« הקודםהמשך »
men by their conduct, 33–37. Jonah a sign of Christ's death and resurrection, 38–40. The men of Nineveh. and the queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment against the Jews, 41, 42. Of the unclean spirit, 43-45. Christ's mother and brethren seek him, 46—50.
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A. D. 27.
A T that time Jesus went on the unto him, Behold, thy disciples do A. M. 4031.
A. 1). 27. An. Olymp. Il sabbath day through the corn ; |that which is not lawful to do upon An. Olymp.
CCI. 3. - and his disciples were an-hungred, || the sabbath day. , and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to 3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read
ll what David did, when he was an-hungred, 2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said || and they that were with him;
* Deut. 23. 25. Mark 2.23. Luke 6. 1.
o 1 Sam. 21. 6.
NOTES ON CHAP. XII.
I putov, the first sabbath after the second day of the Pass-over. Verse 1. At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through || This is deu tepod gutsedy, the secoud sabbath after that second the corn) “ The time is determined by Luke in these day. And so of the rest. In the Jerusalem Talmud, the words, a 5-662.TW devoteotiguow, that is, on the sabbath from word f ound now shebeth protogamiya, the sabbath, pwa the second-first. .
Tayopubels, of the first marriage, is a composition not very un" 1. Provision was made by the divine Law, that the sheaf like.” Lightfoot. of first-fruits should be offered on the second day of the Pass- His disciples were un-hungred] Were hungry. The former over week, Lecit. xxiii. 10, 11. On the morrow after the is a mode of expression totally obsolete. How near does the sabbath, the priest shall shake (or wave) it. Not on the mor translation of this verse come to our ancient mother-tongue, row after the ordinary sabbath of the week, but the morrow || the Anglo-Saxon! Se pælend for on herze-dæz ofen æcrar. after the first of the Pass-over week, which was a sabbatic sodlice hýs leonnmg-cnihtar hingnede. and big ongunnun day, Exod. xii. 16. Levit. xxiii. 7. Hence the seventy, pluccian þa ear and etan- The Healer went on rest-day over ezaugsco ons afwins, the morrow of the first day; the Chaldee, acres : truly his learning knights hungred, and they began to the morrow after the holy day. The Rabbins, Solomon and pluck the ear and caten. We may well wonder at the extreme Menachen, have it, On the morrow after the first day of the poverty of Christ and his disciples. He was himself present Pass-over feast; of which mention had been made in the with them, and yet permitted them to lack bread! A man, verses foregoing.
therefore, is not forsaken of God because he is in want. It “ But now, from the second day of the Pass-over so- |is more honourable to suffer the want of all temporal things lemnity, wherein the sheaf was offered, were numbered seven || in fellowship with Christ and his followers, than to have all weeks to Pentecost : for the day of the sheaf, and the day of things in abundance in connexion with the world. Pentecost, did mutually respect each other; for on this second 1 Verse 2. Thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do] The day of the Pass-over, the offering of the sheaf was suppli Jews were so superstitious concerning the observation of the catory, and by way of prayer, beseeching a blessing upon | sabbath, that in their wars with Antiochus Epiphanes, and the the new corn, and leave to eat it, and to put in the sickle into | Romuns, they thought it a crime even to attempt to defend the standing corn. Now, the offering of the first-fruit loaves, themselves on the sabbath : when their enemies observed this, on the day of Pentecost, (Levit. xxiii. 15, 16, 17.) did respect they deferred their operations to that day. It was through the giving of thanks for the finishing and housing of the barley- || this, that Pompey was cnabled to take Jerusalem. Dion Cass. harvest. Therefore, in regard of this relation, these two | lib. xxxvi. solemnities were linked together, that both might respect the Those who know not the spirit and design of the divine harvest ; that, the harvest beginning; this, the barvest end- || Law, are often superstitious to inhumanity, and indulgent to ed: this depended on that, and was numbered seven weeks | impiety. An intolerant and censorious spirit in religion, is after it. Therefore, the computation of the time coming || one of the greatest curses a man can well fall under. between, could not but carry with it the memory of that | Verse 3, 4. Ilave ye not read what David did] The original second day of the Pass-over week; and hence Pentecost is history is in 1 Sam. xxi. 1-6. called the feast of weeks, Deut. xvi. 10. The true calculation When he was an-hungred] Here hearken to Kimchi proof the time between, could not otherwise be retained, as to || ducing the opinion of the ancients concerning this story in sabbaths, but by numbering mus: this is oublatoOru Tigo- ll these words : “ Our Rabbins of blessed memory say, that he Our Lord vindicates their conduct,
because they were without food.
