charles II. from Holland.

On his again, and this containeth but twenty-seven days and eight hours.

Browne. return he was appointed one of the principal

The moon has two accounts which are her months officers of the navy, which post he maintained

or years of revolution ; one her periodick month, or during the plague, the fire of London, and the month of peragration, which chiefly respects her own Dutch war.

In 1673, when the king took the proper motion or place in the zodiack, by which she admiralty into his own hands, he appointed Mr. like the sun performs her revolution round the zoPepys secretary. In 1684 he was accused of diack from any one point to the same again. being a papist, without a shadow of proof; and

Holder on Time. soon after, the admiralty being put into commis- PERAMBAUCAM, a town of the south of sion, he lost his place. He was still, however, India, Carnatic. This, though a small place, employed under lord Dartmouth, in the expe- is memorable for the defeat and destruction of a dition against Tangier, and often accompanied fine British army, commanded by the gallant the duke of York to Scotland, and in his cruises. colonel Bailie, in the month of September 1780, When Charles II. resumed the office of lord by Hyder Aly. Of eighty-six British officers high admiral he was once more appointed secre- present, thirty-six were killed, thirty-four woundtary, and held the office until the Revolution. ed, and the remaining sixteen taken prisoners; On the accession of William and Mary he re- the greater part of them dying in captivity.

In signed, and published his · Memoirs,' relating to August 1781 a second battle was fought here bethe navy. He led a very retired life from this tween Hyder and the army commanded by Sir time; and, having survived his lady, retired for Eyre Coote. On this occasion the British were two years before his death to the seat of a naval victorious. It is situated on the south side of friend at Clapham, where he died May 26th, the Coortelier, fourteen miles north-east of Co 1703. Such indeed was his literary and scien- pieveram. tific reputation that in 1684 he was elected pre- PERAM'BULATE, v. a. / Lat. perambulo. sident of the Royal Society, which office he held PERAMBULA'TION, n. s. To walk, or pass for ten years. He left a large collection of MSS. through ; survey by passing through : perambuto Magdalen College, Oxford, and five large lation is, the act of passing through; survey folio volumes of ancient English poetry, begun made, or districts perambulated. by Selden, and carried down to 1700, from

The duke looked still for the coming back of which the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, the Armada, even when they were wandering and by Dr. Percy, are chiefly selected. Mr. Pepys making their perambulation of the northern seas. has lately become more known by the publica


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Persons the lord deputy should nominate to passed over, as far as twelve miles. The use of view and perambulate Irish territories, and there. this instrument is obvious from its construction. upon to divide and limit the same.


proper office is the surveying of roads and Davies on Ireland.

large distances, where a great deal of expedition, It might in point of conscience be demanded, by and not much accuracy, is required. It is eviwhat authority' a private person can extend a per: dent that driving it along and observing the sonal correction beyond the persons and bounds of hands has the same effect as dragging|the chain his own perambulation ?

Holyday. France is a square of five hundred and fifty miles advantages are its hardness and expedition : its

and taking account of the chains and links. Its traverse, thronging with such multitudes that the contrivance is such that it may be fitted to the general calcul, made in the last perambulation, exceeded eighteen millions.


wheel of a coach, in which state it performs its

office, and measures the road without any PERAMBULATOR, in surveying, an instru

trouble. ment for measuring distances, called also pedometer, way-wiser, and surveying-wheel. It con- in Bergen county, New Jersey, lying on the

PERAMES, in geography, a town of America, sists of a wheel A A two feet seven inches and a point of land formed by the branches of Saddle

River, a north branch of the Passaick; about A

eighteen miles north of Bergen,

PERCA, the perch, a genus of fishes. belonging to the order of thoracici. The head is fur

nished with scaly and serrated opercula ; there B

are seven rays in the membrane of the gills; and the fins on the back are prickly. There are thirty-eight species, principally distinguished by peculiarities in the back fin.

