תמונות בעמוד

Christ teaches the


multitudes by parables.


CHAPTER XIII. Christ teaches the multitudes out of a ship, they standing on the shore, 1, 2. The parable of the sower, 3—9. He gives his reasons for speaking in parables, 10–17. Explains the parable of the sower, 18—23. Parable of the tares and the wheat, 24–30. Of the grain of mustard seed, 31, 32. Of the leaven, 33. The prophecy fulfilled by this mode of teaching, 34, 35. Ile erplains the parable of the tares and the wheat, 36–43. Parable of the treasure hid in a field, 44. Of the pearl-merchant, 45, 46. Of the drag net, 47-50. His application of the whole, 51, 52. He teaches in his own country, and his neighbours take offence, 53–56. Our Lord's observations on this, 57. He works no miracle among them because of their unbelief, 58. A. M.4031. THE same day went Jesus out of gether unto him, so that Che went in- A. M.4031. A.D. 27.

A D. 27. An. Olymp. T the house, “and sat by the sea || to a ship, and sat; and the whole mul- An. Olymp.


titude stood on the shore. 2 And great multitudes were gathered to- 3 And he spake many things unto them in

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of similitude, to the real subject, in order to delineate it with Verse 1. The same day] Our Lord scarcely ever appears || the greater force and perspicuity. See more on this subject to take any rest—he is incessant in his labours; and instant at the conclusion of this chapter. No scheme, says Dr. in season and out of season : and in this he has left all his Lightfoot, of Jewish rhetoric was more familiarly used, than successors in the ministry an example, that they should fol- | that of parables; which, perhaps, creeping in from thence, low his steps : for he who wishes to save souls, will find few among the heathens, ended in fables. opportunities to rest. As Satan is going about as a roaring It is said in the tract Sotah, chap. ix. “ From the time lion seeking whom he may devour, the messenger of God that Rabbi Meri died, those that spake in parables ceased.” should imitate his diligence, that he may counteract his | Not that this figure of rhetoric perished in the nation from work.

that time; but because he surpassed all others in these flowWent Jesus out of the house] This was the house of Peter. ers, as the gloss there from the tract Sanhedrin speaks. “A See chap. xvii. 24.

third part of his discourses was tradition ; a third part alleSat by the sea side.) The sea of Galilee, on the borders of gory; and a third part parable.” The Jewish books every which the city of Capernaum was situated.

where abound with these figures, the nation inclining by a Verse 2. Into a ship.) To Thobov, The vessel or boat. Mr. || kind of natural genius to this kind of rhetoric. Their very Wakefield supposes (which is very likely) that a particular religion might be called parabolical, folded up within the vessel is uniformly specified, which seems to have been kept coverings of ceremonies ; and their oratory in their sermons on the lake for the use of Christ and his Apostles: it proba- || was like to it. But is it not indeed a wonder, that they who bly belonged to some of the fishermen : (see chap. iv, 22.) were so much given to and delighted in parables, and so dexwho, he thinks, occasionally, at least, followed their former terous in unfolding them, should stick in the outward shell occupation. See John xxi. 3.

of ceremonies, and should not have brought out the parabo-, The thought of pious Quesnel on this verse should not be | lical and spiritual sense of them? Our Saviour, who always neglected. We see here a representation of the church, spoke with the common people, uses the same kind of speech, which consists of the people united to their pastors. These || and very often, the same preface which they used, To what being more exposed to violent tossings and storms, are, as is it likened ? See Lightfoot in loco. Though we find the basis it were, in a ship, while those continue at ease on the || of many of our Lord's parables in the Jewish writings, yet shore.

not one of them comes through his hands, without being astoVerse 3. He spake many things unto them in parables] Pa- | nishingly improved. In this respect also, Surely never man rable, from toga, near, and Badaw, I cast, or put. A com spake like this man. parison or similitude, in which one thing is compared with Under the parable of the sower, our Lord intimates, 1. another, especially spiritual things with natural, by which | That of all the multitudes then attending his ministry, few means these spiritual things are better understood, and make would bring forth fruit to perfection. And 2. That this a deeper impression on an attentive mind. Or, a parable is would be a general case in preaching the Gospel among a representation of any matter accommodated, in the way men,

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of the parable

of the sover. A. 11. 1031. parables, saying, - Behold, a sower || forth fruit, some ba hundredfold, some A. M.4961.