A. M. 4031. 4. How he entered into the house of | 8 For the Son of man is Lord e
en A. M. 4051. A. D. 27.
A. D. 27. An. Olymp. God, and did eat the shew-bread, | of the 'sabbath day.
An. Olymp. . CCK3.
CCL. 3. - which was not lawful for him to eat, 9 q' And when he was departed neither for them which were with him, but only || thence, he went into their synagogue: for the priests?
| 10 And, behold, there was a man which had 5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that his hand withered. And they asked him, sayon the sabbath days, the priests in the temple ing, 8 Is it. lawful to heal on the sabbath days? profane the sabbath, and are blameless ?
that they might accuse him.. 6 But I say unto you, That in this place, is 11 And he said unto them, What man shall done greater than the temple. .
there be among you, that shall have one sheep, 7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, || and "if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will 'I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? not have condemned the guiltless.
12 How much then is a man better than a
en from before the
enery loaf which is l by God; and this
gate him the shew-bread, &c. The interpretation also of the Verse 6. In this place, is one greater than the temple.] Does clause, Yea, though it were sanctified this day in the vessel, is || not our Lord refer here to Mal, jii. 1.? Confer this with this: It is a small thing to say, that it is lawful for us to eat Heb. jii. 3. The Jews esteemed nothing greater than the THESE LOAVES taken from before the Lord, when we are | Temple, except that God who was worshipped in it. Christ, hungry; for it would be lawful to ent this very loaf which is | by asserting he was greater than the temple, asserts that he now set on, which is also sanctified in the vessel, (for the table was God; and this he does, in still more direct terms, ver. 8. sanctifieth) it would be lawful to eat even this, when another | The Son of man is Lord of the sabbath-is Institutor and Goloaf is not present with you to give us, and we are so hunger- l vernor of it. Compare this with Gen. ii. 3. and see the notes bitten. And a little after, There is nothing which may hinder there. taking care of life, beside idolatry, adultery, and murder. Verse 7. I will have mercy, &c.] See this explained, ch. ix. That is, a man, according to them, should do any thing but || 13. There are four ways in which positive laws may cease these, in order to preserve life.” Sec Lightfoot.
to oblige. He entered into the house of God] Viz. the house of Ahi-|| First, by the natural law of necessity. melech the priest, who dwelt at Nob, with whom the taber Secondly, by a particular law, which is superior. nacle then was, in which the divine presence was mani Thirdly, by the law of charity and mercy. fested.
Fourthly, by the dispensation and authority of the Lawgirer. And did eat the shew-bread] Tous optous ons megadeiw;-in These cases are all exemplified from verse 4 to verse 8. Hebrew, S30 SAS lechem panim—bread of the presence, or Verse 8. The Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.) faces, because this bread was to be : et continually, in 1983 The change of the Jewish into the Christian sabbath, called the lipney Yehovuh, before the face of Jihovah. See the notes on Lord's day, Rev. i. 10. shews that Christ is not only the Lord, Exod. xxv. 23. and 30.
Il but also the truth and completion of it. For it seems to have “ Since part of the frankincense put in the bread was to been by an especial providence that this · change has been be burnt on the altar for a memorial, Lev. xxiv. 7. and since made, and acknowledged all over the Christian world. . Aaron and his sons were to eat it in the holy place, it is | Verse 10. A man which had his hand withered.] Probably evident that this bread typified Christ, first presented as a through a partial paralysis. The man's band was withered ; sacrifice to, or in the presence of Jehovah, and then becom- || but God's mercy had still preserved to him the use of his feet; ing spiritual food to such as, in and through him, are spi- || he uses them to bring him to the public worship of God, and ritual priests to God. See Rev. i, 6. v. 10. xx. 6. also 1 Pet. Jesus meets and heals him there. How true is the proverb ij. 5." Parkhurst.
It is never so ill with us, but it might be much worse. Verse 5. The priests—profune the sabbath] Profane, i. e. Verse 1l. If it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, &c.] It put it to what might be called a common use, by slaying and was a canon among the Jews; “ We must take a tender care offering up sacrifices, and by doing the services of the temple, l of the goods of an Israelite. Hence, as on common days, Exod. xxix. 38. Numb. xxviii. 9.
