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Cautions against

Sr. MATTHEW.

anxious care

A.M. 4031. than meat, and the body than rai- '| 27 Which of you by taking thought A M. 4031. A. D. 27.

A. D. 27. An. Olymp. ment?

can add one cubit unto his stature ? An. Olymp. CCI.3. 26 Behold the fowls of the air: forl 28 And why take ye thought for

CCI. 3. they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather raiment ? Consider the lilies of the field, how into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth | they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: them. Are ye not much better than they? 29 And yet I say unto you, · That even So

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thers. Griesbach has left it in the text with a note of doubt from distrust to apostacy is very short and easy : and a man fulness. It occurs again in the 31st verse, and there is no is not far from murmuring against Providence, who is disvariation in any of the MSS, in that place. Instead of Is not satisfied with its conduct. We should depend as fully upon the life more than, &c. we should read, Of more value; so the God for the preservation of his gifts, as for the gifts themword Theioy is used in Num. xxii. 15, and by the best Greek |selves. writers; and in the same sense it is used in chap. xxi. 37. Cubit unto his stature?] I think noxudy should be rendered See the note there.

li age here, and so our Translators have rendered the word in Verse 26. Bchold the fouls of the air] The second reason John ix. 21. AUTOS nous av tre he is of age. A very learned why we should not be anxiously concerned about the future, writer observes, that no difficulty can arise from applying is the example of the smaller animals, which the providence anxvv a cubit, a measure of extension, to time, and the age of of God feeds without their own labour; though he be not man: as place and time are both quantities, and capable of their father. We never knew an earthly father take care of increase and diminution: and as no fi.red material standard his fowls, and neglect his children; and shall we fear this can be employed in the mensuration of the flecting particles from our heavenly Father? God forbid ! That man is ut- of time; it was natural and necessary in the construction of terly unworthy to have God for his father, who depends less language, to apply parallel terms to the discrimination of upon his goodness, wisdom, and power, than upon a crop of time and place. Accordingly, we find the same words indifcorn, which may be spoiled either in the field or in the barn. ferently used to denote time and place in every known tongue. If our great Creator hare made us capable of knowing, lov- i Lord, let me know the MEASURE of my days! Thou hast ing, and enjoying himself eternally, what may we not expect made my days HAND-BREADTHS, Psal. xxxix. 56. Many exfrom him, after so great a gift?

amples might be adduced from the Greek and Roman writers. They sow not, neither do they reap] There is a saying. Besides, it is evident, that the phrase of adding one cubit, among the Rabbins almost similar to this-" Hast thou ever is proverbial, denoting something minute ; and is therefore seen a beast or a fowl that had a workshop? yet they are applicable to the smallest possible portion of time: but, in a litefcd without labour and without anxiety. They were createdral acceptation, the addition of a cubit to the stature would be for the service of man, and man was created that he might a great and extraordinary accession of height. See Wakefield. serve his Creator. Man also would have been supported 1 Verse 28. And why take ye thought for raiment?] Or, why without labour and anxiety, had he not corrupted his ways. are ye anxiously careful about raiment? The fourth reason Hast thou ever seen a lion carrying burthens, a stag gather | against such inquietudes, is the example of inanimate creaing summer fruits, a for selling merchandize, or a wolftures : The herbs and flowers of the field have their being, selling oil? that they might thus gain their support: and nourishment, exquisite flavours, and beautiful hues from God yet they are fed without care or labour. Arguing therefore himself. They are not only without anxious care, byt also from the less to the greater, if they which were created that without care or thought of every kind. Your being, its exthey might serve me, are nourished without labour and anxiety, l. cellence, and usefulness, do not depend on your anxious conhow much more I, who have been created that I might servecern: they spring as truly from the beneficence and contimy Maker. What therefore is the cause, why I should be nual superintendance of God, as the flowers of the field do: obliged to labour in order to get my daily bread ? Answer, and were you bronght into such a situation, as to be as utterly Sin.” This is a curious and important extract, and is highly incapable of contributing to your own preservation and supworthy of the Reader's attention. See Schoetgen.

port, as the lilies of the field are to theirs, your heavenly Verse 27. Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit | Father could augment your substance, and preserve your unto his stature?] The third reason against these carking cares being, when for his glory, and your own advantage. is the unprofitableness of human solicitude, unless God vouch 1. Consider] Diligently consider this, xatopabets, lay it earsafe to bless it. What can our uneasiness do but render nestly to heart, and let your confidence be unshaken in the is still more unworthy of the divine care? The passage God of infinite bounty and love.

