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A centurion applies to Christ
St. MATTHEW.

to heal his servant, A. M. 4131. sick of the palsy, grievously tor- come under my roof: but o speak A. M.4051. A.D 27.

A D.27. An. Olymp. mented.

the word only, and my servant shall An.Olymp. CCI. 3. 7 And Jesus saith unto him, I will be healed.

CCI. S. come and heal him.

U 9 For I am a man under authority, having 8 The centurion answered and said, Lord, soldiers under me: and I say to this man, · I am not worthy that thou shouldest Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come,

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Sick of the palsy] Or paralytic. See chap. iv. 24. This manipuli or companies, and every manipulus made two centuries centurion did not act as many masters do when their ser- or companies of one hundred men. Every manipulus had two vants are afflicted, have them immediately removed to an centurions, but these were very far from being equal in rank infirmary, often to a work-house ; or sent home to friends or and honour, though possessing the very same office. The Trirelatives, who probably either care nothing for them, or are || arii and Principes were esteemed the most honourable, and had unable to afford them any of the comforts of life. In case their centurions elected first; and these first elected centurions, of a contagious disorder, it may be necessary to remove an took precedency of the centurions of the lastuti who were infected person to such places as are best calculated to cure elected last. The centurion in the text was probably one the distémper, and prevent the spread of the contagion of this last order, he was under the authority of either the But in all common cases, the servant should be considered | Principes or Triarii, and had none under him but the hunas a child, and receive the same friendly attention. If by a dred men whom he commanded, and who appear to liave been hasty, unkind, and unnecessary removal, the servant die, are in a state of the most loving subjection to him. The argument not the master and mistress murderers before God?

ll of the centurion seems to run thus. If I who am a person subVerse 7. I will come and heal him.] Eyw en dwy Gepettucw av- lject to the controul of others, yet have some so completely sub70%, I am coming, und will heal him. This saying is worthy | ject to myself, that I can say to one, Come, and he cometh, to of observation. Jesus did not positively say, I will come and another, Go, and he goeth, and to my slave (tw dounw pou) do heal him ; this could not have been strictly true, because our this, and he doeth it; how much more then canst thou accom: Lord healed him without going to the house, and the issue 'plish whatsoever thou willest, being under no controul, and have shews that the words ought to be taken in the most literal ing all things under thy cominand. He makes a proper use of sense : thus understood, they contained a promise which it his authority, who by it, raises his mind to the contemplation of seems none of them distinctly comprehended. Foreseeing the the sovereign power of God, taking occasion from it to humble exercise of the centurion's faith, he promises that while he is himself before him who has all power in heaven and earth; and coming, ere he arrives at the house, he will heal him, and to expect all good from him. this was literally done, verse 13. There is much beauty in There are two beautiful passages in Arrian that tend much this passage,

| to illustrate this speech of the centurion. Καταταγείς Αγαμεμνων, Verse 8. But speak the word only] Or instead of gte moyov, 1 asyes pos, wogsvou rogos Toy Axordea, xa. ATOCHODOY Thy Besonido read, but noyw, Speak by word or command. This reading is wozevomat. Egxou, esxouan. “He who personates Agamemnon, supported by the most extensive evidence from MSS. versions' says to me, Go to Achilles, and bring hither Briseis : I go. He and fathers. See here the pattern of that living faith and says, Come hither; I come.” Dissert. 1. i. c. 25. p. 97. genuine humility which ought always to accompany the Otav o @cos enton Tous Qutoss avbewy, aideuOtuy enn Brasayely, prayer of a sinner' : Jesus can will auuy thę palsy, and speak | Brasaveb. Otay ex Eg S6V TOY XO.pwov, exeges. Otav WETULIVELY, WET GIVEL. away the most grievous torments. The first degree of humility | Otavaahoy ato Candey, no quadogporny, xoI AUTA ELS AUTA CUISA ou utra. is to acknowledge the necessity of God's mercy, and our own epi nouxras pusvelv, xai avat. Aveclav, peves not araw au etab. “When mapilily 10 heip ourselves : the second, to confess the freeness God commands the plants to blossom, they bear blossoms. When of his grace, and our own utter unworthiness. Ignorance, he commands them to bear seed, they bear seed. When he unbelief, and presumption will ever retard our spiritual cure. commands them to bring forth fruit, they put forth their fruits.

