« הקודםהמשך »
In gliding state she wins her easy way ;
The bloom of young Desire, and purple light of Love. She gracefully moving in majesty passes readily along; while her countenance is suffused with the rosy tint of expectancy, and the glowing gleam of blushing affection quickens the pulses of her heart.
(40) “ The morning tinge, the rose, the lily flower,
Chatterton's " Ènglish Metamorphoses." (41) It is extremely difficult to conceive what the ancients precisely meant by the word purpureus. They seem to have designed by it anything BRIGHT and BEAUTIFUL. A classical friend has furnished me with numerous significations of this word which are very contradictory. Albinovanus, in his elegy on Livia, mentions nivem purpuream ; Catullus, quercus ramos purpureos ; Horace, purpureo bibet nectar, and somewhere mentions olores purpureos. Virgil has purpuream vomit ille animam; and Homer calls the sea purple, and gives it in some other book the same epithet when in a storm.
The general idea, however, has been fondly adopted by the finest writers in Europe. The PURPLE of the ancients is not known to us. What idea, therefore, have the moderns fixed to it? Addison, in his vision of the temple of Fame, describes the country as “ being covered with a kind of PURPLE LIGHT.” Gray's beautiful line is well known,
“The bloom of young Desire and purple light of Love." And Tasso, in describing his hero Godfrey, says Heaven
“Gli empie d'onor la faccia, e vi riduce
Di Giovinezza, il bell purpureo lume.” Both Gray and Tasso copied Virgil, where Venus gives to her son Æneas
Purpureum." (Æneid, I., 591.)
6 With hands divine
And given his rolling eyes a sparkling grace.” It is probable that Milton has given us his idea of what was meant by this purple light, when applied to the human countenance, in the felicitous expression of
inform us if it be ascertainable QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS.
whether the statement made by 895. Would any of your sub- Robertson and followed by Georgius scribers kindly answer through the is accurate or not, or on which side “Inquirer the three following the evidence preponderates ? If questions? viz. :-(1.) What consti- what Robertson and Georgius state tutes a good song? Cite one, and be correct, it is a very striking dispoint out that which distinguishes play of God's overruling providence its value. Of course the music to that Charles should himself be the which it is set is not to be taken instrument of preventing a into account. (2.) Is alliteration going to America who was afterconsidered to be a point of merit in wards one of the means of bringing prose, or especially POETRY? (3.) him to the scaffold. If the stateIs there such a thing published as a ment be accurate, it is a very inteDictionary of Phrases ? If so, at resting point in our national history, what price and by whom?—REVILLO. and we should like to see it cleared
896. In Dr. C. M. Ingleby's “ In- up. Should the readers of the Britroduction to Metaphysic," 1869, tish Controversialist feel sufficiently page 243, five objections are brought interested in it to wish to see it against certain deductions from sta- debated, and give expression to their tistical tables. The second is, that wish, probably our kind editors “ the averages are (notoriously to would listen to their request, and mathematicians) erroneously calcu
allow it to be discussed in the pages lated.” May I ask in what consists of the magazine which they conduct. the error, if any, of striking averages -S. s. in the usual way ?-G. C.
898. Could you, or any of the 897. In his essay on Hampden readers of the British Controverand his Times," Georgius states sialist furnish me (a young man that this eminent patriot, in com- whose education has not been so pany with Cromwell and others, complete as desirable) with a good resolved to seek a home in America, and cheap course of studies appliand that Hampden and Cromwell cable for self-instruction, and includhad embarked on board a ship ing Latin, with which I am almost which was about to sail, when unacquainted ? By also stating the Charles I., by an Order of Council, price of each work and the publisher's prohibited the departure of the name I shall feel additionally favessel. Robertson in his History voured.--T. T. makes the same statement as Geor- 899. I should feel greatly obliged gius. But we remember having if you would kindly inform me if read a few years since that a lady there is in existence, to your knowhistorian—we forget now who she ledge, such an aid to the students of was-had discovered that this state. the French and German languages ment of Robertson's was not cor- as a manuscript magazine for the rect. Will some gentleman kindly reception of translations or attempts
at original composition. I think tions which stir the public mind one such a means would be highly ad- is the endless duration of evil and of vantageous, and especially so to the torments of the wicked.” The “those who are learning without subject has been launched upon the the aid of a master”-mutual as. sea of conflict and of controversy, and sistance and corrections being one are now beginning to form advantage of importance. Pro- themselves into opposing parties on bably the readers of the British the question. The English IndeControversialist have such a thing pendent and the Christian World, in operation ; if so, can they admit the Nonconformist and the Specother learners to share their privi- tator have recently ventilated the lege ?–J. P.
