« הקודםהמשך »
When and how the Jeu's lost
their power of life and death.
sentence any one to death within the space of seven years, is || adhered to their own rules and constitutions; Thither they betermed a destroyer. R. Eliezer ben Azariah saith it is so, if | took themselves sometimes upon urgent necessity. The gloss bethey should but condemn one within seventy years. Maccoth, fore quoted excepts only the case of murder, with which, fol. 7. 1.
ainongst all their false accusations, they never charged Christ. “ II. It is obvious to any one how this foolish remissness, “ But however, suppose it were granted that the great and letting loose the reins of judgment would soon increase council met either in the Taberne, or some other place, the nunibers of robbers, murderers, and all kinds of wicked- || (which yet agreed by no means with their own tradition,) ness; and indeed they did so abundantly multiply, that the || did they deal truly, and as the matter really and indeed was, Sanhedrin neither could nor durst, as it ought, call the crimi- | with Pilate, when they tell him, It is not lawful for us to put nals to account. The law slept while wickedness was in the | any man to death ? He had said to them, Take ye him, and height of its revels, and punitive justice was so out of coun- || judge him according to your laws. We have indeed judged tenance, that as to uncertain murders they made no search ; and condemned him, but we cannot put any one to death. and against certain ones they framed no judgment. Since Was this that they said, in fact true ? How came they then the time that homicides multiplied, the beheading the heifer to stone the proto-martyr Stephen? How came they to stone ceased. Sotoh, fol. 47. 1. And in the place before quoted in Ben Sarda at Lydda ? Hieros. Sanhed. fol. 25. 4. How Arodah. When they saw the numbers of murderers so greatly I came they to burn the priest's daughter alive that was taken increase, that they could not sit in judgment upon them; they said, | in adultery? Bab. Sanbed. fol. 52. 1. and 51. 1. It is proLet us remove, &c. fol. 8. 2. So in the case of adultery, which | bable they had not put any one to death as yet, since the time we also observed in our notes on chap. viii. Since the time that that they had removed out of Gazith ; and so mnight the easier adultery so openly advanced under the second temple, they left persuade Pilate in that case. But their great design was to off trying the adulteress by the bitter water, &c. Maimon. in throw off the odium of Christ's death from themselves; at Sotoh, cap. 3.
least among the vulgar crowd ; fearing them, if the council “So that we see, the liberty of judging in capital matters was themselves should have decreed his execution. They seek no more taken from the Jews by the Romans, than the be- this evasion therefore, which did not altogether want some heading of the heifer, or the trial of the suspected wife by colour and pretext of truth; and it succeeded according to the bitter waters, was taken away by them, which no one what they desired. Divine Providence so ordering it, as the will affirm. It is a tradition of R. Chaia, From the day where. Evangelist intimates, ver. 32. That the saying of Jesus might in the temple was destroyed, though the Sanhedrin ceased; yet be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should the four kinds of death (wbich were wont to be inflicted by die : that is, be crucified according to the custom of the Rothe Sanhedrin) did not cease. For he that had deserved to be || mans. While I am upon this thought, I cannot but reflect stoned to death, either fell off from some house, or some wild upon that passage, than which nothing is more worthy obserbeust tore and devoured him. He that had deserved burning, || vation in the whole description, of the Roman beast in the either fell into some fire or some serpent bit him. He that had Revelation, chap. xiii. 4. The dragon which gave power to the deserved to be slain (i. e. with the sword) was either delivered || beast. We cannot say ibis of the Assyrian, Babylonish, or into the hands of some heathen king, or was murdered by robbers. || any other monarchy; for the Holy Scriptures do not say it. He that had deserved strangling, was either drowned in some ri- | But reason dictates, and the event itself tells us, that there ver, or choaked by a squinancy.
was something acted by the Roman empire in behalf of the “This must be observed from the Evangelists, that when they dragon, which was not compatible with any other, that is, had Christ in examination in the palace of the high-priest all the putting of the Son of God to death. Which thing we night; in the morning the whole Sanhedrin met that they might must remember, as often as we recite that article of our pass sentence of death upon him. Where then was this that creed, “ He suffered under Pontius Pilate," that is, was put to they met?
Questionless in the room Gazith—at least if they || death by the Roman empire.”
Jesus is scourged, crowned with thorns, and mocked by the soldiers, 1–3. He is brought forth by Pilate, wearing
the purple robe; and the Jews clamour for his death, 4-8. Conversation between our Lord and Pilate, 9–11. Pilate expostulates with the Jews on their barbarous demands ; but they become more inveterate, and he delivers Christ into their hunds, 12—16. He, bearing his cross, is led to Golgotha, and crucified, 17—29. The soldiers cast lots for his raiment, 23, 24. Jesus commends his mother to the care of John, 25-27. Jesus thirsts, receitas
Jesus is scourged and
crowned with thorns.