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Exhortations to trust

CHAP. VI.

in the providence of God. A.M. 4051. lomon in all his glory, was not arrayed shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? A. 11.4051. A. D. 27. Ar. Olymp. like one of these.

l'or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed ? An. Olymp. CCI, 3.

: 30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the i 32 (For after all these things do the = grass of the field, which to day is, and to- i Gentiles seek :) for your heavenly Father

en, shall he not much knoweth that ye have need of all these more clothe you, 50 ye of little faith?

things. 31 Therefore take no thought, saying, What 33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God,

N

Luke 12. 28.—

ch. 14. 31,

See 1 Kings 3. 13. Ps. 37. 25. Mark 10. 30. Luke 12. 31. 1 Tim. 1. 8.

shell 20.

Verse 29. Solomon in all his glory] Some suppose, that as | Your heavenly Father knoweth, &c.] The sixth reason the robes of state worn by the eastern kings, were usually against this anxiety about the future, is, because God, our white, as were those of the nobles among the Jews; that heavenly Father, is infinite in wisdom, and knows all our therefore the lily was chosen for the comparison.

wants. It is the property of a wise and tender Father to Verse 30. If God so clothe the grass of the field] Christ | provide necessaries, and not superfluities, for his children. confounds both the luxury of the rich in their superfluities, Not to expect the former, is an offence to his goodness; 10 and the distrust of the poor as to the necessaries of life. expect the latter, is injurious to his wisdom. Let man, who is made for God and eternity, learn from a Verse 33. But seek ye first the kingdom of God] See on flower of the field how low the care of Providence stoops. Matt. iii. 7. All our inquietudes and distrusts proceed from lack of II His righteousness] That holiness of heart and purity of faith : that supplies all wants. The poor are not really life which God requires of those who profess to be subjects such, but because they are destitute of faith.

of that spiritual kingdom mentioned above. See on chap. v. To-morrow is cast into the ocen] The inhabitants of the 20. East, to this day, make use of dry strarv, withered herbs and 1 The seventh reason against these worldly cares and fears is, stubble to heat their ozens. Some have translated the original | because the business of our salvation ought to engross us word x216avov, a still; and intimate, that our Lord alludes entirely: hither, all our desires, cares, and inquiries ought to the distillation of herbs for medicinal purposes ; but this || to' tend. Grace is the way to glory-holiness the way to is certainly contrary to the scope of our Lord's argument, ! happiness. If men be not righteous, there is no heaven to which runs thus : If God covers, with so much glory, things | be had; if they be, they shall have heaven and earth too; of no farther value than to serve the meanest uses; will he for godliness has the promise of both lives. 1 Tim. vi. 3. not take care of his servants who are so precious in his sight, | All these things shall be added unto you.] The very blunt and designed for such important services in the world ? See note of old Mr. Trapp, on this passage, is worthy of serious Harmer's Observations.

attention. All things shall be added. “ They shall be cast Verse 31. What shall we eat, or, What shall we drink ?] || in as an overplus, or as small advantages to the main bargaini; These three enquiries engross the whole attention of those as paper and packthread are given where we buy spice who were living without God in the world. The belly and | and fruit, or an inch of measure to an ell of cloth.””. back of a worldling are his compound god; and these he ! This was a very common saying among the Jews: “Seck Forships in the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eye, and I that, to which other things are necessarily connected.” “A in the pride of life.

king said to his particular friend, ' Ask what thou wilt, Verse 32. For after all these things do the Gentiles seek] | and I will give it unto thee. He thought within himself, The fifth reason against solicitude about the future, is, that If I ask to be made a general I shall readily obtain it. to concern ourselves about these wants with anxiety, as if I will ask something to which all these things shall be added :' there was no such thing as a providence in the world ; with he therefore said, "Give me thy daughter to wife.'-great affection towards earthly enjoyments, as if we expected || This he did, knowing that all the dignities of 'the kingdom no other; and without praying to God or consulting his || should be added unto this gift.” See in Schoelgen.

. will, as if we could do any thing without him. This is to | To this verse, probably, belong the following words, imitate the worst kind of heathens, who live without hope, l quoted often by Clement, Origen and Eusebius, as the words and without God in the world.

of Christ : OITEITE TO Meyada, xab ta jusxga yuss a gootEO NGETOW! Seek] Etientes from Emb, intensive, and Intew I seek, to seek || xo ÁITEITE TA ETOugana, xol TC ETWYEICE TROTTEVCET au upov. “Ask intensely, earnestly, again and again. The true characteristic | great things, and little things shall be added unto you, ask. of the worldly man, his soul is never satisfied-give! give ! | heavenly things, and earthly things shall be added unto is the ceaseless language of his earth-born heart.