A.D. 2. An. Olymp. went forth to sow;

sixtyfold, some thirtyfold. . 4 And when he sowed, some seeds || 9 · Who hath ears to hear, let him CC1.3. fell by the way side, and the fowls came and hear. devoured them up:

10 T And the disciples came, and said unto 5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables ? not much earth : and forth with they sprung up, || 11 He answered and said unto them, Because because they had no deepness of earth:

it is given unto you to know the mysteries 6 And when the sun was up, they were scorch-l of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not ed; and because they had no root, they wither-| given. ed away.

12 · For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, 7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns and he shall have more abundance : but whososprung up, and choked them :

ever hath not, from him shall be taken away 8 But otlier fell into good ground, and brought || even that he hath.


* Luke 8. 5.-_b Gen. 26. 12 ch. 11. 15. Mark 4. 9. ch. 11. 25.

& 16. 17. Mark 4. 11. 1 Cor. 2. 10. 1 John 2. 27.

· Ch. 25. 29. Mark 4. 25. Luke 8. 18. & 19. 26.

Verse 4.. Some seeds felt by the way side] The hard beaten cause God designed to exclude them from salvation, but bepath where no plough had broken up the ground.

cause He who knew all things, kney, either that they were Verse 5. Stony places] Where there was a thin surface of not proper persons, or that that was not the proper time : earth, and a rock at the bottom.

for the choice of the persons by whom, and the choice of the Verse 7. Among thorns] Where the earth was ploughed || Time in which it is most proper to reveal divine things, must up, but the brambles and weeds had not been cleared || ever rest with the all-wise God. away.

Verse 12. Whosoever hath, to him shall be given] This is · Verse 8. Good ground] Where the earth was deep, the | an allusion to a common custom in all countries : he who field well ploughed, and the brambles and weeds all removed. | possesses mueh, or is rich, to such a person, presents are ordiSee more on ver. 18, &c. and see on Luke viii. 15.

narily given. Verse 9. Who hath ears to hear, &c.] Let every person Whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that who feels the necessity of being instructed in the things || he hath.] That is, the poor man : he that has little may be which concern his soul's welfare, pay attention to what is easily made a prey of, and so lose his little. This is a proper spoken, and he shall become wise unto salvation.

sense of the word xay in sacred and profane writers. In Verse 11. It is given unto you to know the mysteries, &c.]|| 1 Cor. xi. 22. Tous len Exoras, those who have not, means simBy mysteries here, we may understand not only things con- | ply THE POOR : and Aristophanes uses TOUS exortas, those that cerning the scheme of salvation, which had not yet been re- || have, for the RICH or OPULENT. See a variety of pertinent vealed; but also the prophetic declarations concerning the examples in Kypke on Luke viii. 18. There is one example future state of the Christian church, expressed in the ensuing | in Juvenal, Sat. iii. 1. 208, 209. that expresses the whole of parables. It is not given to them to know the purport and lour Lord's meaning, and is a beautiful illustration of this design of these things—they are gross of heurt, earthly and apparently difficult passage. sensual, and do not improve the light they have received : 1 Nil habuit Codrus : quis enim negat ? et tamen illud but to you it is given, because I have appointed you not only | Perdidit infelix TOTUM NIL. to be the first preachers of my gospel to sinners, but also the “ 'T'is true, poor Courus NOTHING had to boast, persons who shall transmit accounts of all these things to || And yet poor Codrus all that nothing lost.” Dryden. posterity. The knowledge of these mysteries, in the first || Now what was this NOTHING which the poet said, Codrus instance, can be given only to a few; but when these faith- || had and lost? The fire preceding lines tell you. fully write and publish what they have heard and seen, unto Lectus erat Codro Proculâ minor, urceoli ser, the world, then the science of salvation is revealed and ad Ornamentum ubacı ; necnon et parvulus infra dressed to all. From ver. 17. we learn, that many prophets Cantharus, et recubuns sub eodem marmore Chiron ; and righteous men had desired to see and hear these things, Jamque vetus Græcos servabat cistu libellos, but had not that privilege to them it was not given ; not be- || Et divina Opici rodebant carmina mures,

The disciples require


its explanation.

1. M.4031. 13 Therefore speak I to them in pa- || and should be converted, and I should A. M. 4031. A. D. 27.

A. D. 27. An.Olymp. rables : because they seeing, see not; || heal them.

An. Olymp.

