« הקודםהמשך »
The genealogy :
of Jesus Christ. A.M.4000. begat Eliakim ; and Eliakim begat | begat Matthan ; and Matthan begat A.M.4000
An. Olymp. CXCIII. 4.
CXCIII. 4. ** 14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sa- || 16 And Jacob begat Joseph, the doc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus,
15 And Eliud begat Eleazar ; & and Eleazar who is called Christ.
1 Jechonias whichever is preferred, the demonstrative article should never 2 Isaac 2 Rehoboam 2 Salathiel
be omitted. 3 Jacob 3 Abia
3 Zerobabel | Priests, prophets, and kings, among the Jews, were anointed 4. Judah 4 Asa
If in order to the legitimate exercise of their respective offices. 5 Phạrez
5 Josaphat 5 Eliakim Hence the word Xeuotos Christ, or n'un Mashiach, became a : 6 Esrom
name of dignity, and often signified the same as king. See 7 Aram 7 Ozias
Isai. xlv. 1. Psal. cv. 15. Lev. iv. 3. vi. 20. 1 Sam. ii. 10. 8 Aminadab 8 Joatham
The words nown Massiach and the melec, Xgotos and Ba9. Naason 9 Achaz
9 Eliud bideus, Christ and king, are frequently interchanged. 1 Sam. 10 Salmon 10 Ezekias
ii. 10. Psal. ii. 2, 6. Luke xxiii. 2. and see the Schulia of Ros 11 Booz
11 Manasses 11 Matthan senmuller on this place. The reason of this may be seen in 12 Obed 12 Amon
12 Jacob the following note, which I extract from the comment on 13 Jesse 13 Josias
Exod. xxix. 7. 14 David 14 Joachim
14 JESUS “ It appears from Isai. Ixi. 1. that anointing with oil, in In all forty-two generations.
consecrating a person to any important office, whether civil
or religious, was considered as an emblem of the communiVerse 12. Jechonias begat Salathiel] After Jechonias was cation of the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit. This cerebrought to Babylon, he was put in prison by Nebuchadnez- mony was used on three occasions, viz. the installation of zar, where he continued till the death of this prince, and the prophets, priests, and kings, into their respective offices. But accession of Evilmerodach, who brought him out of prison, ll why should such an anointing be deemed necessary? Because in which he had been detained thirty-seven years; and re- | the common sense of men taught them, that all good, whether stored him to such favour, that his throne (seat) was exalted spiritual or secular, must come from God, its origin and cause. above all the kings which were with him in Babylon : Jerem. Hence it was taken for granted, 1. That no man could forelii. 31, 32. But though he thus became a royal favourite, he || teil events, unless inspired by the Spirit of God. And therewas never restored to his kingdom. And according to the fore the prophet was anointed, to signify the communication prophecy of Jeremiah xxii. 30. no man of his seed sat upon of the Spirit of wisdom and knowledge. 2. That no person the throne of David ; yet the regal line was continued through could offer an acceptable sacrifice to God for the sins of men; his son Salathiel, who died in Babylon : but Zorobabel, his or profitably minister in holy things, unless enlightened, influson, returned from captivity, and by him the race of Davidenced, and directed, by the Spirit of grace and holiness. was continued, according to Matthew, by Abiud ; and, ac- Hence the priest was anointed, to signify his being divinely cording to Luke by Rhesa. See on Luke iii. 23, &c.
qualified for the due performance of his sacred functions. 3. . The term carrying away to Babylon, METOIMETIO, from LETOIMEW, || That no man could enact just and equitable laws, which should to change a habitation, or place of residence, would be more have the prosperity of the community and the welfare of the properly translated by the word transportation, which is here individual continually in view, or could use the power conpeculiarly appropriate : the change was not voluntary; they fided to hiin, only for the suppression of vice and the encouwere forced away.
