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terrogating the Professors of the Colleges, and asking them the time required to put a pupil in a state to understand fully the Greek and Latin authors, and to write their thoughts in either of these languages, so as to make them understood by those who would speak these languages, then you would agree with me, that the Greek or Latin would not be more difficult to be taught to the deaf and dumb, than the English; and yet to teach the Greek and Latin in Colleges, the professors and pupils hare, for a means of comparison, a language at hand, an acquired language, a mother tongue, which is the English language, in which they have learned to think ; whereas the unfortunate deaf and dumb, in order to learn English, have not any language with which to compare it, nor any language in which they may have had the habit of thinking.-These unfortunates have for their native language but a few gestures to express their usual wants, and the most familiar actions of life. The Abbé de L'Epée demanded for the education of a deaf and dumb person, ten years of constant labour; and yet, after this labour of ten years, none of his pupils had as yet attained the highest degree of perfection. Will this prove that ten years of study will be required, in order that the American deaf and dumb entrusted to our care may finish their course of instruction ? No, ladies and gentlemen, for them what would be the benefit of the persection which Mr. Sicard has given to his method, and with whose system we are acquainted pretty well? I have the pleasure to inform you that the deaf and dumb of this country have very good natural talents, a great facility, an unusual ardour in learning, and an intensity of application which we have rather to moderate than to excite. The time which Mr. Sicard's illustrious predecessor thought necessary, will not then be required by us. From five to seven years only, is the time we wish they may pass with us, (especially if they come to the asylum young,) that they may truly improve in all the common branches of useful knowledge, after so painful and so hard a course of study, and that their teachers may see, with satisfaction, that they have not sowed on the sand.

What must I think of the vain presage which some people draw from certain accidents, purely fortuitous ! I compare these birds of good or bad augury, who innagine that the sight of deaf and dumb persons multiply them, with those weak minds who fear beginning a journey on Friday, or who believe that the meeting of a weasel, the overthrowing of a salt-box, and the salt spread on the table, bring an ill-luck; or who fear hobgoblins, or who say that when there are thirteen persons at table, one of them is to die in the course of the year?

Every creature, every work of God, is admirably well made; but if any one appears imperfect in our eyes, it does not belong to us to criticise it. Perhaps that which we do not find right in its kind turns to our advantage, without our being able to perceive it. Let us look at the state of the heavens: one while the siin shines, another time it does not appear; now the weather is fine, again it is unpleasant ;

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one day is hot, another is cold; another time it is rainy, snowy, or cloudy; every thing is variable and inconstant. Let us look at the surface of the earth : here the ground is flat, there it is hilly and mountainous; in other places it is sandy; in others it is barren; and elsewhere it is productive. Let us, in thought, go into an orchard or forest. What do we see? Trees high or low, large or small, upright or crooked, fruitful or unfruitful. Let us look at the birds of the air, and at the fishes of the sea, no thing resembles another thing. Let us look at the beasts. We see among the same kinds some of different forms, of different dimensions, domestic or wild, harmless or ferocious, useful or useless, pleasing or hideous. Some are bred for men's sakes; some for their own pleasures and amusements; some are of no use to us. There are faults in their organization as well as in that of men. Those who are acquainted with the veterinary art know this well; but as for us who have not made a study of this science, we seem not to discover or remark these faults. Let us now come to ourselves. Our intellectual faculties as well as our corporeal organization have their imperfections. There are faculties both of the mind and beart, which education improves; there are others which it does not correct. I class in this number idiotism, imbecility, dulness. But nothing can correct the infirmities of the bodily organization, such as deafness, blindness, lameness, palsy, crookedness, ugliness. The sight of a beautiful person does not make another so likewise, a blind person does not render another blind. Why then should a deaf person make others so also ? Why are we deaf and dumb? Is it from the difference of our ears? But our ears are like yours; is it that there may be some infirmity? But they are as well organized as yours. Why then are we deaf and dumb ? I do not know, as you do not know why there are infirmities in your bodies, nor why there are among the human kind white, black, red, and yellow men. The deaf and dumb are every where, in Asia, in Africa, as well as in Europe and America. They existed before you spoke of them, and before you saw them. I have read, in a certain account of Turkey, that the great Sultan knowing not what to do with the deaf and dumb of bis empire, employed the most intelligent among them in playing pantomimes before his Highness. The fortytwo deaf and dumb who are here present, except four or six, bad never seen each other before, and did not even imagine that there were any others besides themselves. Their parents probably imagined the same. It is not, then, the sight of them which can have produced them. I think our deafness proceeds from an act of providence; I would say from the will of God. And does it imply that the deaf and dumb are worse than other men ? Perhaps if we heerd, we might have beard much evil, and perhaps blasphemed the holy name of our Creator, and of course hazarded the loss of soul when departing this life. We therefore cannot but thank God for having made us deaf and dumb, hoping that in the future world the reason of this may be explained to us all.