subject. The Rainbow and the Re900. Would you be so kind as to cord, the British and Foreign Evansupply a few Bible students in a gelical Review, the Church, Fordistrict somewhat remote from books ward, and a host of other periodicals, a few references to works on the have taken up the question. Nay, natural immortality of the soul, and so very exciting has the contest bethe future condition of the wicked ? come that it has occasioned a schism We have read with interest the in The Evangelical Alliance-a large debate recently held in your columns, and influential section of the ad. but we desire the means of thinking herents of that attempt at an Eireni. out the question ; and as we believe con, based on formal creeds and that many others, like ourselves, vaguely worded articles, of faith and desire to know more than we yet do practices, having, with Dr. Candlish on these subjects, you will perhaps at their head, withdrawn publicly be so good as procure us the infor- from that body, because it refuses to mation we desire. We remember excommunicate Rev. J. T. Birks in 1866 some reviews appeared on for his work on “The Victory of books relating to the question. One the Divine Goodness," in which he of these was a report of a debate favours what is called the restorabetween Roberts and Nightingale at tion theory. It is not a question Birmingham. We have asked our that is able to be settled in an hour, bookseller to get it for us, but he or to be pooh-poohed out of the cannot procure it. Where is it to arena of controversy. Nor is it so be had? - E. F. AND OTHERS.
simple and one-like as many people
Indeed ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.
would imagine it to be.
there are four if not five varieties 900. The eternity of future pun- of opinion held upon non-eternal ishment is a topic which has of late punishments. evoked quite a literature. Almost 1. Universalism, which regards every religious newspaper or maga- punishment as terminable at the zine has had its columns occupied pleasure of God, and that a restorawith contributions on this question, tion of all things, of men and even and not only have an army of pam- of devils, to the service and love of phlets and a host of articles been Jehovah, through Christ, is necesissued on this topic, but a goodly
sary, inevitable. array of books have been published 2. Annihilationism, which mainupon it. For upwards of a century tains that sin and the sinful will, by the question has been growing in the purging of fire, be gradually eliimportance, until it may now truly minated from the universe of God, be said that of the more important and only the pure shall live in God's "among the many theological ques- sight.
3. Mortalism, which affirms that Eternal Death"_this last has been man is not naturally immortal, but re-issued separately, and another receives immortality as a gift from pamphlet in defence of it has been Christ-a gift which is only con- published by the author, entitled ferred on the faithful.
“The Word Eternal and the Pun4. Optimism, which advocates the ishment of the Wicked." In his sleep of the soul in death till the “ Christmas Day and other Serresurrection; that then the sinful mons," two important ones occur and the holy shall be brought to on “The Resurrection of the Body" life and see the salvation which God and on “The Resurrection of the bas provided for His people, and Spirit.” A very important work on that then the wicked shall be blotted this topic is “The Nature of the out of the book of life.
Atonement and its Relation to the 5. Spiritualism, which suggests Remission of Sins and Eternal Life," that as the body dies, so may the by John McLeod Campbell; the soul also die, while only the spirit, same author's “Thoughts on Revewhich is renewed and holy, shall lation" also contain much interestsurvive. The soul in this view being ing matter. One of the most noted the bright consummate flower of writers on that side was David bodily life, the spirit being the Thom, D.D., of Liverpool, who was ripened fruit of a wholesome and an advocate of a view called by himhealthy soul.
self “Modified Universalism. The 6. Eternism, or the old so-called opinions of the recently deceased orthodox opinion that the soul will Thomas Erskine, of Linlathen, Carexist for ever in an inexpiable lyle's friend, who had such an inmisery as a punishment for the deeds fluence in regard to the “Row Condone in the body, unless grace pre- troversy" and on the mind of Edvents.