i ragement of virtue, but that man who was ever under the Verse 16. Jesus, who is called Christ.] As the word Xpooros, li inspiration of the Almighty. Hence kings were inaugurated Christ, signifies the anointed or anointer, from xgw, to anoint ; by anointing with oil. Two of these offices only, exist in all it answers exactly to the Hebrew nown mashiach, which we civilized nations, the sacerdotal and regal; and in some counpronounce Messiah of Messias ; this word comes from the tries, the priest and king are still consecrated by anointing. root nun inashac, signifying the same thing. As the same In the llebrew language, nun mashach signifies to anoint ; person is intended by both the Hebrew and Greek appellation, and n'un mashiach, the anointed person. But as no man was at should be regularly translated The Messiah, or The Christ; \ ever dignified by holding the three offices, so no person ever had
Number of generations.
The conception of Christ. 4. M. 2000. 17 So all the generations from A- || ther, she was found with child of A. 11.4000.
B.C. 5. An. Olymp. braham to David, are fourteen gene the Holy Ghost.'
An. Olymp. --* rations; and from David until the car. || 19 Then Joseph, her husband, being rying away into Babylon, are fourteen genera- a just man, and not willing to make her a tions; and from the carrying away into Babylon public example, was minded to put her away unto Christ, are fourteen generations.
privily. 18 | Now the birth of Jesus Christ was 20 But while he thought on these things, beon this wise : When as his mother Mary was hold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him espoused to Joseph, before they came toge in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David,
the title Mashiuch, the anointed one, but Jesus, The Christ. not been consummated, was considered as perfectly legal and He alone is King of kings, and Lord of lords : the king who | binding on both sides; and hence, a breach of this contract, governs the universe, and rules in the hearts of his followers; was considered as a case of adultery, and punished exactly in the prophet, to instruet men in the way wherein they should the same way. See Deut. xxii. 25, 28. Nor could a contract go; and the great high-priest, to make atonement for their of this kind, though there was no cohabitation, be broken but sins. Hence he is called the Messias, a.corruption of the word by a regular divorce, as Mr. Selden, in his Uxor' Hebraica, STOLA ha-mushiach, THE anointed One, in Hebrew; which gave has proved at large from the Jewish Rabbins. birth to ó Xporos ho Christos, which has precisely the same. She was found with child] Her situation was the most dissignification in Greek: of him, Melchisedech, Abraham, | tressing and humiliating that can be conceived. Nothing but Aaron, David, and others, were illustrious types. But none the fullest consciousness of her own integrity, and the strongof these had the title of the Messiah, or THE ANOINTED of est confidence in God, could have supported her in such tryGod. This does, and ever will, belong exclusively to Jesus, ing circumstances, where her reputation, her honour, and her The Christ.”
| life, were at stake. What conversation passed between her Verse 17. Fourteen generations] See the note on ver. 11. i and Joseph, on this discovery, we are not informed; but the The Jews had a sort of technical method of summing up gene-issue proves, that it was not satisfactory to him : nor could he sations in this way. In Synopsis Sohar. p. 132. n. 18. we have resolve to consider her as his wife, till God had sent his angel the following words : « From Abraham to Solomon were fif to bear the most unequivocal testimony to the virgin's innoteen generations; and then the moon was at the full. From cence. His whole conduct on this occasion, was exceedingly Solomon to Zedekiah were other fifteen generations; the moon benevolent and humane. He might at once have taken the was then in the wane, and Zedekiah's eyes were put out." || advantage of the law, Deut. xxii. 23, 24. and had her stoned That is, the regal state came to its zenith of light and glory in | to death. the time of Solomon ; but decreased gradually, till it became Verse 19. To make her a public example] NapadayaTION, nearly extinct in the days of Zedekiah. See Schoctgen. to expose her to public infamy; from ragu, near, and deoxrupany
Verse 18. Espoused to Joseph} The word uinotev Jurus, from | I shew, or expose. Though Joseph was a righteous man, dixasos, UITSTEVw, to contract, or betroth, refers to the previous mar- and knew that the law required that such persons as he supriage agreement, in which the parties mutually bound them- | posed his wife to be, should be put to death ; yet as righteousselves to each other ; without which, no woman was ever || ness is ever directed by mercy, he determined to put her away married among the Jews.
