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The copiousness of the harvest,

CHAP. IX.

and the necessity of labourers.

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A. M. 4631. 37 Then saith he unto his disciples, \| 38 Pray ye therefore the Lord of A.M.4031.

A. D. 27. Ail. Ulyinp. * The harvest truly is plenteous, but the harvest, that he will send forth la- An. Olymp. CCT. 3.

CCI. 3. om the labourers are few;

bourers into his harvest.

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God, nearly over and gone. Jesus is the true Shepherd, with. The subject of fasting, already slightly no'iced in the preout him there is nothing but fuinting, fatigue, teration, and ceding notes, should be farther considered. dispersion. O that we may be led out and in by him, and In all countries, and under all religions, fasting has not find pasture!

only been considered a duty, but also of extraordinary virtue Verse 37. The harvest] The souls who are ready to re- || to procure blessings, and to avert evils. Hence it has often ceive the truth are very numerous; but the labourers are few. been practised with extraordinary rigour, and abused to the There are multitudes of Scribes, Pharisees, and Priests, of most superstitious purposes. There are twelde kinds of fasts reverend and right reverend men; but there are few that among the Hindoos : work. Jesus wishes for labourers, not gentlemen, who are 1. The person neither eats nor drinks for a day and night. either idle drones, or slaves to pleasure and sin, and nati con- || This fast is indispensable, and occurs twenty-nine times in. sumere fruges—" Born to consume the produce of the soil.” the year.

It was customary with the Jews to call their Rabbins and 2. The person fasts during the day, and eats at students reapers; and their work of instruction, the harvest. i night. So in Idra Rabba, s. 2. “ The days are few; the creditor is 1 3. The person eats nothing but fruits, and drinks milk or: urgent; the crier calls out incessantly; and the reapers are water. few.” And in Pirkey Aboth : The day is short, the work 4. He eats once during the day and night. great, the workmen idle, the reward abundant, and the 5. Eats one particular kind of food during the day and master of the household is urgent.” In all worldly concerns, | night, but as often as he pleases. if there be the prospect of much gain, most men are willing 1 6. Called Chanderaym, which is, to eat on the first day enough to labour; but if it be to save their own souls, or only one mouthful; two on the second ; and thus continue the souls of others, what indolence, backwardness, and care increasing one mouthful every day for a month, and then lessness! while their adversary, the Devil, is going about as decreasing a mouthful every day, till he leaves off where he a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour; and a care began. less soul, and especially a careless minister, is his especial 7. The person neither eats nor drinks for twelve-days. prey.

8. Lasts twelve days: the first three days he eats a little The place of the harvest is the whole earth: it signifies little once in the day; the next three, he eats only once in the where a man works, provided it be by the appointment, in the night; the next three, he eats nothing, unless it be brought Spirit, and with the blessing of God.

to him; and during the last three days, he neither eats nor Verse 38. That he will send forth labourers] Oəws exGanan | drinks. egy 27025, that he would thrust forth labourers. Those who are 9. Lasts fifteen days. For three days and three nights, he filtest for the work, are generally most backward to the em eats only one handful at night; the next three days and ployment. The man who is forward to become a preacher, Inights, he eats one handful, if it be brought him, if not, he kuows little of God, of human nature, or of his own heart. takes nothing. Then he eats nothing for three days and li is God's province to thrust out such preachers as shall three nights. The next three days and nights he takes only labour; and it is our duty to entreat him to do so. A mi Il a handful of warm water each day. The next three days nister of Christ is represented as a day-labourer : he comes and niglits he takes a handful of warm milk each day. into the harvest, not to become lord of it, not to live on the 10. For three days and nights he neither eats nor drinks. labour of others, but to work, and to labour his day. Though He lights a fire, and sits at a door where there enters a hot. the work may be very severe, yet, to use a familiar ex- !| wind, which he draws in with his breath. pression, there is good wages in the harvest-home; and the | 11. Lasts fifteen days. Three days and three nights he day, though hot, is but a short one. How earnestly should eats nothing but leaves; three days and three nights, nothing the flock of Christ pray to the good Shepherd to send them but the Indian fig; three days and three nights, nothing but pastors after his own heart, who will feed them with know- the seed of the lotus; three days and three nights, nothing. ledge; and who shall be the means of spreading the know but peepul leaves; three days and three nights, the expressed. ledge of his truth, and the savour of his grace over the face ljuice of a particular kind of grass called doobah. of the whole earth.