A. D. 29.
vinegar, and dies, 28–30. The Jews request that the legs of those who were crucified might be broken; the soldiers break those of the two thieves, and pierce the side of Christ: the scriptures fulfilled in these acts, 31-37. Joseph of Arimathea begs the body of Christ ; und Nicodemis brings spices to embalm it, 38—40. He is laid in a new sepulchre, 41, 42. A.M. 4083. THEN · Pilate therefore took Je- || saith unto them, Behold the man! A. M. 4033. TI
A. D. 29. An. Olymp sus, and scourged him.
6. When the chief priests therefore An. Olymp. 2 And the soldiers platted a crown and officers saw him, they cried out, of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith on him a purple robe,
unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him : for 3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they I find no fault in him. smote him with their hands.
7 The Jews answered him, " We have a law, 4 | Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith and by our law he ought to die, because he unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, made himself the Son of God.
that ye may know that I find no fault in him. 8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, 5 Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown he was the more afraid; of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate 9 And went again into the judgment hall, and
• Matt. 20. 19. & 27. 26. Mark 15. 15. Luke 18. 33. ch. 18. 38. ver. 6.
€ Acts 3. 13. Lev. 24. 16.
- Matt. 26. 65. ch. 5. 18. & 10. 33.
NOTES ON CHAP. XIX.
text, and which is wanting in the common editions, and is Verse 1. Pilate—took Jesus, and scourged him.] That is, supplied by our version in Italics, is added here on the authocaused him to be scourged: for we cannot with Bede suppose rity of almost every MS, and version of importance. As it that he scourged him with his own hand.
is omitted in the common editions, it affords another proof, As our Lord was scourged by order of Pilate, it is probable that they were not taken from the best MSS. he was scourged in the Roman manner, which was much Verse 7. We have a luw] In Lev. xxiv. 14–16. we find more severe than that of the Jews. The latter never gave that blasphemers of God were to be put to death : and the more than thirty-nine blows; for the law had absolutely for- || chief priests having charged Jesus with blasphemy, they bidden a man to be abused, or his flesh cut in this chastise therefore voted that he deserved to die. See Matt. xxvi. 65, ment, Deut. xxv. 3. The common method of whiping or 66. They might refer also to the law against false prophets, flogging in some places, especially that of a militury kind, is Deut. xviji. 20. a disgrace to ihe nation where it is done; to the laws, and to The Son of God.] Il is certain that the Jews understood humanity. See Matt. xxvii. 26. and the note there. Though this in a very peculiar sense. When Christ called himself it was customary to scourge the person who was to be cruci- the Son of God, they understood it to imply positive equality fied; yet it appears that Pilate had another end in view by to the Supreme Being; and if they were wrong, our Lord scourging our Lord. He hoped that this would have satisfied never attempted to correct them. the Jews, and that he might then have dismissed Jesus. This Verse 8. He was the more afruid] While Jesus was accused appears from Luke xxuj. 16.
only as a disturber of the peace of the nation, which accusaVerse 2. Platted a crown of thorns] See on Matt. xxvii. tion Pilate knew to be false ; he knew he could deliver him, 29.
because the judgment in that case belonged to himself: but Verse 5. And Pilate saith] The word Pilate, which we when the Jews brought a charge against him of the most supply in our version, is added by one MS. the latter Syriac, capital nature, from their own laws; he then saw that he had latter Arabic, and the Coptic.
every thing to fear, if he did not deliver Jesus to their will. Behold the man!) The man who, according to you, affects The Sanhedrin must not be offended—the populace must not the government, and threatens to take away the empire from be irritated: from the former a complaint might be sent the Romans. Behold the man, whom ye have brought unto against him to Cæsar : the latter might revolt, or proceed to me as an enemy to Cæsar ; and as a sower of the seeds of se. some acts of violence, the end of which could not be foreseen. dition in the land! In him I find no guilt; and from him Pilate was certainly to be pitied : he saw what was right, and have no occasion to fear any evil.
he wished to do it; but he had not sufficient firmness of mind. Verse 6. Crucify num] Autoy, which is necessary to the
He did not attend to that important maxim, Fiat justitia ;
Pilate seeks to release Christ, but
the Jews clamour for his death.
A. D. 9.
A. D. 29.
saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? | lease him : but the Jews cried out, A. M. 4033 An. Olymp. * But Jesus gave him no answer. saying, “If thou let this man go, thou An. Olymp.
10 Then saith Pilate unto him, Speak- art not Cæsar's friend : d whosoever est thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I maketh himself a king, speaketh against Cæsar. have power to crucify thee, and have power to 13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, release thee?
he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the 11 Jesus answered, • Thou couldest have no judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavepower at all against me, except it were given ment, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. thee from above: therefore he that delivered 14 And it was the preparation of the passme unto thee hath the greater sin.
over, and about the sixth hour: and he saith 12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to re- unto the Jews, Behold your king !