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Against rash and

St. MATTHEW.

uncharitable judgments.

A.M. 1031. and his righteousness; and all these omorrow: for the morrow shall take A.M. 4031. • A. D. 47.

A. D. 27. An. Olymp. things shall be added unto you. thought for the things of itself. “Suffici. An. Olymp. CCI. 3.

CCI. 3. 3 34 Take therefore no thought for the ent unto the day is the evil thereof.

a Mark 10. 30. Luke 12. 31. Rom. 14. 17.

Lev. 22. 30. Prov. 27. 1.—_Job 14. 1. Luke 12. 20.

Verse 34. Take therefore no thought] That is, Be not future time which God would have us foresee and provide therefore anxiously careful.

for, is that of judgment and eternity: and it is about this The eighth and last reason, against this preposterous con- alone that we are careless ! duct, is, that carking care is not only useless in itself, but | Suficient unto the day is the evil thereof.] Agxeroy on musega renders us miserable before hand. The future, falls under XOXO QUTNS, Sufficient for each day is its own calamity. Each the cognisance of God alone: we encroach, therefore, upon day has its peculiar trials ;-we should meet them with conhis rights, when we would fain foresee all that may happen

fidence in God. As we should live but a day at a time, so to us, and secure ourselves from it by our cares. How much we should take care to suffer no more evils in one day than good is omitted, how many evils caused, how many duties are necessarily attached to it. He who neglects the present neglected, how many innocent persons deserted, how many for the future, is acting opposite to the order of God, his own good works destroyed, how many truths suppressed, and interest, and to every dictate of sound wisdom. Let us live how many acts of injustice authorized by those timorous for eternity, and we shall secure all that is valuable in time. forecasts, of what may happen; and those faithless appre There are many valuable reflexions in the Abbé Quesnel's hensions concerning the future! Let us do now what God work, on this chapter; and from it several of the preceding requires of us, and trust the consequences to him. The || have been derived.

CHAPTER VII. Our Lord warns men against rash judgment and uncharitable censures, 1-5. Shew's that holy things must not be prophaned, 6; gives encouragement to fervent persevering prayer, 7–11. Shews how men should deal with each other, 12. Exhorts the people to enter in at the strait gate, 13, 14; to beware of false teachers, who are to be known by their fruits, 15—20. Shews that no man shall be saved by his mere profession of Christianity, however specious, 22, 23. The parable of the wise man who built his house upon a rock, 24, 25. Of the foolish man who built his house without a foundation, on the sand, 26, 27. Christ concludes his sermon, and the people are astonished at his doctrine, 28, 29. A. M.1031. TUDGE *not, that ye be not|| ye shall be judged : band with what A.M.4031. 4.D. 27.

A. D. 27. An.Olynp. U judged.

measure ye mete, it shall be measured An. Olymp. CC1.3. 2 For with what judgment ye judge, to you again.

CCI. 3.

- Luke 6. 37. Rom. 2. 1. & 14. 3, 4, 10, 13. 1 Cor. 4.3, 5. Jam. 4. 11, 12.

Mark 4. 24. Luke 6. 38.

NOTES ON CHAP. VII.

| them. His jealous and envious heart wishes that there may Verse 1. Judge not, that ye be not judged.] These exhort- be no good quality found but in himself, that he alone may tations are pointed against rash, harsh, and uncharitable | be esteemed. Such is the state of every unconverted man; judgments, the thinking evil, where no evil seems, and speak- and it is from this criminal disposition, that evil surmises, rash ing of it accordingly. The Jews were highly criminal here, judgments, precipitate decisions, and all other unjust proand yet had very excellent maxims against it, as may be seen cedures against our neighbour, flow. in Schoetgen. This is one of the most important exhortations | Verse 2. For with what judgment] He who is severe on others, in the whole of this excellent sermon. By a secret and cri- will naturally excite their severity against himself. The minal disposition of nature, man endeavours to elevate him- censures and calumnies which we have suffered, are probably self above others, and to do it more effectually, depresses I the just reward of those which we have dealt out to others.

Directions against

CHAP. VII.

uncharitable censures.

A. M. 4051. 3 a And why beholdest thou the mote || out of thine own eye; and then shalt A.M. 4031. A. D. 27.

A. D. 27. An Olymp. that is in thy brother's eye, but con- | thou see clearly to cast out the mote An. Olymp. CC1.8. siderest not the beam that is in thine | out of thy brother's eye.