| 12. Lasts a week. First day he eats milk; second, milk

The twelve

St. MATTHEW.

disciples chosen.

curds; third, ghee, i. e. clarified butter; fourth, cow's urine ; |from worldly cares, and fixing it exclusively upon God, fifth, cow's dung ; sixtli, water ; seventh, nothing.

Their great annual fast is kept on the month Ramzan, or During every kind of fast, the person sleeps on the ground, Ramadhan, beginning at the first new moon, and continuing plays at no gaine, lias no connection with women, neither until the appearance of the next; during which, it is reshaves nor anoints himself, and bestows alms each day.- quired to abstain from every kind of nourishment from dayAveen AKBERY, vol. iii. p. 247-250. How much more simple | break till after sun-set of each day. From this observance and effectual is the way of salvation taught in the Bible! but none are excused but the sick, the aged, and children. This because it is true, it is not credited by fallen man.

is properly the Mohammedan Lent. See Hedayah, prel. Fasting is considered by the Mohammedans as an essential Dis. p. lv. LVI.. part of piety. Their orthodox divines term it the gate of 1 It is worthy of remark, that these children of the Bridereligion. With them, it is of two kinds, voluntary and in- | groom, the disciples, did not mourn, were exposed to no cumbent ; and is distinguished by the Mosliman doctors into il persecution while the Bridegroom, the Lord Jesus, was with three degrees : 1. The refraining from every kind of nourish-|| them: but after he had been taken from them, by death and ment or carnal indulgence. 2. The restraining the vari- his ascension, they did fast and mourn; they were exposed ous members from every thing which might excite sinful to all manner of hardships, persecutions, and even death itself, or corrupt desires. 3. The abstracting the mind wholly ) in some of its worst forms.

CHAPTER X.

Jesus calls, commissions, and names his treelre disciples, 1--4. Gives them particular instructions relative to the

objects of their ministry, 5, 6. Mode of preaching, &c. 7-15. Foretells the afflictions and persecutions they would have to endure, and the support they should receive, 16-25. Cautions them against betraying his cause, in order to procure their personal safety, 26–39. And gives especial promises to those who should assist his faithful serrants in the execution of their work, 40–42. A.M. 4031. AND · when he had called unto | 2 Now the names of the twelve A.M.4051. A. D. 97.

A. D. 27. An. Olymp. n him his twelve disciples, he gave apostles are these; The first, Simon, An. Olymp.

CCI. 3. ._ them power against unclean spirits, ll who is called Peter, and Andrew his to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sick brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John ness and all manner of disease.

his brother;

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a Mark 3. 13. 14. & 6.7. Luke 6. 13. & 9. 1.--. Or, over.

© John 1. 42.

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NOTES ON CHAP. X.

1 yet this does not preclude the importance of human learning. Verse 1. Twelve disciples) Our Lord seems to have had || No man can have his mind too well cultivated, to whom a the twelve Patriarchs, heads of the congregation of Israel, indispensation of the Gospel is committed. The influence of view. in his choosing twelve disciples. That he had the plan || the Spirit of God was no more designed to render human of the ancient Jewish church in his eye, is sufficiently evi- || learning useless; than that learning should be considered as dent from chap. xix. 28. and from Luke x. i. xxii. 30. John | superseding the necessity of divine inspiration. xvii. 1. and Rev. xxi. 12-14.