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The Bible, however, says that the doors of heaven will be opened to no one, unless he has fulfilled the conditions imposed by Jesus Christ. If, then, when the uneducated deaf and dumb appear before the supreme tribunal, they are found not to have fulfilled these conditions, they may plead : “ Lord, we wished to learn to know you and to do what you had ordered; but it did not depend upon us. Our mind was buried in the deepest darkness, and no man raised or contributed to raise the veil which covered it, although it was in his power!" But let us hope, Ladies and Gentlemen, that this will not be the case. You are at peace with all the powers

of Europe, and nothing abroad requires any sacrifice of your finances. May this happy state of things, therefore, while it permits you to improve the agriculture and manufactures of your country allow you, at the same time, to improve the welfare of some hundreds of individualsamong your fellow-citizens! Doubtless you ought to use a wise economy in the distribution of the succour, for which the unfortunate sue from the national equity; doubtless you ought to refuse your charity to any establishment which, soliciting benevolence, would be a servant rather to pride than to humanity; doubtless you would have deserved well of your country by stopping with firmness, the first impulses of the sensibility of those among you who are ready to yield to pageantry and magnificence that which ought to be granted only to the most urgent needs. But are these truths applicable to an establishment of a nature like ours ? I believe I can deny it. About one hundred deaf and dumb in the state of Connecticut, included in the two thousand spread over all parts of the United States, the greatest portion of whom are born in the bosom of indigence, and reduced to the most miserable condition, all deprived of the charms of society, all unacquainted with the benefit of religion, all more to be pitied than those who are bound by pure instinct, and holding nothing from man but the faculty of mere lively feeling ; ought they then to be still longer neglected, eternally forgotten! They suspect, doubtless, all the

extent of the deprivation they experience; every day they lament their unhappiness; but this is invisible, and the comfortable voice of reason neither comes to soften the rigour of their fate, nor alleviate the weight of their misfortune. Yet do not they form, like yourselves, a part of human kind? Are not the unhappy authors of their existence Americans like yourselves? On account of not having penetrated our benevolent views, some persons, instead of casting a kind look upon those poor beings, rose against our project; but we are persuaded that their hearts belied their attempt, and that even at the moment in which they thought of opening their lips to remove, from the great buman family, beings whom every thing commands you to introduce therein, their arms were involuntarily opened to carry them back to it.

An uneducated deaf and dumb is a natural man, who attributes the whole good wbich he sees others do to the personal interest which governs them; who supposes in others all the viees which

he finds in his own soul. Often prone to suspicion, he exaggerates the evil which be sees, and fears always to be the victim of those who are stronger than himself.

While casting your eyes on so afflicting a picture, do you not, ladies and gentlemen, feel a strong wislı, that the art of instructing beings as unhappy as the deaf and dumb, may receive all possi- ble encouragement ? Ah ! what among the branches of your knowledge deserves more to interest government and literary bodies of men, devoted by their profession, to patronise all that can render men better and happier.