or divorce her privately, i. e. without assigning any cause, Before they came together) The woman was espoused at her that her life might be saved : and as the offence was against own, or her father's house ; and generally, some time elapsed, || bimself, he had a right to pass it by if he chose. Some have before she was taken home to the house of her husband: Deut. | supposed that the term dixanos should be translated mierciful, xx. 7. Judg. xiv. 7,8. This custom has been immemorially and it certainly often bas this signification, but here it is not observed among the inhabitants of Ireland, who have not only necessary. this, but many other Asiatic customs, which, added to various 1 Verse 20. That which is conceived (or formed) in her] So authentic historic proofs, are collateral evidences, that they | I think yern Dey should be translated in this place: as it appears received the Christian religion, not from the popes of Rome, that the human nature of Jesus Christ, was a real creution in but through the means of Asiatic missionaries.
the womb of the virgin, by the power of the Holy Spirit. Among the Jews, the espousal, though the marriage had | The angel of the Lord mentioned here, was probably the an
The prophecy concerning
the miraculous conception. A.M. 4000. fear not to take unto thee Mary thy shall save his people from their sins. A.M.4000.
B.C. 5. An. Olyinp. wife: a for that which is conceived | 22 Now all this was done, that it An. Olymp. CXCIII. 4..
* in her, is of the Holy Ghost. I might be fulfilled which was spoke · 21 · And she shall bring forth a son, and the Lord by the prophet, saying, thou shalt call his name * JESUS : fore he || 23 | Behold, a virgin shall be with child,
gel Gabriel, who, six months before, had been sent to Zacha- row and by unbelief, in order to assure him, that the counsels of rias and Elisabeth, to announce the birth of Christ's fore- |his enemies should not stand; and that they should be utterly runner, John the Baptist. See Luke i. 36.
. | discomfited. To encourage Ahaz, he commands him to ask Verse 21. JESUST The same as Joshua, yun. Yehoshua, | a sign or miracle, which should be a pledge in hand, that God from my vashâ, he saved, delivered, put in a state of safety. should, in due time, fulfil the predictions of his servant, as See on Exod. xii. 9. Num. xiii. 16. and in the preface to Joshua. related in the context. On Ahaz humbly refusing to ask any
He shall save his people from their sins.] This shall be his sign, it is immediately added, Therefore the Lord himself shall great business in the world : the great ertand on which he is give you a sign : Behold, a virgin shall conceive und bear e, come. viz. to make an atonement for, and to destroy, sin : son ; and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall deliverance from all the power, guilt, and pollution of sin, is he eat, &c. Both the divine and human nature of our Lord. the privilege of every believer in Christ Jesus. Less than this, as well as the miraculous conception, appear to be pointed out is not spoken of in the gospel : and less than this, would be iu the prophecy quoted here by the Evangelist :-He shall.be unbecoming the gospel. The perfection of the gospel system called 58-vny Im-menu-EL; literally, The şTRONG GOD WITH is, not that it makes allowances for sin, but that it makes an l us : similar to those words in the New Testament–The word atonement for it :-not that it tolerates sin, but that it destroys which was God—was made flesh, and dwelt among us, full of it. In ver. 1. he is called Jesus Christ, on which Dr. Lightfoot grace and truth : John i. I, 14. And, God was manifested in properly remarks, That the name of Jesus, so often added to the flesh : 1 Tim. iii. 16. So that we are to understand, God the name of Christ in the New Testament, is not only that Christ with us, to imply, God incarnated-God, in human nature. might be thereby pointed out as the Sariour, but also that This seenis farther evident from the words of the prophet, Jesus might be pointed out as the true Christ, or Messiah, || ver. 15. Butter and honey shall he eat-he shall be truly man, against the. unbelief of the Jews.” This observation will be grow up and be nourished in a human, natural way; which of great use in numberless places of the New Testament. See | refers to his being with us, i. e. incarnated. To which the Acts ii. 36. viii. 35. 1 Cor. vi. 22. 1 John ii. 22. iv. 15, &c. I prophet adds, That he may know to refuse the evil and chuse
Verse 22. By the prophet] Isaiah is added here by several the good :--or rather, According to his knowledge, inyo ledaMSS. Versions, and Fathers. The prophecy is taken from ato, reprobating the evil, and chusing the good :this refers to Isaiah vij, 14.