Verse 9. For I am a man under authority] That is, under the When he commands them to ripen, they grow ripe. When he authority of others. This verse has given considerable embarrass- || commands them to fade, and shed their leares, and to remain ment to commentators and critics. I believe the paraphrase inactive, involved in themselves, they thus remain, and are ingiven above to be the true meaning of the evangelist. To make active.” Cap. 14. p. 62. See Raphelius. this matter more plain, let it be observed, that the Roman foot This mode of speech fully marks supreme and unconwas divided into three grand parts, llastati, Principes, and Tri. || trouled power, and that power put forth by a sovereign arii. Each of these grand divisions was composed of thirty will to effect any purpose of justice or mercy. And God

Christ strongly

CHAP. VIII.

commends his faith.

1. 4031.

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1. 3.

A. M. 4031. and he cometh ; and to my servant, il 11 And I say unto you, that A
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A D. 27. An. Olymp. Do this, and he doeth it.

|| many shall come from the east and An. Olymp. 10 When Jesus heard it he mar- | west, and shall sit down with Abra- . velled, and said to them that followed, Verily ham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, || heaven. no, not in Israel.

12 But the children of the kingdom “shall be

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a Gen. 12. 3. Isai. 2. 2, 3. & 11. 10. Alal. 1. 11. Luke 15. 29. Acts 10. 45. | Ch. 21. 13.---'ch. 13. 42, 50. & 22. 13. & 21.51. & 25. 30. Luke 13. 28. & 11. 18.& 14. 27. Rom. 15.9, &c. Epli. 3. 6.

2 Pet. 2. 17. Jude 13.

said, Let there be light, and there was light, is a similar ex- || dodis, acuitatis, auxysics. CALVO1, Torches, lamps, candles and lanpression.

thorns, by Athenæus and Plutarch : so they who were admitted Verse 10. I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.] ll to the banquet, had the benefit of the light; but they who That is, I have not found so great an instance of confidence were shut out, were in darkness, called here outer darkness, i, e. and faith in my power, even among the Jews, as this Roman, I the darkness on the outside of the house, in which the guests a Gentile, has shewn himself to possess.

were; which must appear more abundantly gloomy, when comFrom Luke vii. 5. where it is said of this centurion, “ he pared with the profusion of light within the guest-chamber. loved our nation, and has built us a synagogue;" we may infer, | And because they who were shut out, were not only exposed that this man was like the centurion mentioned Acts x. 1. A to shame, but also to hunger and cold; therefore it is adưed, derout Gentile, a proselyle of the gate, one who believed in the there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. As these feasts God of Israel, without conforming to the Jewish ritual, or re- || are often alluded to by the Evangelists, I would observe once for ceiving circumcision. Though the military life is one of the all : that they who were invited to them, entered by, a gate de.. most improper nurses for the christian religion, yet in all na- signed to receive them; whence Christ, by whom we enter into tions there have been found several instances of genuine hu- | the marriage feast, compares himself to a gate, John x. 1, 2, mility, and faith in God, even in soldiers ; and perhaps never i 7, 9, This gute at the time the guests were to conne, was made more in the British military, than at the present. A. D, 1812. narrow, the wicket only being left open, and the porter standing