CCI.3, S and hearing, they hear not, neither do 16 But blessed are your eyes, for. they understand.

they see : and your ears, for they hear. 14 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of 17 For verily I say unto you, “That many Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, prophets and righteous men have desired to see and shall not understand ; and seeing ye shall || those things which ye see, and have not seen see, and shall not perceive :

them; and to hear those things which ye hear, 15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and have not heard them. and their ears bare dull of hearing, and their || 18 Hear ye therefore the parable of the eyes they have closed ; lest at any time they | sower. should see with their eyes, and hear with their | 19 When any one heareth the word of the ears, and should understand with their heart, || kingdom, and understandeth it not, then com

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* Isai. 6. 9. Ezek. 12. 2. Mark 4. 12. Luke 8. 10. John 12. 40. Acts

28. 26, 27. Rom. 11. 8. 2 Cor. 3. 14, 15. Hebr. 5. 11.

< Ch. 16. 17. Luke 10. 23, 24. John 20. 29.

10, 11.--Mark 4. 14. Luke 8. 11.

Hebr. 11. 13. 1 Pet. 1.

ch. 4. 23.

He had one small bed, six little pitchers, the ornament of a generally overlooked. The Evangelist means, that as these side-board ; a small jug or tankard, the image of a centaur, |words were fulfilled in the Jews in the time of the prophet and an old chest with some Greek books in it, on which the Isaiah, so they are now again fulfilled in these their posterity, mice had already begun to make depredations. And all this | who exactly copy their fathers' example. These awful words he lost ; probably by continuing, in spite of his destiny, to may be again fulfilled in us, if we take not warning by the be a poet. So those who devote not the light and power things which these disobedient people have suffered. which God has given them, to the purposes for which he has | Py hearing ye shall hear] Jesus Christ shall be sent to you, granted these gifts, from them shall be taken away these un- | his miracles ye shall fully see, and his doctrines ye shall disemployed or prostituted blessings. This seems to have been | tinctly hear, but God will not force you to receive the salvaa proverbial mode of speech, which our Lord bere uses to || tion which is offered. inform his disciples, that he who does not improve the first | Verse 15. Heart is wared gross] Encyurin, is become fat operations of grace, howsoever small, is in danger of losing -inattentive, stupid, insensible. They hear heavily with their · not only all the possible product, but even the principal; for ears-are half asleep while the salvation of God is preached God delights to heap benefits on those who properly improve unto them. them. See the note on Luke viii. 18.

Their eyes they have closed] Totally and obstinately resisted Verse 13. Therefore speak I to them in parables) On this |the truth of God, and shut their eyes against the light. account, viz. to lead them into a proper knowledge of God. Lestthey should see, &c.] Lest they should see their lost I speak to them in parables, natural representations of spirit-estate, and be obliged to turn unto God, and seek his salvaual truths, that they may be allured to enquire, and to find tion. His state is truly deplorable who is sick unto death, out the spirit, which is hidden under the letter; because see- and yet is afraid of being cured. The fault is here totally ing the miracles which I have wrought, they see not, i. e. the in the people, and not at all in that God, whose name is end for which I have wrought them : and hearing my doc- || mercy and whose nature is love. trines, they hear not, so as to profit by what is spoken; neither Verse 16. But blessed are your eyes] Ye improve the light do they understand, cud's outlovos, they do not lay their hearts which God has given you; and you receive an increase of to it. Is not this obviously our Lord's meaning? Who can heavenly wisdom by every miracle and by every sermon. suppose that he would employ his time in speaking enigma Verse 17. Many prophets and righteous men] These lived tically to them, on purpose that they might not understand by, and died in the faith of the promised Messiah : the fulwhat was spoken? Could the God of truth and sincerity act ness of the time was not then come for his manifestation in thus? If he had designed to act otherwise, he might have the flesh. See also on ver. 11. saved his time and labour, and not spoken at all, which | Verse 19. When any one heareth the word of the kingdom) would have answered the same end, viz. to leave them in Viz. the preaching of the gospel of Christ. gross ignorance.

11. And understandeth it not] Mn OUYlExtos, perhaps more prol'erse 14. In them is fulfilled] Arama nipoutas, Is again ful- perly, regardeth it not, does not lay his heart 10 it. filled : this proper meaning of the Greek word has been || The wicked one] O Toyngos, from Toros, labour, toil, he who..

not lay them; neither / mercy and ple, and noting cured." who i

Explanation of the


parable of the sower,

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A. M. 4031. eth the wicked one, and catcheth away | ariseth because of the word, by and A.M.4031. A. D. 27.

A.D. 197. A.1. Olymp. that which was sown in his heart. || by "he is offended.

• An. Olymp •8._ This is he which received seed by the 22 · He also that received seed_ch way side.

