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difficult to have found a person whose conduct and temper were more directly opposed to the mild spirit of Christianity and the example of its Founder."

of Leo X. the same historian says, “In one respect, however, it is impossible that the conduct of Leo X., as a temporal prince can either be justified or extenuated. If a sovereign expects to meet with fidelity in his allies or obedience in his subjects, he ought to consider his own engagements as sacred, and his promises as inviolable. In condescending to make use of treachery against his adversaries he sets an example which shakes the foundations of his own authority, and endangers his own safety; and it is by no means improbable, that the untimely death of the Pontiff was the consequence of an act of revenge. The same misconduct which probably shortened his days bas also been injurious to his fame; and the certainty, that he on many occasions resorted to indirect and treacherous means to circnmvent or destroy his adversaries, bas caused him to be accused of crimes which are not only unsupported by any positive evidence, but are in the highest degree improbable. He has, however, sufficient to answer for in this respect, without being charged with conjectured offences. Under the plea of freeing the territory of the church from the dominion of its usurpers, he became a usurper himself; and on the pretext of punishing the guilt of others, was himself guilty of great atrocities."

7. The religion of the Popes, of which the Papacy is the head, and which has been patronized, encouraged, and defended by Popes, shows that the Papacy has been of indescribable injury to the world.

Wherever the Popery reigns, wickedness prevails. The murders of Ireland, the universal perjury of her witness-box, the rioting, violence, drunkenness, filth, and profligacy of the lower Irish congregated together in the large towns of England, show such to be the case. An eminent barrister has declared that in Ireland, no one in a court of justice attaches the least credit to the testimony given upon oath by the lower Irish. The truth is only to be elicited by cross-examination. And for this Popery is responsible, it being a Popish dogma that faith is not to be kept with heretics, and thus perjury is sanctified. Popery encourages numerous delusions of an awful character—as that the Pope is infallible; that he has power to pardon sin ; that the Virgin Mary is a lawfal object of worship; that the consecrated wafer is the actual body of Christ; and many other similar errors or deceptions. Popery is a hindrance to all desirable progress, and a barrier against true religion. It enslaves all whom it influences. The palpable backwardness in knowledge and in all works of utility in all countries where Popery prevails sufficiently shows this; and the very claim of the Popes to infallibility-an impossibility of erring-i8 necessarily a barrier to progress, as Galileo and others have had to prove.

For these reasons we believe that the Papacy has not been beneficial to the world.





AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLR.-II. This question should be reasoned out historically, and the conclusion sought should be based on some principle or principles from which an answer should be seen to result as essential and necessary. Conservatism is altogether misrepresented in the present generation. The voice of the enemy has been heard, listened to, regarded, and believed against the Conservative party, and that same party's vaunts have been accepted as an historical gospel. Reform, and the extension of the franchise are excellent words to juggle with. Whiggery claims to be the opener of the doors of the British Parliament to the working classes. But it is well known that it admits of no influences there except money influences. Whiggism means mammonism. The Whigs are the sticklers for a money qualification, and the opponents of the ballot, because they want only those to possess power who are interested in the maintenance of the present state of things or least possible alteration of them. They fatten on panics and batten on war; they stoop and snivel when they are asked to state their principles ; the modern Whig Moloch is expediency.

Conservatism is government by principles, by English wisdom and justice. The opposition the Conservatives offered to so-called Reform bills were really offered to the trickeries of the Whigs who wished to make their bill a bill for the further protection of moneyed men, manufacturers, and sperulators. The Conservatives have all along scouted the idea of making anything paramount in legislation but the honour and the interests of England.

The Whigs agitated reform, not for the benefit of the nation, but to break the power of the old Tories. They framed their bill expressly to attain that end, and not to advantage the country. They were the suggesters of the “ Irish coercion," they were the peddling politicians of the poor law amendment, they were the real supporters of the Corn Lawr, and they steadfastly combined to keep their repealer out of office during the remainder of his lifetime. They were the mutilators of and intriguerg with royal despatches, they were the consecrators of the French coup d'ëtat, the proposers of the Conspiracy to Murder Bill for the safety of Napoleon III., and they were the dastardly time-servers, who played fast and loose with the last European war, as well as the patchers of that vile peaee at any price treaty, which left

England as much humiliated despite the heroism of its armies at the Crimea, as Russia had been.

The Conservatives struggled against the terrible catastrophes which followed in succession upon the closing of the anti-Bonaparte wars 1815–1829, and did much for the commutation of the distress; they gave Catholic emancipation and they resisted the early aggressions of Russia in the Levant; and, still more to their credit, they broke no pledges regarding parliamentary reform. They have thought more of getting up right administration than of passing laws for the promotion, as the Whigs did, of cheap labour and heaving taxation. They effectively helped Ireland at the time of the potato failury, and they instituted direct as opposed to indirect taxation. They have, besides, accomplished a Reform Bill, and have brought the nation once again into the position that the possibility of governing by principles is possible. As the true national party the

Conservatives are superior to the Whigs, and the common feeling of the common people is just in its verdict that a Conservative is superior to a Whig government. D. B. E.