ward Irving, tended to the same idea I do not pretend to a full know- of restoration, as may be seen in his ledge of what has been written on “ Unconditional Freeness of the the subject, but I have some ac- Gospel,” 1828, and “The Brazen quaintance with a few of the tracts, Serpent, or Life through Death, treatises, and books which deal with 1831. “Sermons, Lectures, and the question, and so far as my Occasional Discourses,” by Rev. limited power goes I shall be glad Edward Irving, issued in 1828, to detail it for the behoof of those show many thoughts in common. who seek information on the matter. Similar ideas were entertained by I may mention that my attention Alex. J. Scott, who was, like Irving was first attracted to the reflections and McLoed Campbell, expelled which such a topic brings up by a from the Scottish Church for his paper or papers in the Truth Seeker, abhorrence of the terrible decretum à serial issued under the superin- of Calvinism, the eternal reprobatendence of Frederic R. Lees, Ph.D., tion of the wicked. This may be 1845-1856. To these I am sorry I seen partially in his essay « On ACcannot more particularly refer. The quaintance with God." Though, works of Thomas De Quincey and as we have said, the question was of Professor F. D. Maurice main- brought into prominence about a tain Universalist opinions. In re- century ago, e.g., in a work written gard to the latter we may especially by “À Searcher after Truth," in refer to his “Theological Essays," 1754, entitled “The Great Love particularly those on "Sin," " The and Tenderness of God to his CreaAtonement," and Eternal Lilo and
tures ; or the Scriptural Doctrine of
Redemption, Conversion and Redemption of all Mankind;" a work on "The Restoration of all Things," 1772, by Jeremy White, who had been chaplain to Oliver Cromwell ; Soame Jenyns on “The Origin of Evil,” 1757, &c., yet the great importance of the subject seems to have risen into fulness of vision and feeling shortly after the discussions which ended in the excommunications above-mentioned, and to have increased till another public occasion arose for their consideration in the conversion of Joseph Blanco White, through Whatelyism to Thomisın. I say Whatelyism in reference to some of the boldest yet most temperate writings of that blunt, lionest, and thoughtful episcopal logician, as,“ View of the Scripture Revelations concerning a Future State,” 1829; “ Lectures on the Scripture Revelations respecting Good and Evil Angels,” 1851. Perhaps the next works in importance to those mentioned are Rev. H. H. Dobney's “ Lectures Future Punishment,” 1845, enlarged into “The Scripture Doctrine of Future Punishment;" “ Life in Christ,” by Edward White; six sermons “ Are the Wicked Immortal ?" by George Storrs. These called out the “ Athanasia; or the Natural Immortality of Man,” by Rev. John
Howard Hinton, M.A., re-issued in vol. iii. of Hinton's collected works, with many additions. Dr. Richard Winter Hamilton's work on “Rewards and Punishments" origin to the same controversy. The present notice has grown in the hands of the writer till he feels that it has outrun all fair demands on the space of the “ Inquirer.” As the columns of that portion of the magazine are not primarily intended for controversy, but for information, it may be as well for the writer to intimate that he has no intention of expressing his own opinion in these columns, though he intends, if permitted by the editors, to conclude this reply on another occasion by a classified notice of all the tracts, papers, &c., known to him on the question, so that those who choose to pursue the subject may do so; in the meantime it may help to clarify the controversy to give an abstract of the main arguments on either side as impartially as possible. If the question be put in this form,Is the punishment for sin, decreed by God against the unrepentant and the ungodly, to be eternal or noneternal ? the following may be regarded as a synopsis of the chief arguments on each side of the subject arranged at one view for handy comparison :
“What shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel ? ” (1 Pet. iv. 17).
1. It is a possible thing for God to bring all men ultimately to salvation through grace ; for “ with God all things are possible ;” and “He retaineth not His anger for ever, because He delighteth in mercy” (Micah vii. 18).
2. It is probable that God will yet save all; “for His mercy endureth for ever.” He has no pleasure in the death of the wicked, and
ETERNAL 1. “It is impossible for God to lie;" He has assured us that the wicked "shall go away into everlasting punishment."
“ There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked" (Isa. lvii. 21 ;) for them " the mist of darkness is reserved for ever ” (2 Pet. ii. 17).
2. It is improbable, because God has said, "My Spirit shall not always strive with man. Now is the time of promise and the time of reforma