One institution for them in New-England would produce the most satisfactory result, and answer all your future expectations. In coming thus, to lay our pretensions before so enlightened an assembly as this, we have not suffered ourselves to disguise the fact, that we should have for judges persons to be regarded for their various and extensive information; but the desire of enriching our method of instruction with your observations has surmounted the fears which we had at first conceived.

And we presume to reckon the more on your indulgence, as the progress of our pupils, , which you are about to witness, is the fruit of only one year's labour, and the most constant and assiduous application.

LAURENT CLERC. A class of the younger pupils was then called from their seats by their instructor, Mr. Woodbridge, and wrote with promptitude and accuracy terms and expressions which he dictated by signs. From single terms they proceeded to words and sentences which evinced a combination of thought and a clear possession of complex ideas.

The second class exhibited under the instruction of Mr. Clerc. By his direction they wrote the several organs of sense, described the operation of those organs, and the effects produced. He inquired of them, How many senses are there? They wrote Five. He next inquired, How many senses have you? They answered Four.--An answer with which the audience could not be unaffected. Various questions were proposed respecting natural objects, ordinary duties, and common events, to which their answers were correct and bighly gratifying. The most of the inquiries were of a serious cast, wbich evinced in the pupils a knowledge of God, and the first principles of moral truth. Mr. Clerc mani. fested a strong apprehension lest his audience should be weary, and dismissed his class with a more limited performance than be would have gladly presented. The first class, consisting of five females and three males, were then introduced by Mr. Gallaudet; and a more interesting set of performers never appeared on any stage, A Roman Consul could ascend a stage and exhibit to wondering multitudes the plunder of desolated countries.--Here was a proof to every feeling heart, that the deaf and dumb of our race can be released from the moral and intellectual thraldom of ages, and be brought to the love of truth and the enjoyment of social blessedness.



) Passing over such performances as were exhibited by the other classes, this class was directed to those which evinced, in the fullest manner, the powers of reasoning, reflection, and the expression of their thoughts. They would describe actions which they saw without any communication of expression. The instructor took a basket of fruit and bore it across the stage. They wrote he carries the fruit. The audience were informed that they could express an action in the different tenses of the verb. The instructor made signs on a lemon and peach, and directed them to the pluperfect tense. They wrote accordingly-He had squeezed the lemon before he pared the peach. And after

other signs-He had written the book before he brushed the hat. There were small verbal differences in their answers, which showed that they did not write mechanically, nor by concert. They did not look at the writings of each other. At the desire of Mr. Gallaudet, several questions were proposed by the audience. One by the Rev. Mr. Flint Where do we go when we die? One answered, We go to heaven. Another, We go to heaven if we are good. Two others, We go to heaven or hell. The others were similar : A question, proposed by the Hon. Mr. Lanman, was, Do you thank God for the Bible? Some wrote, We thank God for the Bible. Others, We do thank God for the Bible. Another, We thank God for the Bible of Jesus Christ.

A PASTORAL LETTER From the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United

States, to the Churches under their care, DEAR BRETHREN,

The time in which we address you is very important and interesting: The free conversation on the state of religion has exhibited abundant evidence, that the Churches under our care have never been in a more prosperous condition than during the last year. In the year immediately preceding, perhaps special revirals were more remarkable and more numerous, but as it relates to the general extension of religious influence, the organization of new congregations, and the wide-spreading success of Missionary labours, the aspect of the Church has probably never been so promising as at the present time--and when in addition to this we reflect on the various institutions, not only in our own connection, but in the Christian world at large, calculated to extend the kingdom of our Redeemer; the zeal and liberality with which those institutions are supported; and the extensively beneficial effects which they are every day producing; we are obliged to consider the present moment as forming an important era in the annals of religion. A general movement of Protestant Christendom has taken place; an unusual blessing bas descended on the Churcb of Christ; and we are probably approaching some day of the Son of

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