Verse 2. Apostles] This is the first place where the word He cure them power against unclean spirits) The word xata, || is used. Amosodos, an apostle, comes from amosaw, I send a against, which our translators have supplied in Italic, is found | message. The word was anciently used to signify a person in many MSS. of good note, and in the principal Versions. commissioned by a king to negociate any affair between him Here we find the first call to the Christian ministry, and the |and any other power or people. Hence amoso2o. and xneures, and proposed by the commission given. To call persons to apostles and heralds, are of the same import in Herodotus.--the ministry, belongs only to Him who can give them power || See the Remarks at the end of chap. iii. to cast out unclean spirits. He whose ministry is not accom- | It is worthy of notice, that those who were Christ's apostles panied with healing to diseased souls, was never called of were first his disciples ; to intimate, that men must be first God. But let it be observed, that though the spiritual gifts taught of God, before they be sent of God. Jesus Christ requisite for the ministry must be supplied by God himself; |never made an apostle of any man, who was not first his

Their names
CHAP. X.

and commission, A.M.4031. 3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Tho- || 5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, A. M.4331. A. D. 47.

A. D. 27. Ar. Olymp. mas, and Matthew the publican ; | and commanded them, saying, “Go An. Olymp.

James the son of Alpheus, and Leb- | not into the way of the Gentiles, and col.8. beus, whose surname was Thaddeus;

into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: 4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, | 6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the who also betrayed him.

house of Israel.

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James the

• Luke 6. 15. Acts 1. 13. John 13. 26.-_ech. 4. 15.

2 Kings 17. 24. John 4. 9, 20.

See 11

e Ch. 15. 24. Acts 13. 46.-_* Isai. 53. 6. Jer. 50. 6, 17. Ezek. 34.

5, 6, 16. 1 Pet. 2. 25.

scholar, or disciple. These twelve apostles were chosen, 1. Who also betrayed him] Rather, even he who betrayed him, That they might be with our Lord to see and witness his or, delivered him up; for so, I think, oxal ragadous auroy, miracles, and hear his doctrine. 2. That they might bear should be translated. The common translation, rho also betestimony of the former, and preach his truth to man trayed him, is very exceptionable, as it seems to imply, he was kind.

betrayed by some others as well as by Judas. The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his bro- || Verse 5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded] To ther ; &c.] We are not to suppose that the word EWTOs, first, l be properly qualified for a minister of Christ, a man must be, refers to any kind of dignity, as some have imagined; it | 1. filled with the Spirit of holiness; 2. called to this partimerely signifies the first in order—the person first mentioned. || cular work; 3. instructed in its nature, &c. and, 4. comA pious man remarks: “God here unites by grace those who I missioned to go forth, and testify the Gospel of the grace of were before united by nature.Though nature cannot be God. These are four different gifts which a man must redeemed a step towards grace, yet it is not to be considered asceive from God by Christ Jesus. To these let him add all always a hindrance to it. Happy the brothers who are joint the human qualifications he can possibly attain; as in his envoys of heaven, and the parents who have two or more arduous work he will require every gift and every grace. children employed as ambassadors for God !

Go not into the way of the Gentiles] Our Lord only inVerse 3. Bartholomew] Many are of opinion that this was tended that the first offers of salvation should be made to the Nathanael, mentioned John i. 46. whose name was probably Jewish people, and that the heathen should not be noticed Nathanael bar Talmai, Nathanael, the son of Talmui : here, in this first mission, that no stumbling-block might be cast in his own name is repressed, and he is called Bar Talmai, or the way of the Jews. Bartholomew, from his father.