Verse 11. Many shall come from the east und west) Men there, that they whu were not bidden to the marriage might of every description, of all countries, and of all professions ; ( not rush into it. Hence Christ exhorts the Jews to enter in at and shall sit down, that is, to meat, for this is the proper mean the strait gate, ch. vii. 13, &c. When all that were invited were ing of erexasSncortas, intimating the recumbent posture used by once come, the door was presently shut, and was not to be the Easterns at their meals. The Rabbins represent the opened to any who came too late, and stood knocking without: blessedness of the kingdoin of God under the notion of a ban- so after the wise virgins bad entered with the bridegroom, the quet. See several proofs of this in Schoetgenius. This was gate was shut, and was not opened to the foolish virgins, who spoken to soften the unreasonable prejudices of the Jews, I stood knocking without, chap. xxv. 11. And in this sense we which they entertained against the Gentiles, and to prepare are to understand the words of Christ, Luke xiii. 24, 25. Many them to receive their brethren of mankind into religious fel- || shall seek to enter in, but shall not be able. Why? because the lowship with themselves, under the Christian dispensation.. | master of the house hath risen up and shut to the door, they would

With Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob) In the closest commu- not come unto him when they might, and now the day of pronion with the most eminent followers of God. But if webation is ended, and they must be judged according to the deeds desire to inherit the promises, we must be followers of them done in the body. See Whitby on the place. How many of who through faith and patience enjoy them. Let us therefore those who are called christians, suffer the kingdom, the graces, mitate Abraham in his fuith, Isaac in his obedience unto death, and the salvation which they had in their hands, to be lost; and Jacob in his hope and expectation of good things to come, while West-India negroes, American Indians, Ilindoo Poly-amidst all the evils of this life, if we desire to reign with them. theists, and atheistic Hottentots obtain salvation ! An eternity:

Verse 12. Shall be cast out into outer darkness) As the enjoy- / of darkness, fears and pains, for coraparatively a moment of ment of that salvation which Jesus Christ calls the kingdom of sensual gratification, how terrible the thought! What outer darkheaven, is here represented under the notion of a nuptial | ness, or, to OXOTOS 50 EĞwrigov, that darkness, that which is the festival, at which the guests sat down in a reclining posture, outermost, may refer to, in eternal damnation, is hard to say : Dith the master of the feast; so the state of those who were what it alludes to I have already mentioned: but as the words excluded from the banquet is represented as deep darkness ; be- | Beuypos TWY cQOYTwy, gnushing or CHATTERING of teeth, convey the cause the nuptial solemnities took place at night. Hence at idea, not only of extreme anguish, but of extreme cold; some those suppers, the house of reception was filled with lights called | have imagined that the punishment of the damned consisted in. The fearful condition of those

St. MATTHEW.

who reject the gospel.

A.M. 4031 cast out into outer darkness: there thy way; "and as thou hast believed, A.M. 403 A. 1). 27.

A. D. 47. An. Olymp: shall be weeping and gnashing of so be it done unto thee. And his An. Olymp,

CCI. 3. _ teeth.

| servant was healed in the selfsame 13 And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go hour.

* Psal. 49. 19. Rev. 16. 9, 11.

Mark 5. 31. Luke 7. 10, 50.

sudden transitions from extreme heat, to extreme cold; the assume the forms of beasts continually miserable, and suflet extremes of both, I have found to produce exactly the same alternate afflictions from extremities of cold and heat; sursensation.

rounded with terrors of various kinds. They shall have old Milton happily describes this in the following inimitable | age without resource; diseases attended with anguish; pangs of verses, which a man can scarcely read, even at Midsummer, | innumerable sorts, and lastly, unconquerable death.without shivering.

Institutes of MENU, ch. xii. Inst. 75-80. Beyond this flood a frozen continent

In the Zend Avesta, the place of wicked spirits is termed Lies dark and wild, beat with perpetual storms “ The places of darkness, the germs of the thickest darkness.Of whirlwind and dire hail

|| An uncommonly significant expression : Darkness has its birth the parching air

there : there are its seeds and buds, there it vegetates everlastBurns frore, and cold, performs the effect of fire. ingly, and its eternal fruit is--darkness ! Thither by harpy-footed furies hal’d,

See Zend Aresta, vol. i. Vendidad sadi, Fargard. xviii.
At certain revolutions all the damn'd

p. 412.
Are brought; and feel by turns the bitter change And is this, or any thing as bad as this, HELL? Yes, and
Of fierce extremes, extremes by change more fierce, worse than the worst of all that has already been mentioned.
From beds of raging fire, to starve in Ice,

Hear Christ himself. There their worm dieth not, and the fire is

and there to pine | NOT QUENCHED! Great God! save the Reader from this damImmoveable, infix'l, and frozen round

nation! Periods of time; thence hurried back to fire.