1 among the thorns, is he that heareth the word; 20 But he that received the seed into stony and the care of this world, and the deceitfulplaces, the same is he that heareth the word, ness of riches choke the word, and he becomand anon“ with joy receiveth it;

eth unfruitful. 21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth 23 But he that received seed into the good for a while : for when tribulation or persecution ground, is he that heareth the word, and under

* Isai. 58. 2. Ezek. 33. 31, 32. John 5. 33.

Ch. 11. 6. 2 Tim. 1. 15.

1 Tim. 6. 9.

sch. 19. 23. Mark 10. 93. Luke 18. 94. 2 Tim. 4. 10,-_ Jer. 4.3.

distresses and torments the soul. Mark, chap. iv. 15. calls || land ploughed, but not properly cleared and weeded. Is hehim ó catavas, the adversary or opposer, because he resists represents that person who heareth the word, but the cares, men in all their purposes of amendment, and to the utmost rather, the anxiety, n Megopya, the whole system of anxious of his power, opposes, in order to frustrate, the influences of carking cares. Lexicographers derive the word megspeva from divine grace upon the heart. In the parallel place in Luke, Msgo SEDY TOY youv, dividing, or distracting the mind. Thus a chap. viii. 12. he is called ó doaßoros, the devil, from diaban- || poet, dely, to shoot, or dart through. In allusion to this meaning of Tot me impediunt curæ, quæ meum animum divorsè trahunt. the name, St. Paul, Eph. vi. 16. speaks of the fiery Darts of “ So many cares hinder me, which draw my mind different the wicked one. It is worthy of remark, that the three Evan- ways.” Terence. gelists should use each a different appellative of this mortal The deceitfulness of riches] Which promise peace and pleaenemy of mankind; probably to shew, that the devil, with sure, but can never give them. all his powers and properties, opposes every thing that tends Choke the word] Or, together choke the word, cuptuys, to the salvation of the soul.

meaning, either that these grow up together with the word, Catcheth away] Makes the utmost haste to pick up the overtop, and choke it; or that these united together, viz. good seed, lest it should take root in the heart.

carking worldly cares, with the delusive hopes and promises A careless inattentive hearer is compared to the way side- 1 of riches, cause the man to abandon the great concerns of his heart is an open road, where evil affections, and foolish his soul, and seek in their place, what he shall eat, drink, and hurtful desires continually pass and repass without either and wherewithal he shall be clothed. Dreadful stupidity of notice or restraint. “ A heart where Satan has," (as one man, thus to barter spiritual for temporal good—a heavenly terms it) “ ingress, egress, regress, and progress : in a word, inheritance for an earthly portion! The seed of the kingthe devil's thoroughfare."

dom can never produce much fruit in any heart, till the Verse 20. But he that received the seed into stony placos-is thorns and thistles of vicious affections and impure desires ke] That is, is a fit emblain of that man, who hearing the be plucked up by the roots and burned. The Persic transgospel, is affected with its beauty and excellency, and immediately receiveth it with joy-is glad to hear what God has | kund, chokes the root of the word : for it appears the seed had done to make man happy.

taken root, and that these cares, &c. choked it in the root, Verse 21. Yet hath he not root in himself] His soul is not before even the blade could shew itself. deeply convinced of its guilt and depravity ; the fallow | Verse 23. Good ground] That which had depth of mould, ground is not properly ploughed up, nor the rock broken. was well ploughed, and well weeded. When persecution, &c. ariseth, which he did not expect, he is Is he that heureth] Who diligently attends the ministry of soon stumbled-seeks some pretext to abandon both the doc- the word. trine and followers of Christ. Having not felt his own sore, And understandeth it] Lays the subject to heart, deeply and the plague of his heart, he has not properly discovered | weighing its nature, design, and importance. that this salvation is the only remedy for his soul-thus he | Which also beareth fruit] His fruitfulness being an alhas no motive in bis heart, strong enough to counteract the most necessary consequence of his thus laying the divine outward scandal of the cross--so he endureth only for the message to heart. Let it be observed, that to hear, to undertime, in which there is no difficulty to encounter, no cross stand, and to bring forth fruit, are the three grand evidences to bear.

of a genuine believer. He who does not hear the word of Verse 22. He also that received seed among the thorns) In wisdom, cannot understand what makes for his peace; and

ashe kalmera khube اصل کلمه را خبه کند lator renders it |

Parable of the


wheat and the tares.

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A. M.4031. standeth it; which also beareth fruit, || 25 But while men slept, his enemy A. M.4031. A.D. 27.