| him as God; and is the same idea, given by this prophet, Verse 23. Behold, a virgin shall be with child). We have chap. liii. 11. By (or in) his knowledge (the knowledge of already seen from the preceding verse, that this prophecy is Christ crucified, inyna be daâto) shall my righteous servunt taken from Isai. vii. 14. but it may be necessary to consider | justify many; for he shall bear their offences. Now this union the circumstances of the original promise, more particularly. I of the divine and human nature, is termed a sign or miracle, At the time referred to, the kingdom of Judah, under the mix oth, i. e. something which exceeds the power of nature to government of Ahaz, was reduced very low. Pekah, king of produce. And this miraculous union was to be brought about Israel, had slain in Judea 120,000 persons in one day; and || in a miraculous way: Behold a VIRGIN shull conceive : the carried away captives 200,000, including women and children, ll word is very emphatic, ipsyon ha-álmah, THE virgin ; the only together with much spoil. To add to their distress, Rezin, one that ever was, or ever shall be, a mother, in this way king of Syria, being confederate with Pekal, had taken Elath, | But the Jews, and some called Christians, who have espoused: a fortified city of Judah, and carried the inhabitants away || their desperate cause, assert, that “the word nieby almah does captive to Damascus. In this critical conjuncture, need we | not signify a virgin only ; for it is applied Prov. xxx. 19. to sigwonder that Ahaz was afraid that the enemies who were now nify a young married woman.” I answer, that this latter text united against him must prevail, destroy Jerusalem, end the li is no proof of the contrary doctrine : the words nobya 733 797 kingdom of Judah, and annihilate the family of David ? To || derec geber be-álmah, the way of a man with a maid, cannot meet and remove this fear, apparently well grounded, Isaiahl be proved to mean that for which it is produced : besides, one is sent from the Lord to Ahaz, swallowed up now both by sor- ll of De Rossi's MSS. reads rakya be-álmaid, the way of a
Christ, why called
- CHAP. 1.
Emmanuel and Jesus,
• and shall bring forth a son, and as the angel of the Lord had bidden A. M. 4000.
B. C. 5. An. Olymp. à they shall call his name Emmanuel, || him, and took unto him his wife: An. Olymp. CXCIII. 4.
CXCIII. 4. which being interpreted is, God with | 25 And knew her not till she had
brought forth her first-born son: and he called 24 Then Joseph, being raised from sleep, did his name JESUS.
• Or, his name shall be called.
• Exod. 13. 2. Luke 2,7, 21.
is beprobię only) Evangelit, should
strong, or stout, man (993 geber) IN HIS YOUTH; and in this man. And hence, the text in Genesis speaks as fully of the reading the Syriac, Septuagint, Vulgate, and Arabic agree ; || virgin state of the person, from whom Christ, according to which are followed by the first version in the English language, | the flesh, should come, as that in the propket, or this in the as it stands in a MS. in my own possession—the weit of |Evangelist. According to the original promise, there was to a man in his waring youthe: so that this place, the only be a seed, a human being, who should destroy sin; but this one that can with any probability of success, be produced, seed, or human being, must come from the woman ALONE ; were the interpretation contended for correct, which I am || and no woman ALONE, could produce such a human being, by no means, disposed to admit, proves nothing. Besides, without being a virgin. Hence, A virgin shall bear a son, is the consent of so many versions in the opposite meaning, de the very spirit and meaning of the original text, independprives it of much of its influence in this question.