The most remarkable are

1. P. cernua, the pope, or ruffe, is found in several English streams: it is gregarious, assem

bling in large shoals, and keeping in the deepest half in diameter; consequently half a pole, or part of the water. It is of a much more slender eight feet three inches, in circumference. On form than the perch, and seldom exceeds six one end of the axis is a nut, three quarters of an inches in length. The teeth are very small, and inch in diameter, and divided into eight teeth; disposed in rows. It has only one dorsal fin, which, upon moving the wheel round, fall into extending along the greatest part of the back; the eight teeth of another nut c, fixed on one end the first rays, like those of the perch, are strong, of an iron rod Q, and thus turn the rod once sharp, and spiny; the others soft. The body is round in the time the wheel makes one revolu- covered with rough compact scales. The back tion. This rod, laying along a groove in the side and sides are of a dirty green, the last inclining of the carriage of the instrument, has at its other to yellow but both spotted with black. The end a square hole, into which is fitted the end 6 dorsal fin is spotted with black; the tail marked of a small cylinder P. This cylinder is disposed with transverse bars. under the dial-plate of a movement, at the end 2. P. fluviatilis, or common perch, has a deep of the carriage B, in such a manner as to be body, very rough scales, and the back much moveable about its axis ; its end a is cut into a arched. The colors are beautiful; the back and perpetual screw, which falling into the thirty-two part of the sides being of a deep green, marked ieeth of a wheel perpendicular to it, upon driving with five broad black bars pointing downwards; the instrument forward, that wheel makes a revo- the belly is white, tinged with red; the ventral lution each sixteenth pole. On the axis of this fins of a fine scarlet ; the anal fins and tail of the wheel is a pinion with six teeth, which, falling same color, but rather paler. In a lake called into the teeth of another wheel of sixty teeth, Llyn Raithlyn, in Merionethshire in Wales, is a carries it round every 160th pole, or half a very singular variety of this fish: the back part mile. This last wheel, carrying a hand or index is quite hunched, and the lower part of the round with it over the divisions of a dial-plate, back-bone next the tail strangely distorted; in whose outer limb is divided into 160 parts, cor- color and other respects it resembles the common responding to the 160 poles, points out the perch, which are as numerous in this lake as the number of poles passed over. Again, on the deformed fish. They are not peculiar to this axis of this last wheel is a pinion, containing water; for Linnæus takes notice of them in a twenty teeth, which, falling into the teeth of a lake at Fahlun in his country. It is said that third wheel which has forty teeth, drives it once they are also met with in the Thames near Marround in 320 poles, or a mile. On the axis of low. The perch was much esteemed as food by this wheel is a pinion of twelve teeth, which, the Romans ; nor is it less admired at present as falling into the teeth of a fourth wheel having a firm and delicate fish ; and the Dutch are parseventy-two teeth, drives it once round in twelve ticularly fond of it when made into a dish called miles. This fourth wheel, carrying another index water-souchy. It is a gregarious fish, and loves over the inner limb of the dial-plate, divided deep holes and gentle streams; is exceedingly into twelve for miles, and each mile subdivided voracious, and an eager biter : if the angler meets into halves, quarters, and furlongs, serves to with a shoal of them he is sure of taking every register the revolutions of the other hand, and one. The perch is very tenacious of life, and to keep account of the miles and half miles has been known to survive a journey of sixty



miles in dry straw. It seldom grows to a large His sons come to honour, and he knoweth it not ; size, though Mr. Pennant mentions one that and they are brought low, but he perceideth it not. weighed nine pounds; but this is very uncom

Job xiv. 21. Jesus perceived in bis spirit, that they so reasoned within themselves.

Mark ii. 8. 3. P. labrax, the basse, is a very voracious,

Consider, strong, and active fish. Ovid calls them rabidi

When you above perceive me like a crow, lupi, a' name continued to them by after writers;

That it is place which lessens and sets off. and they are said to grow to the weight of 15 lbs.