Into any city of the Samarituns enter ye not] The SamariMatthew the publican] The writer of this history. See the tans had afterwards the Gospel preached to them by Christ Preface.

himself, John iv. 4, &c. for the reason assigned above. Such James the son of Alpheus] This person was also called as God seeins at first to pass by, are often those for whom he Cleopas, or Clopas, Luke xxiv. 18. John xix. 25 He had has designed his greatest benefits, (witness the Samaritans, married Mary, sister to the blessed Virgin, John xix. 25. and the Gentiles in general) but he has his own proper tinie

Verse 4. SimonHe was third son of Alpheus, and brother to discover and reveal them. of James and Jude, or Judas, Matt. xiii. 55.

The history of the Samaritans is sufficiently known from The Canaanite] This word is not put here to signify a the Old Testament. Properly speaking, the inhabitants of particular people, as it is elsewhere used in the Sacred Writ- the city of Samaria should be termed Samaritans; but this ings; but it is formed from the Hebrew up kana, which epithet belongs chiefly to the people sent into that part of the signifies zealous, literally translated by Luke, chap. vi. 15. promised land by Salmanezer, King of Assyria, in the year (114775, zelotes, or the zealous, probably from bis great fer- l of the world 3283, when he carried the Israelites that dwelt tency in preaching the Gospel of his Master. But see Luke! there captives beyond the Euphrates, and sent a mixed. vi. 15.

people, principally Cuthites, to dwell in their place. These Judas Iscariot] Probably from the Hebrew nep us ish were altogether heathens at first ; but they afterwards incorkerioth, a man of Kerioth, which was a city in the tribe of porated the worship of the true God with that of their idols. Judah, Josh. xv. 25, where it is likely this man was born. See the whole account, 2 Kings xvij. 5, &c. From this time

As ghoux iscara, signifies the quinsy, or strangulation, and they feared Jehovah, and served other gods till after the Judas hanged himself after he had betrayed our Lord, Dr. Babylonish captivity. From Alexander the Great, Sanballat, Lightfoot seems inclined to believe that he had his name from their governor, obtained permission to build a temple upon this circumstance, and that it was not given him till after | Mount Gerizim, which the Jews conceiving to be in oppohis death.

I sition to their temple at Jerusalem, hated them with a perfect

They were to provide

ST. MATTHEW.

nothing for their journey. 4.M1.401. mga And as ye go, preach, saying, || 9 “ Provide neither gold, nor silver, A.M. 4051. A. D. 27.

A.D. 27. An. Olymp. The kingdom of heaven is at hand. ll nor 'brass in your purses,

An. Olymp. . 8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, 10 Nor scrip for your journey, nei-raise the dead, cast out devils : 'freely ye have ther two coats, neither shoes, nor yet & staves: received, freely give.

ll" for the workman is worthy of his meat.

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hatred, and would have no fellowship with them. The Sa- | 20. where, if any such power had been given, or erercised, it maritans acknowledge the divine authority of the Law of would doubtless have been mentioned. Wetstein has rejected Moses, and carefully preserve it in their owu characters, which it, and so did Griesbach in his first edition; but in the second are probably the genuine ancient Hebrew; the character which (1796) he has left it in the text, with a note of doubtfulness. is now called Hebrew being that of the Chaldeans. The Sa-i Freely ye hare received, freely gire.] A rule very necessary, maritan Pentateuch is printed in the London Polyglott; and land of great extent. A minister, or labourer in the Gospel is an undeniable record. A poor remnant of this people is vineyard, though worthy of his comfortable support while in found still at Naplouse, the ancient Shechem : but they exist the work, should never preach for hire, or make a secular in a state of very great poverty and distress; and probably traffic of a spiritual work. What a scandal is it for a man to will soon become extinct.

traffic with gifts, which he pretends at least to have received • Verse 6. But go rather to the lost sheep, &c.] The Jewish from the Holy Ghost, of which he is not the master, but the

Church was the ancient fold of God; but the sheep had wandered dispenser. He who preaches to get a living, or to make a from their Shepherd, and were lost. Our blessed Lord sends fortune, is guilty of the most infamous sacrilege. these under-shepherds to seek, find, and bring them back Verse 9. Proride neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, in your to the Shepherd and Overseer of their souls.