antly of the illustration given by the prophet : and the fact The word neny álmah, comes from Sby alan, to lie hid, recorded by the Evangelist, is the proof of the whole. But be concealed ; and we are told, that “virgins were so called, how could that be a sign to Ahaz, which was to take place so because they were concealed or closely kept up in their fathers' many hundred of years after ? I answer, the meaning of the houses, till the time of their marriage.” This is not correct : prophet is plain : not only Rezin and Pekah should be unsucsee the case of Rebecca, Gen. xxiv. 43. and my note there: cessful against Jerusalem at that time, which was the fact; buti that of Rachel, Gen. xxix. 6, 9. and the note there also : and || Jerusalem, Judea, and the house of David, should be both presee the case of Miriam, the sister of Moses, Exod. ii. 8. and || served, notwithstanding their depressedl state, and the multialso the Chaldee paraphrase on Lam. i. 4. where the virginstude of their adversaries, till the time should come, when a are represented as going out in the dance. And see also the VIRGIN should bear a son. This is a most remarkable circum-whole history of Ruth. This, being concealed, or kept at home, stance—the house of David could never fail, till a virgin should on which so much stress is la d, is purely fancifal ; for we conceive and bear a son—nor did it : but when that incredible find, that young unmarried women drew waler, kept sheep, and miraculous fact did.take place, the kingdom and house of gleaned publicly in the fields, &c. &c. and the same works | David became extinct! This is an irrefragable confutation of they perform among the Turcomans to the present day. This every argument a Jew can offer in vindication of his oppo-reason, therefore, does not account for the radical meaning of | sition to the gospel of Christ. Either the prophecy in Isaiah the word ; and we must seek it elsewhere. Another well || has been fulfilled, or the kingdom and house of David are yet known and often used root in the Hebrew longue, will cast standing. But the kingdom of David, we know, is destroyed : light on this subject. This is ba galah, which signifies to and where is the man, Jew or Gentile, that can shew us a redeal, make manifest, or uncover, and is often applied to ma- || single descendant of David, on the face of the earth? The trimonial connections, in different parts of the Mosaic law : || prophecy could not fail—the kingdom and house of David by alam, therefore, may be considered as imnlvin
have failed—the virgin, therefore, must have brought fortli cealinent of the virgin, as such, till lawful, marriage had taken || her son—and this son is Jesus, the Christ. Thus Moses, place. A virgin was not called. naby almah, because she was | Isaiah, and Matthew concur; and facts the most unequiconcealed by being kept at home in her father's house, which vocal, have confirmed the whole! Behold, the wisdom and is not true, but literally and physically, because, as a woman, providence of God!. she had not been uncovered-she had not known man. This | Notwithstanding what has been said above, it may be asked, fully applies to the blessed: virgin, see Luke i. 34. “ How can || In what sense could this name Immanuel be applied to Jesus this be, seeing I know no man?” and this text throws much Christ, if he be not truly and properly GOD? Could the Spirit light on the subject before us. This also is in perfect agree of truth ever design that Christians should receive him as an anment with the ancient prophecy, “ The seed of the woman gel or a mere man, and yet, in the very beginning of the gospel shall brujse the head of the serpent,” Gen. iji. 15. for the history, apply a character to him, which belongs only to the Most person who was to destroy the work of the devil,. was to be High God? Surely no. In what sense then, is Christ GOD WITH the progeny of the woman, without any concurrence of the lus? Jesus is called Immanuel, or God with us, in his incure
is not true, bo been un corred. virgin and this is in perfect woman
hat she had othersast an indirect proof
nation.—God united to our nature—God with man-God in when he first began to shed that blood, without which there . man.-God with us, by his continual protection. God with could be no remission of sins. - us, by the influences of his Holy Spirit--in the holy sacrament,
--in the preaching of his word in private prayer. And God The goodness of God is manifested, not only in his giving with us, through every action of our life, that we begin, con- | his son to save a lost world; but also in the choice of the tinue, and end in his name. He is God with us, to comfort, || persons who were his progenitors : among whom we find, enlighten, protect, and defend us in every time of temptation First, Saints, to excite our courage : Abraham, remarkable and trial, in the hour of death, in the day of judgment; and for his faith ; Isane, for his obedience ; and Jacob, for his God with us, and in us, and we, with and in him, to all || fervour and constancy. eternity.
