« הקודםהמשך »
The system of the Pharisees
inconsistent with Christianity.
A. M. 4031. John, saying, "Why do we and the unto an old garment, for that which A. M.4031.
A. D. 27.
the garment, and the rent is made 15 And Jesus said unto them, Can the chil- |worse. dren of the bride-chamber mourn, as long as the 17 Neither do men put new wine into old bride-groom is with them? but the days will bottles : else the bottles break, and the wine come, when the bride-groom shall be taken runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they from them, and “then shall they fast.
put new wine into new bottles, and both are 16 No man putteth a piece of 'new cloth preserved.
. Verse 15. Can the children of the bride-chamber] Nupowvos. HOURS ; and this absurdity continues in some Christian Or, you clov, bride-groom, as the Cod. Bezæ and several Versions churches to the present day. For more on fasting, see chap. have it. These persons were the companions of the bride- || vi. 16. groom, who accompanied him to the house of his father-in- || Verse 10. No man putteth a piece of new cloth] Oudes de law when he went to bring the bride to his own home. | ETICanae$706anpa goxous ayvos pou et quatiw nadawa. No man The marriage-feast, among the Jews, lasted seven days; but putteth a patch of unscoured cloth upon an old garment. This the new married woman was considered to be a bride for I is the most literal translation I can give of this verse, to thirty days. Marriage feasts were times of extraordinary || convey its meaning to those who cannot consult the original. festivity, and even of riot, among several people of the East. Paxos ayyaQoy is that cloth which has not been scoured, or
When the bride-groom shall be taken from them, &c.] There was | which has not passed under the hand of the fuller, who is only one annual fast observed in the primitive church, called called yva Deus in Greek: and m anuaa signifies a piece put by our ancestors, lenczen-færten, the spring fast; and by us, | on, or what we commonly term a patch. Lent: by the Greeks teroigaxorn, and by the Latins, Quadri | It-taketh from the garment] Instead of closing up the gessima. This fast is pretended to be kept by many in the rent, it makes a larger, by tearing away with it the whole present day, in commemoration of our Lord's forty days fast breadth of the cloth, over which it was laid ; angel gove to in the wilderness; but it does not appear that, in the purest Tangwuas autou—it taketh its fulness or whole breadth from ages of the primitive church, genuine Christians ever pretended the garment; this I am persuaded is the meaning of the that their quadrigessimal fast was kept for the above purpose. original, well expressed by the Latin, or Itala of the c. Their fast was kept merely to commemorate the time during || BEZÆ, Tollit enim plenitudo ejus de vestimento. “ It takes which Jesus Christ lay under the power of death ; which was away its fulness from the garment.” about FORTY HOURS: and it was in this sense they understood | Verse 17. New wine into old bottles] It is still the custom, the words of this text : the days will come, &c. with thein, |in the eastern countries, to make their bottles of gout-skins ; the bride-groom meant Christ; the time in which he was taken if these happened to be old, and new wine were put into away, his crucifixion, death, and the time he lay in the them, the violence of the fermentation must necessarily burst grave. Suppose him dying about 12 o'clock on what is |them, and therefore newly made bottles were employed for called Friday, and that he rose about four on the morning of the purpose of putting that wine in, which had not yet gone his own day (St. John says, Early, while it was yet dark, through its state of fermentation. The Institutes of Christ, chap. xx. 1.) the interim makes forty hours, which was the and those of the Pharisees, could never be brought to accord: true primitive Lent, or quadrigessimal fast. It is true that an attempt to combine the two systems, would be as absurd many in the primitive church were not agreed on this as it would be destructive. The old covenant made way subject, as Socrates in his Church History, book v. chap. 22, for the new, which was its completion and its end: but with says, “ Some thought they should fast one day; others two ; || that old covenant, the new cannot be incorporated. others more."-Different churches also were divided concern Christian prudence requires that the weak, and newly ing the length of the time; some keeping it three, others five, || converted, should be managed with care and tenderness. and others seven weeks : and the historian himself is puzzled To impose such duties and mortifications as are not absolutely to know why they all agreed in calling these fasts, differing necessary to salvation, before God has properly prepared so much in their duration, by the name of Quadrigessima, or the heart by his grace for them, is a conduct as absurd and forty days fast: the plain obvious reason appears to me to ruinous as putting a piece of raw. unscoured cloth on an have been simply this: They put days in the place of old garment; it is, in a word, requiring the person to do
The roman with
the issue of blood healed.
A. M. 4631. 18 While he spake these things | 20 | And, behold, a woman which !
A, D. 17.