Verse 13. As thou hast believed, so be it done] Let the Parad. Lost, book ji. line 586. mercy thou requestest, be equal to the faith thou hast brought There is a passage in the Vulgate, Job xxiv. 19. that to receive it by. According to thy faith be it done unto thee, might have helped Milton to this idea. Ad nimium calorem | is a general measure of God's dealings with inankind. To transeat ab aquis nirium. Let him pass to excessive heat, I get an increase of fuith, is to get an increase of every grace from waters of snow.” This reading which is found only in which constitutes the mind that was in Jesus; and prepares this form, in the Vulgate, is vastly expressive. Every body fully, for the enjoyment of the kingdom of God. God is the knows that snow-water is colder than snow itself. Another of same in the present time which he was in ancient days; and our Poets has given us a most terrible description of perdi- ! miracles of healing may be wrought on our own bodies and tion, on the same ground.

souls, and on those of others by the instrumentality of our The once pamper'd spirit

faith. But, alas! where is faith to be found ! *To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside

And his servant was healed in the selfsume hour.] E, in ufa In thrilling regions of thick ribbed ice;

exelyn, in that very hour. Faith is never exercised in the power To be imprison'd in the viewless winds,

and goodness of God till it is needed; and when it is exercised, And blown with restless violence round about God works the miracle of healing. Christ never says, believe This pendant world; or to be worse than worst now for a salvation which thou now needest, and I will give it Of those, that lawless and incertain thoughts to thee in some future time. That salvation which is expected Imagine

through works or sufferings, must of necessity be future, as Similar to this is that dreadful description of the torments there must be time to work or suffer in: but the salvation of the wicked given in the Institutes of Menu; “ The wicked which is by faith, must be for the preseni moment, for this shall have a sensation of agony in Tamisra, or utter darkness, || simple reason, it is BY FAITH, that God may be manifested and and in other seats of horror; in Asipatrarana, or the sword- || honoured; and not by works or by sufferings, lest any man leaved forest, and in different places of binding fast, and of should boust. To say, that though it is of faith, yet it may, rending: multifarious tortures await them: they shall be and must in many cases, be delayed, (though the person is mangled by ravens and owls, and shall swallow cakes boiling coming in the most genuine humility, deepest contrition, and hot; and shall walk over inflamed sands, and shall feel the with the liveliest faith in the blood of the Lamb) is to say pangs of being baked like the vessels of a Potter : they shall that there is still something necessary to be done, either on

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Peter's mother-in-law healed.

CHAP. VIII.

A scribe resolves to be a disciple.

3.

A. M. 4031. 14 T . And when Jesus was come il 17 That it might be fulfilled which A M. 4031. A.D. 27.

A. D. 27. An. Olymp. into Peter's house, he saw his wife's was spoken by Esaias the prophet, say- An. Olymp.

O mother laid, and sick of a fever. ing, Himself took our infirmities, and 15 And he touched her hand, and the fever bare our sicknesses. left her: and she arose and ministered unto 18 Now when Jesus saw great multitudes them.

| about him, he gave commandment to depart 16 f'When the even was come, they brought unto the other side. unto him many that were possessed with devils : | 19 · And a certain scribe came, and said unto and he cast out the spirits with his word, and him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever healed all that were sick :

thou goest.

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the part of the person, or on the part of God, in order to Secondly, Because they were then strongly addicted to Magic, procure it; neither of which positions has any truth in and so, as it were, invited evil spirits to be familiar with them.