" If a beast fall into a ditch, or into a pool of water, let
The man with the
withered hand healed.
A. M, 1031. sheep? Wherefore, it is lawful to do 15 But when Jesus knew it, he A. M. 4031. An. Olymp. well on the sabbath days.
Il withdrew himself from thence : d and An. Olymp.
CCI. 3. - 13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch | great multitudes followed him, and forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; || he healed them all; . and it was restored whole, 'like as the other. 16 And ‘charged them that they should not
14 Then the Pharisees went out, and make him known: "held a council against him, how they might|| 17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken destroy him.
by Esaias the prophet, saying,
(the owner) bring him food in that place if he can; but if he || Lence of the living God would have, in a moment, restored cannot, let him bring clothes and litter, and bear up the beast ; | this withered hand? There could be no collusion here; the whence, if he can come up, let him come up, &c." I man who had a real disease, was instantaneously, and there
“ If a heast or its foal fall into a ditch on a holy day, R. fore miraculously cured; and the mercy and power of God Lazar saith, let him lift up the former to kill him, and let him || were both amply manifested in this business. kill him, but let him give fodder to the other lest he die in that It is worthy of remark, that as the man was healed with a place. R. Joshuah saith. let him lift up the former with the || word, without even a touch, the sabbath was unbroken, even intention of killing him, although he kill him not; let him according to their most rigid interpretation of the letter of the lift up the other also, although it be not in his mind to kill Law. him.” To these cauons our Lord seems here very properly
U Verse 14. Held a council against him] Nothing sooner leads to appeal, iv vindication of his intention to heal the distressed to utter blindness, and hardness of heart than ency. There man. See Lightfoot.
| are many who abandon themselves to pleasure tuking and deSelf-interest is a very decisive casuist, and removes abund- || bauchery on the sabbath, who condemn a poor man, whom ance of scruples in a moment. It is always the first consulted, || necessity obliges to work on what is termed a holiday, or a na. and the most readily obeyed. It is not sinful to hearken to it, tional fast. but it must not govern nor determine by itself. .
1 - Verse 15. Jesus—withdrew kimself from thence) It is the Verse 12. How much then is a man better than a sheep?] Our || part of prudence and christian cbarity, not to provoke, if Lord's argument is what is called argumentum ad hominem : | possible, the blind and the hardened ; and to take from them they are taken on their own ground, and confuted on their the occasion of sin. A man of God is not afraid of persecuown maxims and conduct. There are many persons who call tion; but as his aim is only to do good, by proclaiming, every themselves christians, who do more for a beast of burden or || where, the grace of the Lord Jesus, he departs from any pleasure than they do for a man for whom Christ died! Many | place, when he finds the obstacles to the accomplishment of his. spend that on coursers, spaniels, and hounds, of which multi- end are, humanly speaking, invincible; and that he cannot do tudes of the followers of Christ are destitute :--but this also I good without being the means of much evil. Yield to the shall come to judgment. .
stream when you cannot stem it. Wherefore, it is lawful to do well, &c.] This was allowed by Il Greul multitudes followed him, and he healed them all] The a multitude of Jewish canons. See Schoetgen.
rejection of the gospel in one place has often been the mean of Verse 13. Stretch forth thine hand.] The bare command of sending it to, and establishing it in another. Jesus healed all God is a sufficient reason of obedience. This man inight have || that followed him, i. e. all who had need of healing, and who reasoned thus, “ Lord, my hand is withered, how then can I || desired to be healed: for thus the passage must be understood ;--stretch it out? Make it whole first, and afterwards I will do || and is he not still the same? No soul shall ever implore his as thou commandest.” This may appear reasonable, but in || healing power in vain; but let it be remembered, that only his case it would have been foolishness. At the command of those who follow Christ, and apply to him, are healed of their the Lord he made the effort, and in making it the core was || spiritual maladies. .
. effected! Faith disregards apparent impossibilities, where I Verse 16. Charged them that they should not make him there is a command and promise of God. The effort to be- || known] Sce chap. 8. 4. Jesus Christ, as God, could have ea. heve, is, often, that faith by wbich the soul is healed. sily concealed himself, but he chooses to do it as man, and to
A little before (verses 6 and 8.) Jesus Christ had asserted his || use no other than human means, as these were quite sufficient Godhead, in this verse le proves it. What but the oninipo- || for the purpose, to teach us not to neglect them in our neces
Make it whis may appear are the comma
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Prophecies fulfilled in Christ.
