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Nobles and Princes, Kings and Empe- power:-and prompted by a sight of this rors, bring gifts worthy of their names. audience, I would add may the spirit Indeed, sir, there has arisen an emula- of the Roman matron, who counted tion on this subject which it is not it her most distinguished honour that only honourable to feel, but which she was " Mother of the Gracchi,” men must be attended with most illustri- who had bled for their country; descend ous results. Individuals are vying with into the bosom of Christian mothers in individuals, communities with commu- our day; and may they count it their nities—not in contests of war and en- highest glory that they shall have trainmity, but in a contest where emu- ed up sons to be devoted to the spread lation wakes no little jealousies, in of the Bible in every clime-the erecwhich superior success produces glad-tion of the Redeemer's kingdom dened admiration from a rival-a con- thrvughout the world. test, in which all have, under the Another thing has very forcibly im. same banner, been striving who shall pressed my mind when surveying this do most for the Lord of Hosts, the subject; it is the nature of those instiCaptain of their salvation. And what tutions by which the Scriptures are has been the result? what the effects thus spread. Societies, voluntary assoof this vast patronage of the Bibleciations of men, in which rich and poor, cause? The Bible is borne, as on the rulers and ruled are admitted to a wings of the wind, to every land. common membership. It is exactly The angel is fast flying in the midst such combinations of men, in which of heaven proclaiming the everlasting rich and poor, great and small, are thus Gospel to every nation, and kindred, brought together and act together in and tongue, and people. Heralds a common bond, that have always have gone forth in the face of every been found most potent engines for danger to distant climes, carrying in the accomplishment of great objects. their hands the word of God; so that You know, sir, how the apostles of ina spirit of devotedness in the ministers fidel philosophy reasoned and acted on of those holy institutions has always this subject.-How they planted their kept pace with the spirit of benefi- societies of illuminati in every city and cence in their patrons. Can I call neighbourhood to which they had ad. over the names of the Hendersons, mission; and in these multiplied conthe Pattersons, the Pinkertons, who claves devised and matured their are traversing the frozen climes of plans, trained and hardened their inthe North, the wilds of Siberia struments, for the overthrow of every and Tartary—the Careys, and Marsh- thing holy and useful in Church and mans in India—the Morrisons and State. And with what wise malignity Milnes in China—and hesitate to ask theyacted you see in that deluge of minyou whether it is not true, that he- gled tears and blood which has swept roes of a new race and character over the face of Europe during the last have arisen on the earth, who both twenty-five years. Now, sir, what a in the worth of their object, and the delightful thought, that the Redeemer zeal of their hearts, outstrip what-has wrested from the hands of Satan ever was fabled of the argonauts in this weapon and turned it against him; pursuit of the Golden Fleece; or and has led his own people to deterwhatever was attempted by the mis- mine, that, at least, in this respect, taken spirit of chívalry crusading “ the children of this world” shall not against infidels. These are heroes un-be“ wiser than the children of light." naunted and unwearied in sufferings and Having seen

what associations could do dangers; forthey" endure as seeing Him against the Bible and its ordinances, we who is invisible”-going on subduing are now trying what societies can do principalities and powers, for they are for it: and the result of the experiment more than conquerors through him has outstripped not only the opinions, who hath loved them.” God grant but the hopes of the most sanguine. that such men may be increased like From the day that Bible Societies were the stars in the heavens: when they set up--institutions comparatively nodie, may their mantles fall on others vel both in form and in names who shall arise in their spirit and from that day the powers of inti