DEBATING SOCIETIES. — The discussions of debating societies are only the more formal occasions on which the conscious life of the intellect disentangles for itself its own perplexities, tentatively asserts its own tendencies, emerges into provisional independence, and marks out its own scheme of future alliances. This is not talk, it is preparation for action, it is the stringing up and organization of intellectual energy, it is intellectual volition. No doubt, to those who have entered on those sorts of responsibilities, which, like the responsibilities of statesmen, involve in a high degree the happiness of others, there seems something childish about discussions whether Strafford deserved death, or Pope was a true poet. But that is only because they have got to a different stage of life, and nothing material in their future destiny could possibly be determined by their giving their minds gravely to either discussion. With young men at college it is quite different. It is not too much to say that those acts of deliberate intellectual and moral choice which give rise to, and are encouraged by, debating societies, are in fact the crystallizing points of character, the facts on which the future current of character, its narrowness and intensity, or width and catholicity, its sincerity or spirit of compromise, its sobriety or fanaticism, its intellectual cynicism or moral earnestness, chiefly depend. A debaté wliether Pope or Wordsworth was the greater poet—whether Greece or Rome had exercised the most beneficial influence on the world—whether Carlyle or Mill were the truer teacher-has often, we feel no doubt, done more to determine the future lives of great men, and through them the future of England, than hundreds of so-called “practical” debates in the House of Commons-debates, say, on limited liability, or the taxes on malt and insurance.- Spectator.

The Essayist.



(4 New Year's Address to a Literary Society.) LIFE is change. “Time flies" is a mere truism, but common place as it is, it indicates a fact regarding human existence which can never be ignored without detriment to the soul: for as time Aies, life shortens, and the long perspective of youth and hope contracts as the years pass. Already the revolving moons have brought us once again to the threshold of a new year. How short have seemed the gliding months !-how quick the passage of the duty-freighted days!-how speedy the oncome of the season of Janus-faced reflectiveness! The Past-how marvellous have been the incidents of life and history, of emotion and thought, of aim and effort, crowded into its narrow-looking space-space which formerly appeared like an estuary opening on a wide, wide sea, but now impresses us as a confined embankment built with the masonry of time! The Present-how moment-short, how seemingly inadequate to endeavour or accomplishment-to the work that calls us and the duties that devolve upon us! The Future-how wide its farstretching vistas, how limitless-limitless as the covetousness of "young desire”-its forth-lying distances seem ! and yet we know that, at any moment, the seal of death may be placed on the eyes that behold them with rapture, and look on them as their inheritance. Time's flight is an uncertain one, and its goal is unmarkable by the eye of man. We know, truly, whitherward it tends ; and we can see, as the last footing it attaing, the grave. But why should death conquer us on the levels of life, or lay us low in the valley-lands? Why should not our grave be like that of Moses on the mountain summits, with the Pisgah view of eternity clear in our eye? It was on Mount Moriah's top that Abraham fought the “good fight," which won him the title of "the father of the faithful." From the bare and splintered peaks of Sinai came down the law of life to man. On Carmel's heights the efficacious fervent prayer of Elijah brought rain to the thirst-spent inhabitants of Palestine. “An exceeding high mountain" was the scene of a wondrous temptation; a mount was the place of a marvellous death; and from the summit of a mountain the Greatest departed from the sight of men into the radiancy of His own eternity; in order that it might be true that, as the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord is round about His people from henceforth, even for ever.”

Such ideas have come, like a rushing flood, into my soul as I was seeking "a word in season” for the New Year's Address, which I have been now, as your President, privileged to deliver for three successive-and, let me say it, also successful years. I have already bidden you go “Forward!” with brave and loyal hearts on the pathway of duty; "Forward!” in despite of innate fears or outward opposition; "Forward!” in the face of danger and difficulty; "Forward !” with all energy and might of spirit to dare and do whatsoever lies before you! I have already urged you "Onward!” though the heart should fail and the limbs become weakened; “Onward!” though daunting threats surround and causes of fear thicken in the air; “Onward!” though ambushed foes may lurk, or obstinate enemies may harass ; "Onward!” though the soul wavers and faith shrinks ; “Onward !” while Hope exhibits a shred of her heaven-blue banner, and life has a throb in the treasury of the heart. And what can I say more? What other word of might, of spirit-stirring potency, of energyarousing force, is left me? What can inject into the very centre of the soul a divine, life-nerving pith, capable of strengthening you to greater effort, increased ardour, or a forceful activity such as is not implied in these? There is surely no single vocable in England's language of supremer import than these-no concatenation of syl. lables invented in recorded time of mightier concernment and greater fulness of content! Forward ! Onward! I can but reiterate the phrase and re-urge my message, until the enthusiasm of the expectant heart of each kindles into aspiration, and the spirit, all knit and concentred into a unit of might, resolves to use its faithfullest endeavours to go forward, to toil onward, and-ah! I have it now!-to struggle upward! Upward !-fit watchword for the living soul; for the appetant spirit, eager to rise to all the possible heights of its being and destiny.

"In life's rosy morning, in manhood's firm pride,
Let this be the motto your footsteps to guide, -
In storm or in sunshine, whatever assail,

We'll onward and upward, and never say fail!” "Upward" is sinewy, alert, and daring; hardy, defiant, and intrepid: there is in it pith, resolve, and confronting nerve; enterprise, adventurousness, and chivalry. It admits the tendency of the heart to halt and hesitate, to seek ease and to delight itself in the haunts of frail-spirited luxury or effeminating indolency ; but it is resistive of allurements, mettlesomely opposed to threatening dangers, and unappalled by difficulties. - Upward” is springy and free-footed ; the elasticity of the soul is vital in it; it indicates a sense of power, and mggests a compressed and unexhausted energy of mind; it speaks of former lowliness, of nobler efforts, of higher aspirations, of more strenuous endeavours ; it implies a desire to leave the earth and near the sky; it expresses determination and an infelt potentiality of being, not yet used up in the exertions of the past, or expended

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