The Jews blaspheme, A, 11:4031. 18 * Behold my servant, whom 1 | 22 | Then was brought unto him 4. M. 4031, An. Olymp. have chosen; my beloved, "in whom one possessed with a devil, blind, and An. Olymp.
on my soul is well pleased : I will put my | dumb: and he healed him, insomuch spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to that the blind and dumb both spake and saw. the Gentiles.
| 23 And all the people were amazed, and said, 19 He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall | Is not this the son of David? my man hear his voice in the streets.
|| 24 | " But when the Pharisees heard it, they 20 A bruised reed shall he not break, and said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send by · Beelzebub the prince of the devils. forth judgment unto victory.
25 And Jesus 'knew their thoughts, and said 21 And in his name shall the Gentiles trust. unto them, Every kingdom divided against
sity. Indeed he always used his power less on his own account, sires must not be stifled, but encouraged. The bruised reed than on that of men.
may recover itself, if permitted to vegetate under the genial Verse 18. Behold my serrant] This title was given to our influences of heaven, and the life and light of the expiring lamp blessed Lord in several prophecies. See Isa. xlii. 1. liii. 2. may be supported by the addition of fresh oil. Jesus therefore Christ assumes it, Psal. xl. 7-9. compare these with John quenches not faint desires after salvation, even in the worst xvii. 4. and Phil. ii. 7. God required an acceptable and perfect and most undeserving of men : for even such desires may lead service from man; but man being sinful, could not perform to the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of peace. it. Jesus taking upon him the nature of man, fully performed l Judgment unto victory.] See ver. 18. By judgment, underthe whole will of God, and communicates grace to all his fol- || stand the gospel, and by victory, its complete triumph over lowers, to enable them perfectly to love, and worthily to mag- Jewish opposition, and Gentile impiety. Ile will continue by nify their maker.
these mild and gentle means to work till the whole world is And he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles.] That is, He will christianized, and the universe filled with his glory. publish the gospel to the heathens, for the word resou, here Il Verse 21. And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.) EXTOUGI, answers to the word woon mishpat of the prophet, and it is they shall hope. Jesus Christ is the sole hope and trust of manused among the Hebrews to signify laws, precepts, and a kind; to trust and hope in his name Jesus, is to expect salvawhole system or body of doctrine. See Psal. xix. 19, cxix. 30, tion and all things necessary from him alone, to despise, come 39. Isa. lviii. 2.
paratively, all earthly promises, to esteem, love, and desire Verse 19. He shall not strive, nor cry] The spirit of Christ heavenly things only, and to bear with patience and tranquillity is not a spirit of contention, murmuring, clamour, or litigi- all the losses and evils of this life, upon the prospect and hope ousness. He who loves these does not belong to him. Christ of that felicity which he has purchased for us. therefore fulfilled a prophecy by withdrawing from this place, Verse 22. One possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb) A on account of the rage of the Pharisees.
I person from whom the indwelling demon took away both light Verse 20. A bruised reed shall he not break] A reed is, in and hearing. Satan makes himself master of the heart, the Scripture, the emblem of weakness, Ezek. xxix. 6. and a bruised | eyes, and the tongue of the sinner. His heart he fills with the reed must signify that state of weakness that borders on disso- | love of sin; his eyes he blinds that he may not see his guilt, lution and death.
and the perdition which awaits him; and his tongne he hinders And smoking flax shall he not quench] Asoy tu pourvoy. Anyos from prayer and supplication though he gives it increasing limeans the wick of a lamp, and Tu@que Evor is intended to point outberty in blasphemies, lies, sļanders, &c. None but Jesus can its erpiring state, when the oil has been all burnt away from it, redeem from this threefold captivity. and nothing is left but a mere snuff, emitting smoke. Some Verse 23. Is not this the son of David ?) is not this the suppose the Jewish state, as to ecclesiastical matters, is here true Messiah? Do not these miracles sufficiently prove it? See intended, the prophecy declaring that Christ would not de- Isai. xxxv. 5. stroy it, but leave it to expire of itself, as it already contained Verse 24. Beelzebub] See chap. x. 25. the principles of its own destruction. Others have considered Verse 25. Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to it as implying that great tenderness with which the blessed desolation] Our Lord's argument runs thus, “ The welfare of Jesus should treat the weak and the ignorant, whose good de- any kingdom, city, or family depends on its concord and una
A, M1. 4031. itself is brought to desolation ; and || 28 But if I cast out devils by the A. N, 9491.