• Isai. 53. 7. Matt. 27. 12, 14.- Luke 22. 53. ch. 7. 30.
Luke 23. 2.
d Acts 17. 7.-e Matt. 27. 62.
rüat cælum. Let justice be done, though the heavens should ful princes in the world. During his reign, accusations of be dissolved. He had a vile people to govern, and it was not conspiracies were much in fashion : they were founded on an easy matter to keep them quiet. Some suppose that Pi- the silliest pretences, and punished with excessive rigour. late's fear arose, from hearing that Jesus had said, he was the | See Calmet, Tacit. An. 1. i. c. 72, 73, 74. Sueton. in Tiber. Son of God: because Pilate, who was polytheist, believed that it was possible for the offspring of the gods to visit mor- Verse 13. The Pavement] A.TWTEWTON, literally, a stone tals; and he was afraid to condemn Jesus, for fear of offend- pavement : probably it was that place in the open court, ing some of the supreme deities. Perhaps the question in the where the chair of justice was set, for the præfects of prosucceeding verse refers to this.
vinces always held their courts of justice in the open air; and Verse 9. Whence art thou ?] This certainly does not mean, which was paved with stones of various colours, like that of From what country art thou ? for Pilate knew this well || Ahasuerus, Esth. i. 6. of red, blue, white, and black marble; enough : but it appears, he made this enquiry to know who what we still term Mosaic work, or something in imitation of were the parents of Christ; what were his pretensions, and it; such as the Roman pavements frequently dug np in this whether be really were a demigod, such as the heathens be- and other countries, where the Romans have had military lieved in. To this question we find our Lord gave no answer.
stations. He had already told him that bis kingdom was not of this Gabbatha.] That is, an elevated place; from 33 gabal, world; and that he came to erect a spiritual kingdom, not a high, raised up: and it is very likely that the judgment seat temporal one : chap. xviii. 36, 37. This answer he deemed was considerably elevated in the court, and that the governor sufficient, and he did not chuse to satisfy a criminal curiosity, I went up to it by steps : and perhaps these very steps were nor to enter then into any debate concerning the absurdity of what was called the Pavement. John does not say thai Lithothe heathen worship.
strolon, or the Pacement, is the meaning of the word Gabbatha ; Verse 11. Hath the greater sin ] It is a sin in thee to con- but that the place was called so in the Hebrew. The place, was demn me, while thou art convinced in thy conscience that I probably called Lithostroton, or the Putement : the seat of judgam innocent : but the Jews who delivered me to thee, and ment, Gabbatha, the raised or elevated place. Judas who delivered me to the Jews, have the greater crime In several MSS. and Versions, the Scribes not understanding to answer for. Thy ignorance in some measure excuses thee ; || the Hebrew word, wrote it variously, Gabbatha, Gabatha, but the rage and malice of the Jews put them at present, out Kupphatha, Kappata, Gennetha, Gennaesa, and Gennesar. of the reach of mercy.
Lightfoot conjectures that the Pavement here, means the Verse 12. Pilate sought to release him] Pilate made fire room Gazith in the temple, in which the grand council, several attempts to release our Lord; as we may learn from called the Sanhedrin, held their meetings. Luke xxiii. 4, 15, 20, 22, John xix. 4, 12, 13.
Verse 14. It was the preparation of the pass-over] That is, Thou art not Cæsar's friend] Thou dost not act like a per-| the time in which they were just preparing to kill the passon wbo has the interest of the Emperor at heart. Ambassa-chal lamb. Critics differ widely concerning the time of our dors, præfects, counsellors, &c. were generally termed the Lord's crucifixion; and this verse is variously understood. friends of the Emperor. This insinuation determined Pilate Some think it signifies merely the preparation of the sabbath; to make no longer resistance: he was afraid of being accused, and that it is called the preparation of the pass-over, because and he knew Tiberius was one of the mo:t jealous and distrust-|| the preparation of the sabbath happened that year on the ere.
Christ is crucified. The
inscription on his cross.
15 But they cried out, Away with 18 Where they crucified him, and A. M. 4033, An. Olymp. him, away with him, crucify him. Pi- two other with him, on either side An. Olymp.
late saith unto them, Shall I crucify one, and Jesus in the midst. your King ? The chief priests answered, · We 19 ° And Pilate wrote a title, and put it have no king but Cæsar.
on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS 16 Then delivered he him therefore unto | OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, || JEWS. and led him away.
20 This title then read many of the Jews : 17 And he bearing his d cross, went forth for the place where Jesus was crucified was into a place called the place of a skull, which is nigh to the city: and it was written in Hecalled in the Hebrew Golgotha :
brew, and Greek, and Latin.