CCL. 3. in ruler, and worshipped him, say-! twelve years, came behind him, and ing, My daughter is even now dead: but come touched the hem of his garment: and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. \ 21 For she said within herself, If I may but
19 And Jesus arose, and followed him, and touch his garment, I shall be whole. so did his disciples.
22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he
the work of a man, while as yet he is but a little child. | vants of God, through which, heavenly influences were conPreachers of the gospel, and especially those who are instru- | veyed to the bodies and souls of men. This rite is still used ments in God's hand, of many conversions, have need of || in certain Churches; but as there is no Holy Ghost commuch heavenly wisdom, that they may know to watch over, municated by it, some suppose it may be as well omitted. guide, and advise those who are brought to a sense of their | But why is this? Is it not because there is an unfaithfulsin and danger. Ilow many auspicious beginnings have ness in the person who lays on hands, or an unfitness been ruined by men's proceeding too hastily, endeavouring to in himn on whom they are laid? Let the rite be restored to make their own designs take place, and to have the honour its primitive simplicity, and God will own it as he formerof that success themselves, which is due only to God. ll ly did. But however this may be, where is the man or
Verse 18. A certuin ruler] There were two officers in the number of men who have authority to abrogate a rite of synagogue, no33n 717 chasan ha-ceneseth, the bishop or over- | God's own appointment? In the appointment of men to seer of the congregation; and 70327 0XT rosh ha-ceneseth, the the sacred ministry it should never be omitted : even in head or ruler of the congregation. The Chazan takes the these degenerate days, it may still serve as a sign of the new book of the Law, and gives it to Rosh or ruler; and he ap- cessity of the gifts and graces of that Holy Spirit, without points who shall read the different sections, &c. Jairus, who | which no man can fulfil the work of the ministry, or be the is the person intended here, was in this latter sense, the ruler instrument of saving the souls of them that hear him. or governor of one of the synagogues, probably at Caper- || When the inventions of men are put in the place of the ordiHaum. See Mark v. 22. Luke viii. 41.
- l nances of God, the true Church of Christ is in great danger. My daughler is eren now dead] Or, my daughter was just | Verse 19. Jesus arose, and followed him] Our blessed Lord now dying; CETS ETEN!UTNJEV, or, is by this time deud: i.e. as could have acted as well at a distunce, as present; but he goes Mr. Wakefield properly observes, She was so ill when I left | to the place, to teach his ministers not to spare either their home, that she must be dead by this time. This turn of the 1 steps or their pains when the salvation of a soul is in quesexpression reconciles the account given here, with that in ' tion. Let them not think it sufficient to pray for the sick in Mark and Luke. Michaelis conjectures, that in the Hebrew their closets; but let them go to their bed-sides, that they original, the words must have stood thus, on any atah ma- may instruct and comfort them. He can have little unction tah; which without the points, may signify either She is in private, who does not also give himself up to public duties. dead, or She is dying.
Verse 20. A woman which was diseased with an issue of To be successful in our applications to God by prayer, blood] Tuyn aivojpouca. Mulier sanguinis profluvio laborans. four things are requisite, and this ruler teaches us what Significatur hoc loco, flurus muliebris, in sanis, menstruus ; they are.
in hac, perpetuus. It would be easy to explain the nature First, A man should place himself in the presence of and properties of the disease here mentioned; but when it God he came unto him.
is said, that prudence forbids it, the intimation itself may Secondly, He should humble himself sincerely before God be thought sufficiently explanatory of the disorder in ques-he fell doun before him--at his feet. Mark v. 22.
tion. There are some remarkable circumstances relative to Thirdly, He should lay open his wants with a holy ear- || this case, mentioned by St. Mark, chap. v. 25, &c. which niestness—he besought him greatly. Mark v. 23.
shall be properly noticed in the notes on that place. Fourthly, He should have unbounded confidence in the IL The hem of his garment] The Duy's tsitsith, or fringes, power and goodness of Christ that his request shall be which the Jews were commanded to wear on their garments. yranted-put thy hand upon her, und she shall live. He who See Num. xv. 38. and the note there. comes in this way, to God for salvation, is sure to be heard. Verse 21. She said within herself, If I may but touch his Imposition of hands was a rite anciently used by the ser- l garment] Her disorder was of that delicate nature, that
shall be while hem
a rite salvation, ishall live
The ruler's daughter
raised from the dead.
A. M. 4031. saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good | house, and saw the minstrels and the A. M. 4031.