CCI. 3. own eye?

6. "Give not that which is holy unto the 4 Or how wilt thou say' to thy brother, Let dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, | lest they trample them under their feet, and behold, a beam is in thine own eye?

|| turn again and rend you. 5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam | 7 * Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek,

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Verse 3. And why beholdest thou the mote] Kagpos might be || Cast out the mote out of thine eye, he is immediately ready to translated the splinter : for splinter bears some analogy to | answer, Cast out the beam that is in thine own eye.This probeum, but mote does not. I should prefer this word (which verbial mode of speech the Gloss interprets thus: “ Cast out, has been adopted by some learned men) on the authority of Drop kisim, the mote, that is, the little sin, that is in thy Hesychius, who is a host in such matters; Kappos, xegato čudou hand : to which he answered, Cast out the great sin that is Anth, Karphos, is a thin piece of wood, a splinter. It often in thine. So they could not reprove, because all were sinhappens, that the faults which we consider as of the first enor- | ners.” See Lightfoot. mity in others, are, to our own iniquities, as a chip is, when || Verse 6. Give not that which is holy] To ayboy, the holy or compared to a large beam. On one side, self-love blinds us to sacred thing ; i. e. any thing, especially of the sacrificial ourselves; and on the other, envy and malice give us piercing kind, which had been consecrated to God. The members eyes in respect of others. When we shall have as much zeal to of this sentence should be transposed thus : correct ourselves, as we have inclination to reprove and cor

Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, rect others, we shall know our own defects better than now

Lest they turn again and rend you : we know those of our neighbour. There is a caution very

Neither cast ye your pearls, before swine, similar to this of our Lord given by a heathen :

Lest they trample them under their feet. Cum tua prævideas oculis mala lippus inunctis;

The propriety of this transposition is self-evident. There Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis acutum,

are many such transpositions as these, both in saered and . Quam aut aquila, aut serpens Epidaurius ?

profane writers. The following is very remarkable: Hor. Sat. lib. 1. sat. 3. 1. 25–27.

“ I am black but comely; " When you can so readily overlook your own wickedness, “ As the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon." why are you more clear-sighted than the eagle or serpent of

That is, Epidaurus, in spying out the failings of your friends ?” But

“ I am black as the tents of Kedar, the saying was very common among the Jews, as may be

« Comely as the curtains of Solomon." seen in Lightfoot.

See many proofs of this sort of writing in Mr. WAKEFIELD'S Verse 4. Or how wilt thou say] That man is utterly unfit | Commentary. to shew the way of life to others, who is himself walking in | As a general meaning of this passage, we may just say, the way of death.

“ The sacrament of the Lord's supper, and other holy Verse 5. Thou hypocrite] A hypocrite, who professes ordinances which are only instituted for the genuine followers to be what he is not, (viz. a true Christian) is obliged, for of Christ, are not to be dispensed to those who are continually the support of the character he has assumed, to imitate all returning like the suarling ill-natured dog to their easily prethe dispositions and actions of a Christian; consequently he || dominant sins of rash judgment, barking at and tearing the must reprove sin, and endeavour to shew an uncommon af characters of others by evil-speaking, back-biting and slanderfection for the glory of God. Our Lord unmasks this vile | ing ; nor to him, who, like the swine, is frequently returnpretender to saintship, and shews him that his hidden hypo lling to wallow in the mud of sensual gratifications and ima : crisy, covered with the garb of external sanctity, is more || purities.abominable in the sight of God, than the openly professed Il Verse 7. Ask-seekknock] These three words include and practised iniquity of the profligate.

the ideas of, want, loss, and earnestness. Ask : turn beggar In after times, the Jews made a very bad use of this say- || at the door of Mercy, thou art destitute of all spiritual good, ing: “I wonder,” said Rabbi Zarphon, “ whether there be and it is God alone who can give it to thee; and thou hast any in this age that will suffer reproof: If one say to another, Il no claim but what his mercy has given thee on itself,

Directions to persevere

St. MATTHEW.

in fervent prayer.

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A. M. 4031. and ye shall find; knock, and it shall | 11 If ye then, being evil, know how A. M. 1931. A. D. 27.

A. D. 27. An. Clymp. be opened unto you:

to give good gifts unto your children, An. Olymp.

CCI. 3. 8 For a every one that asketh re- || how much more shall your Father ceiveth, and he that seeketh findeth; and to him which is in heaven, give good things to them that knocketh it shall be opened.

that ask him? 9 "Or what man is there of you, whom if 12 Therefore all things, a whatsoever ye would his son ask bread, will he give him a stone ? that men should do to you, do ye even so to

10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a | them ; for e this is the law and the prophets. serpent ?