Verse 14. Peter's house] That Peter lived at Capernaum, It seems strange to find men at this distance of time questionand that Christ lodged with him, is fully evident from this | ing the truth of that, which neither Scribes nor Pharisees then terse compared with chap. xvii. 24.

doubted; nor did they ever object against the pretensions of Peter's wife's mother] Learn hence, says Theophylact, that Christ and bis apostles to cast them out. And, if the whole marriage is no hindrance to virtue, since the chief of the business of Dæmonism had been only a vulgar error (as wise Apostles had his wife. Marriage is one of the first of divine | men now tell us) what a fine opportunity had the wise men Institutions, and is a positive command of God. He says, the then, to unmask the whole matter, and thus pour contempt state of celibacy is not good, Gen. ii. 18. Those who pre- || on the pretensions of our blessed Lord and his followers, who tend to say that the single state is more holy than the other, || held it to be one proof of their divine mission, That Dæmons slander their Maker, and say in effect, “ we are too holy to were subject to thein ? keep the commandments of God.”

| And healed all that were sick] Not a soul did the Lord Jesus Verse 15. He louched her hand] Can any thing on this side ever reject, who came to him soliciting his aid. Need any the unlimited power of God, effect such a cure with only a sinner despair who comes to him, conscious of his spiritual touch? If the Scriptures had not spoken of the divinity of malady, to be healed by his merciful hand ? Christ, these proofs of his power must have demonstrated it Verse 17. Himself took our infirmities] The quotation is to the common sense of every man, whose creed had not pre- taken from Isa. liii. 4. where the verb xui nasa signifies to Fiously blinded him.

bear sin, so as to make atonement for it. And the Rabbins Ministered unto them.] Autols them, is the reading of most of understand this place to speak of the sufferings of the Messiah, the printed editions, but autw, to him, has the utmost evidence for the sins of Israel ; and say that all the diseases, all the in its support from MSS. Versions and Fathers. Serving | griefs, and all the punishments due to Israel shall be borne by Christ in his ordinances and in his members is the best proof him. See Synopsis Sohar. Christ fulfills the prophecies in we can give to others of our being soundly restored to spi- || all respects, and is himself the completion and truth of them, ritual health.

as being the lamb and victim of God, which bears and takes Verse 16. When the even was come] The Jews kept their away the sin of the world. The text in Isaiah refers properly sabbath from evening to evening, according to the law, Lev. || to the taking away of sin ; and this in the Evangelist, to the xxiii. 32. From evening to evening shall ye celebrate your sabbath. I removal of corporeal afflictions: but as the diseases of the body And the Rabbins say, The sabbath doth not enter but when the || are the emblems of the sin of the soul, Matthew referring to un is set. Hence it was that the sick were not brought out || the prediction of the prophet, considered the miraculous to our Lord till after sun-set, because then the sabbath was healing of the body, as an emblem of the soul's salvation by ended.

Christ Jesus. Many that were possessed with devils) Dr. Lightfoot gives Verse 18. Unto the other side.] Viz. of the lake of Genetwo sound reasons why Judea, in our Lord's time, abounded || sareth, whence he proceeded to the country of the Gergesenes, with Dæmoniacs. First, Because they were then advanced to ver. 28. the very height of impiety ; see what Josephus, their own Verse 19. A certain scribe] Though agus neap Mateus, ONE historian, says of them : There was not (said he) a nation scribe, may be considered as a Hebraism; yet it is probable inder heaven more wicked than they were. See on Rom. i. 1. || that the literal construction of it was intended, to shew that

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4,51 9031. 20 And Jesus saith unto him, Thel 23 And when he was entered into A M. 4031. A. 1). 27.

A. D. 27. du. Olymp. foxes have holes, and the birds of the a ship, his disciples followed him. An. Olymp. CCI. 3.

CCES" - air have nests; but the Son of man | 24 ° And, behold, there arose a great hath not where to lay his head.

tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was 21. And another of his disciples said unto him, covered with the waves: but he was asleep, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. 25 And his disciples came to him, and

22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and awoke him, saying, Lord, sate us : we let the dead bury their dead.

perish.