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delity seem to have abandoned many the hope that they would realize imof their strong holds; and to keep pos- mortality for their founders. Time session of others with a feeble hand has worn them away; and the face of and a distrustful heart; and if you sur- the earth is now strewed with the vey the lands once overcome by them, wreck and rennants of its former taste; you may find the edifices, lately filled power, and industry. But, sir, “the with plotters of treason against States, word of the Lord endureth for ever;" and against the Kingdom of God, now and we who are engaged in its diffulying in ruins; and, in their stead are sion are erecting for ourselves a pillar risen temples, on the portals of which which time shall neither deface nor · are written in gold-THE BIBLE; and prostrate; which no friend nor foe shall within their walls are found the men ever behold in ruins; which will go on of truth, planning the reformation not increasing in splendour till, at thedawa only of a kingdom, but of the world; of millenial day, it will be owned as one and the word and spirit of Jehovah, means of turning the nations to God. their peaceful, their only instrument. Let us then proceed in our good Think, sir, think, not only of that first work. While we carry with us "the ark of Bible Societies, which, like the sun in of God” and “the tables of His tesiithe heavens, seems destined to visit mony” “The pillar of fire by night, and every region of our globe with its en- the pillar of cloud by day," will be lightening influence; but think also of ever before us to guide and animate what is now doing in the palaces of the us. Opposition must be expected. Our Ozars, in the dominions of the Frede- cause is too good and our success too rics; and of the new light that is just great to be without it. The blasphedawning even in the neighbourhood of mies of the profane, and the mistakes the Thuilleries; and from the survey, of many good men may combine to remust not you feel compelled to exclaim, sist us. But already, although we are "The time to favour Zion is come: the in the commencement of the Bible age, Heathen shall fear the name of the the number of our opposers, as well as Lord, and all the kings of the earth their strength, is diminishing. One of rhy glory!"

their greatest champions has retired Mr. President, how shall we be suf- from the struggle, confessing as he ficiently thankful for the honour of abandoned it," Attempts to oppose being permitted to take part in the you are like attempts to oppose a torwork which distinguishes our age of rent of burning lava that issues from the world. That man sees things in a Ætna or Vesuvius.” It is the language most delusive light who would surren- of honest confession. der the chair on which you sit for the But, sir, a Bible Society, and eshonour of being the commander of pecially a National Institution like this, conquering legions, or the statesman has other work to do besides surmountwho guides armies and nations at his ing such opposition. Let us remember will. We should indeed never forget that if ever we achieve great things, that in proportion as God sees fit to do we must first learn to contemplate and any thing by us, does he claim grati- attempt great things; and never can tude from us. Next to that honour, our work be viewed as finished while always first, of having my name written there is a land not filled with Bibles, in the Lamb's book of life; and a sinner on earth without the Holy to that which each minister of the Book in his hand. You have but to cross should place second, my com- cast your eyes on the map of the globe mission to preach Christ and him cru- to see how much is yet to be done. Sir, cified-next to these would I place the when I survey the vast regions of the honour of being recorded as a member earth covered with the darkness of Paand contributor to a Bible Society. ganism, or superstitions still worse,

This is to put our hand to a work im- and compare those domains of sin with perishable as the hills. I respect that the comparatively small space covered honourable ambition which would live with the light and knowledge of the revered and beloved in the memories Redeemer, my heart would sicken in of generations yet unborn ; and that despair, was it not that our cause is the kas reared temples and pyramids with cause of God; and we have his promise


that “worm Jacob shall thresh the Tartar invaderg--the wall which im.? mountains and make them small as prisons her sons from the light of the dust." Let the Christian world "be gospel, shall, like that of Jericho, crumup and doing," and we are certain as ble at the feet of God's ministers soundto the result : “ the kingdoms of this ing the trumpet of salvation, and enterworld will become the kingdoms offing in, not to destroy, but to save And God and of his Christ," and we be own- in a word island of the sea shall send to ed as instruments in accomplishing the island of the sea, continent to contiglorious change. Let us adventure our nent, and hemisphere to hemisphere, prayers, our time, our means in the to tell that their idols are cast to the cause; and the world shall be our con- moles and the bats," that the temples quest, without blood: Africa shall no of Jehovah are their places of worship, longer be “the lasting reproach of ci- and the song of the Lamb their hymn vilized man;" but explored and tra- of praise. versed by messengers from heaven, Such " glorious things are spoken of : scattering around them the good seed the city of God;" and in the accomof the word; it shall be known not as plishment of such things, may we not a waste of burning sands, but as “the hope, judging from appearances this garden of the Lord,” watered with day, that some instrumentality may "riyers of life:" the wall of China, more yet be attributed to the American: enduring than that which repels the Bible Society.

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THE STATE OF RELIGION Within the bounds of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church; and of

the General Associations of Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Proper, and of the General Convention of Vermoni, during the last year.