An. Olymp. CCT.. whole. And the woman was made 24 He said unto them, "Give place:
CCI. 3. whole from that hour.
for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And 23 And when Jesus came into the ruler's they laughed him to scorn.
modesty forbad her to make any public acknowledgment bards and croteries prepared the caoinan. The chief bard of it: and therefore she endeavoured to transact the whole of the head chorus, began by singing the first stanza in a business in private. Besides, the touch of such a person, was low doleful tone; which was softly accompanied by the reputed unclean. By faith in Christ Jesus, little things are harp. At the conclusion, the foot semichorus began the laoften rendered efficacious to our salvation. What more sim- || mentation or ULLALOO, from the final note of the preceding ple than a morsel of bread, and a few drops of wine, in the stanza, in which they were answered by the head semichoLord's Supper! and yet, they who receive them by faith in rus ; then both united in one general chorus. the sacrifice they represent, are made partakers of the bless. The chorus of the first stanza being ended, the chief bard ing's purchased by the crucified body, and spilt blood of the of the foot semichorus sung the second stanza, the strain of Lord Jesus !
which was taken from the concluding note of the precediny Verse 22. Daughter, be of good comfort] Orgpas Quyetiş, chorus, which ended, the head semichorus began the gol, take courage, daughter. See on ver. 2. The reason of this or lamentation, in which they were answered by that of the kind speech was, Jesus finding that virtue had proceeded foot, and then, as before, both united in the general full from him, made enquiry who had touched him. The woman chorus. Thus alternately were the song and choruses perfinding that she could not be hid, came feuring and trembling | formed during the night. I have seen a number of women, (Mark v. 33.) and confessed the truth : to dispel these fears I sometimes fourteen, twenty-four, or more, accompany the and to comfort her mind, Jesus said, Daughter, take courage. deceased from his late house to the grave-yard, divided into
Thy faith hath made thee whole.) H TITIS COU CICWXE o!, This two parties on each side the corpse, singing the ullaloo althy faith hath saved thee ; i. e. thy faith in my power, has in ternately, all the way. That drinking, in what is called the terested that power in thy behalf, so that thou art suved from wake, or watching with the body of the deceased, is practhy disorder, and from all its consequences. See on Luke tised, and often carried to a shameless excess, needs little viii. 46. .
proof. This kind of intemperance proceeded to such great Verse 23. Saw the minstrels and the people making a noise) il
| lengths among the Jews; that the Sanhedrin were obliged Avantas pipers; Anglo-saxon hpirtleras, the whistlers; Gothic | to make a decree, to restrain the drinking to ten cups each. haurngans haurngandans, the horn blowers blowing with their l I mention these things more particularly, because I have horns. Nearly the same as the pipublasaru, pipe blowers, of often observed that the customs of the aboriginal Irish bear the Islandic, for among all those nations funeral lamenta- || a very striking resemblance to those of the ancient Jews; tions, accompanied with such rude instruments, were made and other Asiatic nations. The application of these obserat the death of relatives. That pipes were in use among the vations I leave to others. Jews, in times of calamity or death, is evident from Jer. It was a custom with the Greeks to make a great noise xlviii. 36. And among the Greeks and Romans, as well as with brazen vesseis; and the Romans made a general outcry, among the Jews, persons were hired on purpose to follow the called conclamatio, hoping either to stop the soul which was funeral procession with lamentations. See Jer. ix. 17-21. now taking its flight, or to awaken the person, if only in a Amos v. 16. Even the poorest among the Jews were re state of torpor. This they did for eight days together, callquired to have two pipers, and one mourning woman. Ating the person incessantly by his name; at the expiration of these funeral solemnities it was usual with them to drink | which term the phrase, conclamutum est--all is over--there is considerably; even ten cups of wine each, where it could no hope—was used. See the words used in this sense by be got. See Lightfoot. This custom is observed among the Terence, Eun. I. 347. In all probability this was the (boque native Irish to this day, in what is called their Caoinan. Boujerov) the making a violent outcry, mentioned here by the
The body of the deceased dressed in grave-clothes, and or- || Evangelist. Ilow often, on the death of relatives, do men namented with flowers, is placed on some eminent place ; | incumber and perplex themselves with vain, worldly and the relations and caoiners range themselves in two divisions, Il tumultuous ceremonies, instead of making profitable reflecone at the head, and the other at the feet of the corpse. An tions on death! ciently, where the deceased was a great personage, the l Verse 24. The maid is not dead, but sleepeth.] That is, she The two blind men
restored to sight.