13 Enter ye in at the strait gate : for wide

a Prov. 8. 17. Jer. 29. 12, 13.-4b Luke 11. 11, 12, 13.

Gen. 6. 5. & 8. 21.

1. Tob. 4. 15. Luke 6. 31.

. Gal. 5. 14.

Lev. 19, 18. ch. 22.10. Rom. 13. 8, 9, 10. 1 Tim. 1. 5.- Luke 13. 24.

Seek: Thou hast lost thy God, thy paradise, thy soul.--Look |tional eternal damnation, any creature he has made? He who about thee, leave no stone unturned ;-there is no peace, no | can believe that he has, may believe any thing: but still God final salvation for thee till thou get thy soul restored to the IS LOVE. favour and image of God.

Verse 12. Therefore all things whatsoerer ye would that men] Knock : Be in earnest-be importunate : Eternity is at | This is a most sublime precept, and highly worthy of the hand! and if thou die in thy sins, where God is thou shalt | grandeur and beneficence of the just God who gave it. The never come.

general meaning of it is this : “ Guided by justice and mercy, Ask with confidence and humility.

do unto all men as you would have them to do to you, were Seek with care and application.

your circumstances and theirs reversed.” Yet, this saying Knock with earnestness and persererance.

may be misunderstood; “ If the prisoner should ask the judge, Verse 8. For every one that asketh receireth] Prayer is whether he would be content to be hanged, were he in his always heard after one manner or other. No soul can pray case,' he would answer, 'No.' Then, says the prisoner, do as in vain that prays as directed above. The truth and faithful- you would be done to :-neither of them must do as private ness of the Lord Jesus are pledged for it.-- Ye shall receive- men; but the judge must do by him, as they have publicly ye shall find-it shall be opened. These words are as agreed ; that is, both judge and prisoner have consented to a strongly binding on the side of God, as thou shalt do no murder | law, that if either of them steal, he shall be hanged.”---Selden. is on the side of man. Bring Christ's word, and Christ's None but he whose heart is filled with love to God and all sacrifice with thee, and not one of Heaven's blessings can be mankind, can keep this precept, either in its spirit or letter. denied thce. See on Luke xi. 9.

Self-love will feel itself sadly cramped when brought within Verse 9. Or what man is there--whom if his son] Men are the limits of this precept-but God hath spoken it: it is the exhorted to coine unto God, with the persuasion that he is a' spirit and design of the law and the prophets ; the sum of all most gracious and compassionate Parent, who possesses all that is laid down in the Sacred Writings, relative to mens' heavenly and earthly good; knows what is necessary for each conduct towards each other. It seems as if God had written it of his creatures, and is infinitely ready to communicate that ' upon the hearts of all men, for sayings of this kind may be which they need most.

| found among all nations, Jewish, Christian, and Heathen. See Will he give him a stone ?] Will he not readily give him bread many examples in Wetstein's notes. if he have it? This was a proverb in other countries; a benefit Verse 13. Enter ye in at the strait gute] Our Saviour grudgingly given by an avaricious man, is called by Seneca, | seems to allude here to the distinction between the public and panem lapidosum, stony bread. Hence that saying in Plautus: private ways mentioned by the Jewish lawyers. The public Allera manu, fert lapidem, panem ostentat altera.in one roads were allowed to be sixteen cubits broad, the private hand he brings a stone, and stretches out bread in the other. ways only four. The words in the original are very em

Verse 11. If ye then, being evil] Iloyngos oytes, who are radi: phatic : Enter in (to the kingdom of heaven) through this cally and diabolically depraved, yet feel yourselves led by | strait gate, dia tns otevns Fans, i. e. of doing to every one as natural affection, to give those things to your children which you would he should do unto you; for this alone seems to be are necessary to support their lives; how much more will the strait gate which our Lord alludes to. your Father, who is in heaven, whose nature is infinite good- | Forwide is the gate] And very broud,sugu xwços, from sugus, broad, ness, mercy, and grace, give good things--his grace and Spirit, and xwgos, a place, a spacious roomy place; that leadeth for(Freuua kynov, the Holy Ghost, Lukexi. 13.) to them who ask him? | ward onayouca into that destruction as TNV ATwawcy, meaning What a picture is here given of the goodness of God! Reader, l eternal misery, intimating, that it is much more congenial to ask thy soul, could this heavenly Father reprobate to uncondi- ll the revengeful, covetous heart of fallen man, to take every

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