The history of the Church of God contains a record of adverse, as well as prosperous events. Her members being sanctified only in part, at no time fully display that purity of conversation and conduct which becometh their profession, and too often afford cause of triumph to the adversaries on account of their carelessness or failures in duty. In the periods of her highest elevation there is just reason to lament that there are many things to be found within her borders which are against her. Of these she is bound to take particuJar notice, as well as of the evidences of her Lord's presence and blessing. Thus doing, she is not only reminded “ that she has not already attained, or is not already perfect," but also constrained “to follow after, if that she may apprehend that for which also she is apprehended of Christ.”

The General Assembly, conscious of their duty in this respect, and trusting to the divine blessing for success in its performance, desire to give to that part of the Church committed to their superintendence, a faithful Narrative of the causes of sorrow during the past year, as well as those of rejoicing. They begin with the former, which may be summed up under the following heads:

1. ERRONEOUS PRINCIPLES ON THE SUBJECT OF REVEALED RELIGION.If there is a religion revealed by God, it is as important to have correct views of its principles, to perform the duties which it enjoins in the various relations of life, as it is to have correct views of morality that our lives may be moral.Error in principle invariably produces error in practice. To be ever learning and never coming to the knowledge of the truth, is characteristic of none but those who assume for the human understanding the prerogative of setting in judgment upon the inspired truth of God, either condemning the whole as an imposition, or undertaking to correct its alleged mistakes by abridging and falsifying its contents. Of the former class we rejoice that their number and influence are diminished. Not many years past they triumphed, to the regret and anguish of the followers of Christ. With brazen front infidelity threatened

the annihilation of the Church and the ruin of her Lörd's authority. But the Church not merely survives its attacks--she has increased in numbers and in grace, whilst her adversaries are compelled, though unwillingly, to pay homage to the paramount claims of her God and Saviour, who is King of kings and Lord of lords. Few are to be found, who respect themselves, openly opposing the truth of God as contained in the Scriptures. There are however gonne within our hounds, who, whilst they profess to honour the authority of the Bible, with unhallowed hands would cut out of its pages those passages which command us to honour the Son as we honour the Father, and rob the trembling. sinner of the only hope of acceptance with God which his soul can cherish. The well beloved and only begotten Son of God they reduce to the level of frail humanity, and his work of redemption to the mere fact of furnishing us a perfect example of conversation and conduct. By denying his character as a covenant surety to bear our sins and carry our sorrows, they lower his example as a righteous and holy man below that which his apostles and primitive followers afford us. And so far as we have had the opportunity of judging from facts which have fallen under our observation, their principles have introduced, among all who have embraced them, so great a conformity in their practice to the world, which lieth in wickedness, as to render it impossible to discriminate them from the children of that world.

In connection with these Anti-Trinitarians (for we reject the name which, they have assumed of Unitarians, holding the unity of God as strictly as they do, are the Universalists, or the supporters of the doctrine of Universal salvation. It is a tribute however which we owe to truth to say, that whilst the Anti-Trinitarians for the sake of consistency are compelled to maintain the ultimate and eternal salvation of all, the Universalists believe in the doctrine of the Trinity, and the atonement of the Lord Jesus. They however, by assuring all that they will be in the end for ever happy, provide for the gratification of present desires and continuance in sin whilst they live.

As these errors in principle do exist in some portions of our Church, though we have good reason to believe that they are not increasing, the Assembly trust that they will be opposed, and their ruinous tendency unfolded with fidelity and success.