A. D. 27.
CCI. 3. itself shall not stand :
God is come unto you. 26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is di- || 29 Or else how can one enter into a strong vided against himself; how shall then his king- man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first dom stand ?
bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his 27 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by house. whom do your children cast them out ? therefore || 30 He that is not with me is against me; and, they shall be your judges.
he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.
· Dan. 2. 44. & 7. 14. Luke 1. 33. & 11. 20. & 17. 20, 21.
6 Isai. 49. 24. Luke 11. 21, 22, 23.
nimity: Satan, like every other potentate, must wish to rule Perhaps the Spirit of God is, here mentioned by way of oppohis empire in peace and security; how then can he be in league Il sition to the magical incantations of the Jews; for it is well with me who oppose his authority, and am destroying his known that, by fumigations and in
known that, by fumigations and magical washings, they kingdom ?”.
professed to cast out devils. See a case mentioned by Scho. The reasoning of the Pharisees, ver. 24. was not expressed, | etgen on this verse. and Jesus knowing their thoughts, gave them ample proof of | Then the kingdom of God] For the destruction of the kinghis omniscience. This with our Lord's masterly confutation of || dom of Satan plainly implies the setting up of the kingdom of their reasonings; by a conclusion drawn from their own pre || God. mises, one would have supposed might have humbled and con- Is come unto you.] Is come unexpectedly upon you. E booty, vinced these men; but the most conclusive reasoning, and the || from phow, to appear suddenly-unexpectedly. most astonishing miracles were lost upon a people who were. They pretended to be in expectation of the kingdom of God, obstinately determined to disbelieve every thing good, relative and consequently of the destruction of the kingdom of Satan. to Christ. How true the saying; lle came unto his own, and But by being not prepared to receive Christ in these proofs of his own receired him not !
| his divine mission, they shewed that their expectation was but Verse 26. If Satan cast out Satan] A good cause will pro Il pretended. They were too carnal to mind spiritual things. duce a good effect, and an evil cause an eril effect. Were Il Verse 29. Else how can one enter into a strong man's house) on Satan's side, I would act for his interest, and confirm his in- || Men, through sin, are become the very house and dwellingfluence among you; but I oppose his maxims by my doctrine, place of Satan; having, of their own accord, surrendered and his influence by my power.
themselves to this unjust possessor; for whoever gives up his Verse 27. By whom do your children cast them out?l soul to sin, gives it up to the Devil. It is Jesus, and Jesus Children, or sons of the prophets, means the disciples of the || alone who can deliver from the power of this bondage. When prophets; and children or sons of the Pharisees, disciples of Satan is cast out, Jesus purifies and dwells in the heart. the Phurisees. From Acts xix. 13, 14. it is evident there were Verse 30. Ile that is not with me is against me] In vain to erorcists among the Jews, and, from our Lord's saying here, men seek for methods to reconcile God and Mammon. There it is also evident that the disciples of the Pharisees did cast out is no medium between loving the Lord and being his enemy; demons, or at least, those who educated them wished to have between belonging to Christ or to Satan. If we be on the it believed that they had such a power. Our Lord's argument side of the Devil, we must expect to go to the Devil's hell; if here is extremely conclusive : If the man who casts out de- || we be on the side of Christ, we may expect to go to his mons, proves himself thereby to be in league with, and in- || heaven. When Christ, his truth, and bis servants are asfluenced by Satan, then your disciples, and you who taught saulted, he who does not espouse their cause, is not on Christ's them, are all of you in league with the Devil: ye must either side, but incurs the guilt of deserting and betraying them. give up your assertion, that I cast out dæmons by Beelzebul, There are many (it is to be feared) in the world who are really or else admit this conclusion in its fullest force and latitude, ll against Christ, and scatter abroad, who flatter themselves that that ye are all children of the devil, and leagued with him | they are workers together with him, and of the number of against God.
his friends! Envy causes persons often to condemn in one, what they ap- | Scattereth abroad.] This seems to have been a proverbial prove in another.
form of speech, and may be a metaphor taken from shepherds. Verse 28. But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God] || He who does not help the true shepherd to gather his flock