Shakspeare. The irides are silvery ; the mouth large; the The upper regions of the air perceive the collection teeth are situated in the jaws, and are very of the matter of tempests before the air here below. small; in the roof of the mouth is a triangular

Bacon, rough space, and just at the gullet are two others No sound is produced but with a perceptible blast of a roundish form. The scales are of a mid- of the air, and with some resistance of the air

Id. dling size, are very thick set, and adhere closely. strucken. The body is formed somewhat like that of a

Great mountains have a perception of the disposition salmon. The color of the back is dusky, tinged of the air to tempests sooner than the valleys below; with blue. The belly is white. In young fish and therefore they say in Wales, wben certain the space above the side line is marked with hills have their night caps on, they mean mischief.

Id. small black spots. It is esteemed a very delicate

Answer to this dimness of their perception, was fish.

the whole system and body of their religion. 4. P. marina, the sea-perch, is about a foot

Decay of Piety. long : the head large and deformed ; eyes great ; It perceives them immediately, as being immediteeth small and numerous. On the head and ately objected to and perceptible to the sense; as I covers of the gills are strong spines. The color perceive the sun by my sight.

Hale. red, with a black spot on the covers of the gills, By the inventors and their followers that would and some transverse dusky lžies on the sides. seem not to come too short of the perceptions of the It is a fish held in some esteem at the table.

leaders, they are magnified. 5, P. Nilotica, the perch of the Nile, is taken

Id. Origin of Mankind. about Cairo. The flesh has a sweet and exqui- awake and solicited by external motions, for some of

There is a difficulty that pipcbeth; the soul is site favor, and is not hard, but very white. It them reach the perceptive region in the most silent is one of the best fishes in the Nile ; and, as it is repose and obscurity of night : what is it then that of the largest size in Egypt, it adorns a table if

prevents our sensations?

Glanville. brought upon it entire and well fried. See

The soul is the sole percipient, which hath ani. PILOT-FISH.

madversion and sense properly so called, and the PERCA'SE, adv. Par and case. Perchance; . body is only the receiver of corporeal impressions. perhaps. Not used.

Ú. Scepsis. A virtuous man will be virtuous in solitudine, and

The illumination is not so bright and fulgent, as not only in theatro, though percase it will be more

to obscure or extinguish all perceptibility of the rea

More. strong by glory and fame, as an heat which is doubled by reflection.


Whatever the least real point of the essence of the PERCEANT, adj. Fr. perçant. Piercing; point of the perceptive must perceive at once.

perceptive part of the soul does perceive, every real penetrating. Obsolete.

Id. Divine Dialogues. Wond'rous quick and perceant was his spright The body, though it really moves, yet not chang. As eagles' eyes that can behold the sun. Spenser. ing perceivable distance with some other bodies, as

fast as the ideas of our own mind will follow one PERCEIVE', v. a.

Latin percipio.

another, seems to stand still; as the hands of clocks. PERCEIVABLE, adj. To discover by

Locke. PerceTV'ABLY, adv.

effect; Sensation and perception are not inherent in matPERCEP'TIBLE, adj. know; be affected ter as such ; for, if it were so, every stock of stone PERCEP'TIBLY, adv. by; observe: per- would be a percipient and rational creature. PERCEPTIBIL'ITY, n. s. ceivable and per

Bentley. PERCEP'TION, n. S.

ceptible mean, dis- In the anatomy of the mind, as of the body, more Percep'tive, adj,

coverable ; such as good will accrue to mankind by attending to the large, Percip'ient, udj. & n. s. ) may be observed ;

open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much finer nerves.

Pope. the adverbs corresponding : perceptibility, state of being an object of perception; power of per

The woman decays perceptibly every week. ceiving; for which, however, perception is the scious of its own existence.

Matter hath no life nor perception, and is not con

Bentley's Sermons. better word : perceptive, having the power of Perception is that act of the mind, or rather a perceiving: perception is perceiving: perci- passion or impression, whereby the mind becomes pient is perceiving, one who has the power of conscious of any thing; as when I feel hunger, perception.


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thirst, cold, or heat.



J. Haddon, Printer, Finsbury.

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