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few of this class came to the Lord Jesus for instruction or long after they are called; the middle way is the only safe salvation.

one: not to move a finger in the work till the call be given, Master) Rather teacher, Sidarxahi, from dodaoxw, I teach, |, and not to delay a moment aster, wbich itself seems to be derived from derxw, I shew, and means Verse 22. Let the dead bury their dead.] It was usual for the person who shews or points out a particular way or science. the Jews to consider a man as dead who had departed from

I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.] A man who is the precepts of the Law; and on this ground, every transgressor not illuminated by the Spirit of God, thinks himself capable was reputed a dead man. Our Lord's saying being in common of any thing: he alone who is divinely taught, knows he can use, had nothing difficult in it to a Jew. Natural death is the do nothing but through Christ strengthening him. Every separation of the body and soul; spiritual death, the separation teacher among the Jews had disciples, and some especially of God and the soul : men who live in sin are dead to God. that followed or accompanied them wherever they went, that Leave the spiritually dead to bury their natural dead. All the they might have some person at hand with whom they might common offices of life may be performed by any person; to converse concerning the divine law.

preach the glad tidings of the kingdom of God is granted but Verse 20. The foxes have holes, &c.) Reader! art thou a to a fer, and to these only by an especial call; these should poor man? and dost thou fear God? Then, what comfort must i immediately abandon worldly concerns and employments, thou derive from the thought, that thou so nearly resemblest and give themselves wholly up to the work of the ministry. the Lord Jesus ! But how unlike is the rich man, who is the vo- | Verse 24. Arose a great tempest in the sea] Probably tary of pleasure and slave of sin, to this heavenly pattern! Il excited by Satan, the prince of the power of the air, who,

Son of man] A Hebrew phrase, expressive of humiliation having got the author and all the preachers of the gospel toand debasement ; and on that account, applied emphatically to gether in a small vessel, thought by drowning it to defeat the himself, by the meek and lowly Jesus. Besides, it seems here I purposes of God, and thus to prevent the salvation of a to be used to point out the incarnation of the Son of God, i ruined world. What a noble opportunity must this have apaccording to the predictions of the prophets, Psal. viii. 5. peared to the enemy of the human race! Dan, vii. 13. And as our Lord was now shewing forth his | Verse 25. And his disciples) the disciples, In the common eternal Divinity in the miracles he wrought; he seems stu-l printed editions, as well as in our translation, it is his discidious to prove to them the certainty of his incarnation, be- || ples, but autou, his, is omitted by the very best MSS., and by cause on this depended the atonement for sin. Indeed our || Bengel, Wetstein, and Griesbach. This is a matter of very Lord seems more intent on giving the proofs of his humanity, Il sinall importance, and need not be noticed, only every transthan of his divinity, the latter being necessarily manifested by | lator and commentator should aim to the uttermost of his the miracles which he was continually working.

|| knowledge and power, to give every particle of the language Verse 21. Another of his disciples] This does not mean any of of the inspired penman that can be expressed, and to insert the twelve, but one of those who were constant hearers of our no one word which he has reason to believe did not come by. Lord's preaching; the name of disciple being common to all the inspiration of God. those who professed to believe in him, John vi. 66. Bury my Lord, save us: we perish.] One advantage of trials is to father : probably his father was old, and apparently near | make us know our weakness, so as to oblige us to have redeath, but it was a maxim among the Jews, that if a man course to God by faith in Christ. It is by faith alone that we had any duty to perform to the dead, he was, for that time, may be said to approach him; by love we are united to him, free from the observance of any other precept or duty. The | and by prayer we awake him. All good perishes in us without children of Adam are always in extremes; some will rush Christ; without his grace, there is not so much as one mo. into the ministry of the gospel without a call, others will delay ment in which we are not in danger of utter ruin, How

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