Secondly, Penitent SINNERS, to excite our confidence : such Verse 25. Her first-born son] Toy vidy OUTNS Toy TEOWTOTOROV. || as David, Manasses, &c. Literally. That son of her's, the first-born one. "That Mary | Thirdly, Sinners, of whose repentance and salvation we might have had other children, any person may reasonably || hear nothing ; to put us on our guard. Who can read the and piously believe ; that she had others, many think exceed- | account of idolatrous Solomon, who, from the whole eviingly probable, and that this text is at least an indirect proof || dence of the sacred history, died in his sins, without of it. However this may be, the perpetual virginity of Mary | trembling? should not be made an article of faith. God has not made it Four women are mentioned in this genealogy : two of these one--indeed it can hardly bear the light of several texts in were adulteresscs, Tamar and Bathsheba ; and two were Genthe Gospels.
tiles, Rahab and Ruth, and strangers to the covenant of proHe knew her not) Had no matrimonial intercourse with mise; to teach us, that Jesus Christ came to save sinners; and her-Till she had brought forth that son of her's, of whom that though strangers to his people, we are not on that account, the Evangelist bad been just speaking, the first-born, the excluded from a salvation which God has designed for all men, eldest of the family, to whom the birth-right belonged, and He is not the God of the Jews only; he is also the God of the who was miraculously born before she knew any man, be- || Gentiles. ing yet in a state of virginity. See on chap. xiii. 55. The The state of the royal family of David, the circumstances virginity of Mary, previously to the birth of Christ, is an of the holy virgin and her spouse Joseph, the very remarkarticle of the utmost consequence to the Christian system ; | able prophecy of Isaiah, the literal and circumstantial fuland therefore it is an article of faith : her perpetual virginity | filment of it, the games given to our blessed Lord; the genea. is of no consequence; and the learned labour spent to prove it, || logical scroll of the family, &c. &c. are all so many proofs has produced a mere castle in the air. The thing is possible; l of the wisdom, goodness, and providence of God. Every but it never has been, and never can be proced.
occurrence seems, at first view, to be abandoned to fortu. He.called his name JESUS.] This name was given by the itous influence, and yet the result of each, shews, that God command of God, see ver. 16. and was imposed on Christ | managed the whole. These circumstances are of the great..when eight days old ; for then, according to the Jewish law, ll est importance; nor can the Christian Reader reflect on
be was circumcised : thus he had the name of Saviour given, || them without an increase of his faith and his piety. .
en just speaking-righe belonged, the
CHAPTER II. Wise men come from the East to worship Christ, 1, 2. Herod, hearing of the birth of our Lord, is greatly
troubled, 3; and makes enquiry of the chief priests and scribes, where the Christ should be born, 4. They infornl him of the prophecy relative to Bethlehem, 5, 6. The wise men, going to Bethlehem, are desired by Herod to bring him word when they have found the child, pretending that he wished to do him homage, 7, 8. The wise men are directed by a står to the place where the young child lay, adore him, and offer him gifts, 9all. Being warned of God uot to return to Herod, they depart into their own country another way, 12. Joseph and Mary are divinely warned to escape into Egypt, because Herod sought to destroy Jesus, 13, 14. They obey, and continue in Egypt till the death of Herod, 15. Ilerod finding that the wise men did not return, is enraged, and orders all the young children in Bethlehen, under two years of age, to be massacred, 16–18. Herod dies, and Joseph is divinely warned to return to the land of Israel, 19–2). Finding that Archelaus reigned in Judea in place of his father Herod, he goes to Galilee, and takes up his residence at Nazareth, 22, 23.