A. D. 27. An. Olymp. and bringeth forth, a some a hundred- came and sowed o tares among the An. Olymp.

CCI. 3. fold, some sixty, some thirty. wheat, and went his way. 24 T Another parable put he forth unto them, 26 But when the blade was sprung up, and saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares a man which sowed good seed in his field : also.


Gen. 26. 12. John 15. 4, 5, 8. Gal. 5. 22. —

Mark 4. 26.

Deut. 22. 9. Isai. 56. 9, 10. Wisd. 2, 21. 1 Tim. 4. 2.

he who does not understand what the gospel requires him to whose hearts are not right with God. He who sows this basbe and to perform, cannot bring forth fruit; and he who is tard whent among God's people, is here stiled God's enemy : not fruitful, very fruitful, cannot be a disciple of Christ : see and he may be considered also as a sower of them, who permits John xy. 8. and he who is not Christ's disciple, cannot enter them to be sown and to spring up through his negligence. into the kingdom of God.

Woe to the indolent pastors, who permit the souls under their From the different portions of fruit produced by the good || care, to be corrupted by error or sin! ground, a hundred, sixty, and thirty, we may learn, that all The word befana zizania, which is here translated tares, sound believers are not equally fruitful—all hear, understand, || and which should rather be translated bastard or degenernte and bring forth fruit, but not in the same degrees occasion- wheat, is found in no Greek writer : even those who have ed partly, by their situation and circumstances not allowing written expressly on botany and agriculture, have neither it, them such extensive opportunities of receiving and doing nor any thing like it. It is a Chaldee word, and its meaning good; and partly, by lack of mental capacity-for every must be sought in the Rabbinical writers. In a treatise in mind is not equally improvable.

the Mishna called Keluyim, which treats expressly on differLet it be farther observed, that the unfruitfulness of the ent kinds of seeds, the word '39 zunim, or 1917 sunin, is different lands was not owing to bad seed or an unskilful | used for bastard or degenerated wheat : that which was wholly $ower-the same sower sows the same seed in all, and with the || a right seed in the beginning, but afterwards became degenesame gracious design-but it is unfruitful in many, because rate—the ear not being so large, nor the grains in such quanthey are careless, inattentive, and worldly minded.

tity as formerly, nor the corn so good in quality. In Psal. But is not the ground naturally bad in every heart? Un- || cxliv. 13. the words in s yy mizzan al zan, are translated, doubtedly. And can any but God make it good ? None. | all manner of store ; but they properly signify, from species But it is your business, when you hear of the justice and to species : might not the Chaldee word 79317 zunin, and the mercy of God, to implore him to work in "you that which is Greek word fara zizania, come from the Psalmist's jy3]. zanpleasing in his sight. No man shall be condemned because | zan, which might have signified a mixture of grain of any he did not change his own heart, but because he did not cry kind, and be here used to point out the mixing bastard or to God to change it; who gave him his Holy Spirit for this degenerate wheat, among good seed wheat ? The Persic very purpose; and which he, by his worldly mindedness and translator renders it tila glö telkl daneh, bitter grain, but it impiety, quenched. Whoso huth ears to hear, let him hear : seems to signify merely degenerate wheat. This interpretation and may the Lord save the Reader from an impenitent and throws much light on the scope and design of the whole pasunfruitful heart !

sage. Christ seems to refer first, to the origin of evil God Verse 24. The kingdom of heaven] God's method of man sowed good seed in his field; made man in his own image, aging the affairs of the world, and the concerns of his and likeness :--but the enemy, the devil, (ver. 39.) corrupted church.

this good seed, and caused it to degenerate. Secondly, he Is likened unto u nian which sowed good seed in his field] In seems to refer to the state of the Jewish people : God had general, the world may be termed the field of God; and in sowed them at first, wholly a right seed, but now they were particular, those who profess to believe in God through become utterly degenerate, and about to be plucked up and Christ, are his field or farm; among whom God sows nothing destroyed by the Roman armies, which were the angels or but the pure unadulterated word of his truth.

messengers of God's justice, whom he had commissioned to Verse 25. But while men slept] When the professors were sweep these rebellious people from the face of the land. lukewarm, and the pastors indolent; his enemy came and sow-|| Thirdly, he seems to refer also to the state in which the ed tares, degenerate or bastard wheat. The righteous and the world shall be found, when he comes to judge it. The rightwicked are often mingled in the visible church. Every Chris eous and the wicked shall be permitted to grow together, tian society, how pure soever its principles may be, has its till God comes to make a full and final separation. busturd wheat those who bear a resemblance to the good, but | Verse 26. When the blade was sprung upthen appeared the

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