L. SINFUL PRACTICES. Of these the principal ones reported are Intemperance and the Profanation of the Lord's Day. To us it is a matter not only of Tegret, but of humiliation, that there should remain cause of complaint and sorrow on account of their prevalence. The first is manifestly so ruinous to the health of the body and the participation of temporal advantages, and the last so fearfully destructive of every religious restraint and feeling, as to call for prompt condemnation from the men of the world, as well as from the professors of the truth as it is in Jesus. The Lord's Day, viewed in a political light entirely, affords so many benefits calculated for the promotion of present enjoyment in all the relations of life, as to claim for it the veneration and homage of sound statesmen. But to men prosessing respect for the truth of God, it presents claims of higher authority; and we want no stronger evidence of their irreligion, than the fact of their profaning that day. As for those who indulge in intemperate habits, we affectionately remind them of their families, as well as of themselves, and warn them of the wrath to come. They deliberately prepare themselves for disgrace as well as disease ; unfit themselyes for the duties and enjoyments of the life which now is; and must look for the indignation of God through eternal ages in the life which is to come.—“ Who hath wo? who hath sorrow? who hath contentions ? who hath babblings? who hath wounds without cause? who hath redness of eyes?- They that tarry long at the wine: they that go to seck mixed wine.' Look not thou upon the wine when it is red, when it giveth his colour in the cup, when it moveth itself aright. At the last it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an adder. Thine eyes shall behold strange women, and thine heart shall utter perverse things. Yca, thou shalt be as he tirat lieth down in the midst of the sra, or as he that lieth upon the top of a mast. They have stricken me, shalt.

thou say, and I was not sick ; they have beaten me and I felt it not: when shall I awake? I will seek it yet again.”—The assembly earnestly recommend to all Judicatories, Ministers and Members of their communion, to favour and support all efforts and endeavours to suppress this abominable vice.

3. Failure in duty on the part of Professing Christians. Under this head we class lukewarmness, formality, carelessness, and neglect of regular attendance upon the public and private ordinances of worship. They who are chargeable with this failure have the strongest reason for suspecting the sincerity of their profession, and for apprehending the reprobation of their master. To them strictly is applicable the fearful threatening denounced upon the Laodiceans, “ Because thou art neither cold nor hot, but lukewarm, I will spue thee out of my mouth.” They who are so far influenced by this spirit of lukewarmness as to forsake the assembling of themselves together for the service of God on his own day, and do not offer up to him the morning and evening sacrifice in their families, nor partake of the sacraments of his covenant; particularly, neglecting the Baptism of their children--subject themselves to the discipline of his house ; impair their own spiritual state; and if repentance be not granted, can look for nothing but condemnation from their Judge in the end. To hear that such gross defection in practice had appeared in

any of our Presbyteries, was as painful in the extreme to our feelings, as the fact is disgraceful to the Christian character of those who are thus violating their duty, and injuring their own souls, together with the souls of the members of their families. To all these we address the words of Christ, “ Remember from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do thy first works: or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent."

The Assembly having unfolded the causes for sorrow, which the past year has produced, proceed to state those which call for thankfulness and rejoicing. These are,

1. The regular and faithful preaching of the Gospel and administration of the ordinances throughout our bounds.-We have heard of no instances of nege ligence on the part of the ministers and officers of the Church. They appear to have discharged their duty, both in the work of teaching and of exercising discipline, in an enlightened, conscientious, and diligent manner. The youth receive stated catechetical instruction ; and in some of our Presbyteries particular attention is paid to baptized children.

In addition to this we mention with particular pleasure the various RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS which have been established during the year, or having been established before, are progressing with success in their operations. These are Bible, Missionary, Tract, Sunday School, Moral, and Praying Societies ; Bible Classes, and the Theological Seminary in Princeton, together with the Monthly Concert of Prayer for the spread of the Gospel. Originating in the spirit

of true religion, they are sedulously used for its advancement far and wide. Between them there exists no collision of interests; for they have but one object in view, the promotion of human happiness by the power of the truth of God. Biblc Societies in our day are related to Missionary Societies, as the gift of tongues was related to the commission of the apostles in the primitive Church. We therefore rejoice at the increase of the former, because they furnish to the preachers of the cross, sent forth by the latter to every nation, the word of life in their own language. The circulation of Religious Tracts is calculated to awaken attention to, and produce inquiry after the way to salvation. In the silence of the closet-in the assemblage of the family--nay, in the social circle they present to the thoughtless and disobedient subjects deserving their examination, and arresting them for a season in their downward way to ruin. Throughout our bounds Religious Tract Societies as well as Bible and Missionary Societies have increased. In a large majority of our Churches Bible classes have been formed, and instruction is dispensed to pupils from the Bible. Praying Societies have become more numerous-few, if any, formerly existing being abandoned, and new ones in different places being formed. The Monthly Concert for Prayer is generally


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