A. M.4031. 25 But when the people were put this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. A.M. 1031.
CCI. 3. CCI.3. hand, and the maid arose.
ing, According to your faith be it un- 26 And · the fame hereof went abroad into to you. all that land.
| 30 And their eyes were opened; and Jesus 27 And when Jesus departed thence, two straitly charged them, saying, “See that no man blind men followed him, crying, and saying know it. "Thou son of David, have mercy on us. 1. 31 ^ But they, when they were departed,
28 And when he was come into the house, | spread abroad his fame in all that country. the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith 32 T 'As they went out, behold, they brought unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.
"Or, this fame.
ch. 15. 22. & 20. 30, 31. Mark 10. 47, 48. Luke
18. 38, 39.
. Ch. 8. 4. & 12. 16. & 17. 9. Luke 5. 14.-_Mark 7. 36.
ch. 12. 22. Luke 11. 14.
is not dead so as to coniinue under the power of death ; but incontestably acknowledged as coming from this stock. Matt. shall be raised from it as a person is from natural sleep. xii. 23.
They laughed him to scorn.] Kateyelwy avtoy, they ridiculed | Have mercy on us.] That man has already a measure of him; from xxte intensive, and yehaw I laugh--they grinned a heavenly tight, who knows that he has no merit; that his cry ghastly smile, expressive of the contempt they felt for his should be a cry for mercy; that he must be fercent, and that person and knowledge. People of the world generally laugh in praying he must follow Jesus Christ as the true Messiah, at those truths which they neither comprehend nor love, and the son of David expected from heaven. deride those who publish them; but a faithful minister of Verse 28. When he was come into the house] That is, the God (copying the example of Christ) keeps on his way, and house of Peter, at Capernaum, where he ordinarily lodged. does the work of his Lord and Master.
Believe ye thut I am able to do this?] Without faith Jesus Verse 25. He-tonk her by the hand, and the maid arose.] does nothing to men's souls now, no more than he did to their The fountain of life thus communicating its vital energy to || bodies in the days of his flesh. the dead body. Where death has already taken place, no 1 They said unto him, Yea, Lord.] In our blindness we should power but that of the great God can restore to life; in such have, 1st. A lively faith in the almighty grace of Christ. a case, vain is the help of man. So the soul that is dead in | 2dly. A fervent, incessant cry for the communication of this trespasses and sins, that is, sentenced to death because of grace. 3dly. A proper view of his incarnation, because it is transgression; and is thus dead in law, can only be restored through his union with our nature, and by his sufferings and to spiritual life hy the mighty power of the Lord Jesus; be death, we are to expect salvation. cause He alone has made the atonement, and He alone can Verse 29. According to your faith] See on chap. viii. 13. pardon transgression. If the spiritually dead person be ut | Verse 30. Straitly charged them] He charged them severely, terly unconcerned about the state and fate of his soul, let a || y6gujemcato, from ev, and Beaucoua to roar or storm with anger; converted relative either bring him to Christ by leading him to he charged them on pain of his displeasure, not to make it kear the unadulterated Gospel of the kingdom; or bring Christ || as yet public. See the reasons, chap. viii, 4. to him by fervent, faithful, and persevering prayer.
Verse 31. But they-spread abroad his fame] They should Verse 26. And the fame hereof went abroad] In this busi- || have held their peace; for to obey is better than sacrifice. ness Jesus himself scarcely appears, but the work effected by 1 Sam. xv. 22. but man must always be wiser than God. his sovereign power, is fully manifested; to teach us that it is However, it may be profitable to remark, Ist. That honour the business of a successful preacher of the gospel to conceal I pursues those who fly from it. 2dly. He who is thoroughly kimself as much as possible, that God alone may have the sensible of God's mercy, cannot long contain his acknowledgglory of bis own grace. Tbis is a proper miracle, and a full ments. 3dly. That God in general requires that what a man exemplification of the unlimited power of Christ.
has received for his own salvation, shall become subservient Verse 27. Son of David] This was the same as if they li to that of others-Let your light so shine, &c. God chuses had called him Messiah. Two things here are worthy of re- to help man by man, that all may be firmly knit together in mark: Ist. That it was a generally received opinion at this brotherly love. time in Judea, that the Messiah should be son of David. Verse 32. A dub man possessed with a devil.] Some dæ(John vii. 47.) 2dly. That Jesus Christ was generally and mons rendered the persons they possessed paralytic, some The dumb
A. 1.4031. 33 And when the devil was cast villages, “teaching in their synagogues,
PS A D. 27. An. Olymp. out, the dumb spake: and the multi- and preaching the gospel of the king- An. Olymp.