| purses] Ess tas (wyces upwy, in your girdles. It is supposed Verse 7. And as ye go, preach] Togevojlevou de xnguocets, and that the people of the East carry their money in a fold of as you proceed, proclaim like heralds---make this proclamation their girdles. This is scarcely correct: they carry it in a wherever ye go, and while ye are journeying. Preach and purse in their bosom, under their girdles. This I have often travel; aud as ye travel, preach-proclaim salvation to all you observed. meet. Wherever the ministers of Christ go, they find lost ruined in a thousand instances an apostolic preacher, who goes souls; and wherever they find them, they should proclaim to the wilderness to seek the lost sheep, will be exposed to Jesus, and his power to save. For an explanation of the word ' hunger and cold, and other inconveniences he must thereproclaim, or preach, see on chap. iii. 1.

fore resign himself to God, depending on his providence for From this commission we learn what the grand subject of the necessaries of life. If God have sent him, he is bound apostolic preaching was- THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS Atto support him, and will do it: anxiety therefore, in him, HAND! This was the great message. “ They preached,says is a double crime, as it insinuates a bad opinion of the master Quesnel, “ to establish the faith : the kingdom, to animate the who has employed him. Every missionary should make hope ; of heaven, to inspire the love of heavenly things, and | himself master of this subject. the contempt of earthly ; which is at hand, that men may Hare no money in your purse, is a command, obedience prepare for it without delay."

to which was secured by the narrow circumstances of most Verse 8. Raise the dead] This is wanting in the MSS. of the primitive, genuine preachers of the gospel. Whole marked EKLMS of Griesbach, and in those marked BHV of herds of friars mendicants hare professed the same principle, Mathaï, and in upwards of one hundred others. It is also and abandoned themselves to voluntary poverty; but if the wanting in the Syriac, (Vienna edition) latter Persic, Sa- | money be in the heart it is a worse evil. In the former case hidic, Armenian, Slavonic, and in one copy of the Itala ; | it may be a temptation to sin; in the latter it must be also in Athanasius, Basil, and Chrysostom. There is no evi- ruinous. dence that the disciples raised any dead person previously to il Verse 10. Nor scrip for your journey) To carry provisions. the resurrection of Christ. The words should certainly be This was called Sognin tormil, by the Rabbins; it was a omitted, unless we could suppose that the authority now leathern pouch hung about their necks, in which they put given respected not only their present mission, but compre- their victuals. This was, properly, the shepherd's bag. hended also their future conduct. But that our blessed Lord Neither two coats, &c.] Nothing to encumber you. did not give this power to his disciples at this time, is, I think, Nor yet stures] Paodoy, a staf', as in the margin; but, pretty evident from verse 1. and from Luke ix. 6, 10. x. 19, || instead of prodor staff, which is the common reading, all the How the disciples should conduct

CHAP. X.

themselves in their preaching.

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A. 11.4031. 11 . And into whatsoever city or 13 "And if the house be worthy, A. M. 4031.

A. 1). 27. An. Olymp. town ye shall enter, enquire who in let your peace come upon it: 'but if An. Olymp. CCL. 3.

CCI. 3. er it is worthy; and there abide till ye 'it be not worthy, let your peace return go thence.

to you. 12 And when ye come into a house, salute it. ' 14 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor

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following MSS. and versions have coco dove stares, and CEFGKL Verse 12. Salute it] Asyortis, eignen sy TW OVUQ TOUTW, saying, MPS. V. ninety-three others, Coptic, Armenian, latter Syriac,i" Peace be to this house." "This clause, which, as explanatory one of the Itala, Chrysostom and Theophylact. This reading is of the word OFTUCHOS!, is necessary to the connexion in of great importance, as it reconciles this place with Luke ix. 3. which it now stands, is added, by the MSS. D and L. and and removes the seeming contradiction from Mark vi. 8. forty-three others, the Armenian, Ethiopic, Slatonic, Saxon, as if he had said, “Ye shall take nothing to defend yourselyes! Vulgate, all the copies of the old Itala, Theophylact and with, because ye are the servants of the Lord, and are to be Hilary. The clause is also found in several modern versions. supported by his bounty, and defended by his power. In a | The modern Greek, has 2.sporte;' Eignum eas to Oxnato TOUTO. The word, be like men in haste, and eager to begin the impor Italian, by Matthew, of Erberg, and of Diorlati, renders it tant work of the ministry. The sheep are lost, ruined :-||thus: Pace sia a questa casa. Peace be to this house. Satan is devouring them :-give all diligence to pluck them It is found also in Wickliff, and in my old MS. Seringi, out of the jaws of the destroyer.”

pers be to this hous. Some suppose it is an addition taken from The workman is worthy of his ment.] ins Topo Dms OUTOU, of Luke, but there is nearly as much reason to believe he took it kiş maintenance. It is a maintenance, and that only which from Matthew. a minister of God is to expect, and that he has a divine right | Peace, Sibu, among the Hebrews, had a very extensive to; but not to make a fortune, or lay up wealth: besides, meaning :-it comprehended all blessings, spiritual and it is the workman, he that labours in the word and doctrine, temporal. llence that saying of the Rabbins, Sinu 1973 that is to get even this. How contrary to Christ is it for a 12 nossa m10727 Saw Gadal shalom, shecol izberacoth culoloth man to have vast revenues as a minister of the gospel, who | bo. Great is PEACE, for all other blessings are comprehended ministers no gospel, and who spends the revenues of the in it. To wish peace to a family, in the name and by the church to its disgrace and ruin?

l authority of Christ, was in effect a positive promise on the Verse 11. Into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter] In the il Lord's side, of all the good implied in the wish. This was commencement of Christianity, Christ and his preachers paying largely even beforehand. Whoever receives the were all Itinerart.

messengers of God into his house, confers the highest honour Enquire who in it is worthy] That is, of a good character; upon himself, and not upon the Preacher, whose honour is for a preacher of the gospel should be careful of his reputa- | from God, and who comes with the blessings of life eternal tion, and lodge only with those who are of a regular life. to that man and his family who receives him.

There abide till ye go thence.) Go not about from house to Verse 13. If thic house be worthy] If that family be kouse, Luke x. 7. Acting contrary to this precept has often proper for a preacher to lodge in, and the master be ready to brought great disgrace on the gospel of God. Stay in your embrace the message of salvation. own lodging as much as possible, that you may have time! Your peace) The blessings you have prayed for, shall come for prayer and stady. Seldom frequent the tables of the upon the family: God will prosper them in their bodies, souls rich and great; if you do, it will unavoidably prove a snare' and substance. to you. The unction of God will perish from your mind, But if it be not worthy] As abovc explained. and your preaching be only a dry barren repetition of old Let your peace] The blessings prayed for, return to you, things; the bread of God in your hands will be like the dry,' =305 vpas &#1582897w, it shall turn back upon yourselves. They nouldy, Gibeonitish crusts, mentioned Josh. ix. 3. He who shall get nothing, and you shall have an increase. knows the value of time, and will redeem it from useless chit-1 The trials, disappointments, insults, and wants of the chat, and trifling visits, will find enough for all the purposes followers of Christ become in the hand of the all-wise God, of his own salvation, the cultivation of his mind, and the subservient to their best interests : hence, nothing can happen work of the ministry. He, to whom time is not precious, I to them without their deriving profit from it, unless it be their and who lives not by rule, never finds tine sufficient for any own fault. thing;—is always embarrassed-always in a hurry, and Verse 14. Shake off the dust of your feet.] The Jews connever capable of bringing one good purpose to proper effect. sidered themselves defiled by the dust of a Hcathen country,

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