CCI. 3. 1.3. 'tudes marvelled, saying, It was never dom, and healing every sickness and so seen in Israel.
every disease among the people. 34 But the Pharisees said, . He casteth 36 | But when he saw the multitudes, he out devils through the prince of the de. was moved with compassion on them, because vils.
they · fainted, and were scattered abroad, as 35 And Jesus went about all the cities and sheep having no shepherd.
• Ch. 12. 24. Mark 3. 29. Luke 11. 15.
DIark 6 6. Luke 13. 22.
Mark 6. 34.- Or, were tired and lay down. Numb. 27. 17.
1 Kings 22. 17. Ezek. 31. 5. Zech, 10.2.
hlind, others dumb, &c. It was the interest of Satan to hide | about fifty MSS. several of them of the first antiquity and his influences under the appearance of natural disorders. A authority; by the Complutensiun, and by Bengel; by both man who does not acknowledge his sin to God, who prays not the Syriac, both the Arabic, both the Persic; the Ethiopic, for salvation, who returns no praises for the mercies he is Gothic, Saron, and all the Itala, except four. Griesbach has continually receiving, may well be said to be possessed with a left it out of the text. dumb dæmon.
Verse 36. Moved with compassion] ErTAXyXnoon, from Verse 33. And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake] on hayxvoy, a bowel. The Jews esteemed the bowels to be the The very miracle which was now wrought, was to be the seat of sympathy and the tender passions, and so applied demonstrative proof of the Messiah's being manifested in the the organ to the sense. flesh. See Isai. xxxv. 5, 6.
Errayxubquan signifies, says Mintert, “ to be moved with: It was never so seen in Israel.] The greatest of the pro- pity from the very inmost bowels. It is an emphatic word, phets has never been able to do such miracles as these. This signifying a vehement affection of commiseration, by which was the remark of the people : and thus we find, that the the bowels, and especially the beart, is moved.” Both this verb poor and the simple were more ready to acknowledge the i and the noun seem to be derived from twow, to draw; the hand of God, than the rich and the learned. Many miracles | whole intestinal canal, in the peristaltic motion of the had been wrought in the course of this one day, and this ex- | bowels, being drawn, affected, and agitated with the sight cited their surprise.
of a distressed or miserable object. Pity increases this moVerse 34. He custeth out devils through the prince of the tion of the bowels, and produces considerable pain: hence decils.] This verse is wanting in both the Greek and Latin Wayxu Goject, to have the bowels moved, signifies to feel pity of the C. Bezæ, in another copy of the Itala, and in Hilary | or compassion, at seeing the miseries of others. and Juvencus. But see on chap. xii. 24.
They fainted] Instead of exaequueros, fainted, all the best It is a consummate piece of malice to attribute the works || MSS. Versions, and Fathers, read sorvausvos, grieved, and. of God to the devil. Envy cannot suffer the approbation i melancholy. Kypke says oxuddery properly signifies, to pluck which is given to the excellencies of others. Those whose of the hair, as persons do in extreme sorrow or distress.. hearts are possessed by this vice, speak the very language The margin says, They were tired, and lay down. of the devil.
valumny is but a little distance from envy. |
Calumny is but a little distance from envy. And were scattered abroad] Eggspapieros, thrown down, or, all. Though all persons may not have as much envy as the ll along. They were utterly neglected as to the interests of Pharisees; yet they should fear having some degree of it, as
ear having some degree of it, as || their souls, and rejected by the proud and disdainful Phariall have the principle from which it proceeds, viz. sin. sees. This people (exãos, this mob) that knoweth not the Law,.
Verse 35. Jesus went about all the cities and villuges] Of is accursed, John vii. 49. Thus, those execrable men spoke Galilee. See on chap. iv. 23, 24. A real minister of Jesus of the souls that God had made, and of whom they should. Christ, after his example, is neither detained in one place have been the instructors. by a comfortable provision made by some; nor discouraged 1 Those teachers in name, have left their successors behind. from pursuing his work by the calumny and persecution of them; but as in the days of Christ, so now, God has in his, others. It is proper to remark, that wherever Christ comes, inercy rescued the flock out of the hands of those who only the proofs of his presence evidently appear : he works none fed upon their flesh, and clothed themselves with their but salutary and beneficial miracles, because his ministry is || wool. The days in which a man was obliged to give his a ministry of salvation.
property to what was called the Church, for the salvation Among the people.] Ex tw 2ow. This clause is omitted by l of his soul, Christ being left out of the question, are, thank,