* Gen. 49. 10.- - Matt. 27. 26, 31. Mark 15. 15. Luke 23. 94.—Matt.
27. 31, 33. Mark 15. 21, 22. Luke 23. 26, 33.
& Numb. 15. 36. Heb. 13. 12. Matt. 27. 37. Mark 15. 26. Luke
of the pass-over. Others think that the preparation of the John omits this circumstance, together with the insults which sabbath, is distinctly spoken of in ver. 31. and was different Christ received from the soldiers. See Matt. xxvii. 26, &c. from what is here mentioned. Contending nations may be | Mark xv. 16, &c. more easily reconciled, than contending critics.
Verse 17. Bearing his cross] He bore it all alone first; The sixth hour] Mark says, chap. xv. 25. that it was the when he could no longer carry the whole through weakness, third nour. Testn, the third, is the reading of DL. four occasioned by the ill usage he had received, Simon, a Cyothers, the Chron. Aler. Severus, Antiochen. Ammonius, with || renian, helped him to carry it: see the note on Matt. xxvii. 32. others mentioned by Theophylact. Nonnus, who wrote in the Golgotha.] See on Matt. xxvii. 33. fifth century, read Testn, the third. As in ancient times, all Verse 18. Two other] Matthew and Mark in the parallel the numbers were written in the Manuscripts, not at large, places call them robbers or murderers; they probably belonged but in numeral letters, it was easy for 5 three, to be mis- to the gang of Barabbas. See about the figure of the cross, taken for ş sir. The Coder Bezæ has generally numeral and the nature of crucifixion on Matt. xxvii. 35. letters instead of words. Bengel observes that he has found Verse 19. Pilate wrote a title] See on Matt. xxvii. 37. the letter gamma, Three, exceedingly like the s episemon, Verse 20. Hebrew,-Greek,—Lutin.] See on Luke xxiii. 38. six, in some MSS. The major part of the best critics think On Matt. xxvii. 37. I have given this title in Hebrew, Greek, that tgut», the third, is the genuine reading. See the note on and Latin, as mentioned by this Evangelist. The Reader, howMark xv. 25.
ever, will not be displeased to find the same title repeated here, Behold your king!] This was probably intended as an in a character which was written in the fourth century, and is irony; and by thus turning their pretended serious apprehen- probably nearly resembling that used in the earliest ages of sions into ridicule, he hoped still to release him.
Christianity. The Greek and Latin character, which is inserted Verse 15. Away with him) Açou : probably this means, here, is an exact fac-simile of that in the Coder Beza, cut and kill him. In Isai. Ivii. 1. it is said, xou ardess doxalos ceportat, cast at the expense of the University of Cambridge, for Dr. and just men are taken away; that is, according to some, by Kipling's edition of that most venerable MS. which contains a violent death.
the Greek text of the four Evangelists and Acts; and the Verse 16. Then delivered he him] This was not till after he Latin text of the same, as it existed before the time of St. Jerom. had washed his hands, Matt. xxvii. 24. to shew by that sym- Having examined the MS. myself, I can say that these types bolical action, that he was innocent of the death of Christ. are a very faithful representation of the original.
In Hebrew, Eegaïso.
ישוע נצביא מלכא דיהודיא
In Greek, Enamuoso.
інсoүс о NAZWJEOC' o bacileyC TWN 10 YadIWN:
In Latin, Pwaiso.
iehŞUs NazareNUS: Rex iudaeorum:
The soldiers divide his raiment,
and cast lots for his vesture.
A. M. 4033.
21 Then said the chief priests of|| 24 They said therefore among them- A.M. 4083. An. Olymp. the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The selves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots An. Olymp.
King of the Jews; but that he said, I for it, whose it shall be: that the scripam King of the Jews.
ture might be fulfilled, which saith, “They 22 Pilate answered, What I have written, Iparted my raiment among them, and for my have written.
vesture they did cast lots. These things there23 . Then the soldiers, when they had cru-fore the soldiers did. cified Jesus, took his garments, and made four 25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the now the coat was without seam, woven from wife of 'Cleophas', and Mary Magdalene. the top throughout.
26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and
• Matt. 27. 35. Mark 15. 24. Luke 23. 34. — Or, wrought. - Ps.
d Matt. 27. 55. Mark 15. 40. Luke 23. 49.- Or, Clopas. - Luke
Verse 22. What I have written, I have written] That is, I even to the sleeves and button-boles, without a seam; and have will not alter what I have written. The Roman laws forbad seen some of the garments which she made : that the thing is the sentence to be altered wben once pronounced; and as possible I have the fullest proof. For an explanation of xitat this inscription was considered as the sentence pronounced
ματιον, , which we translate cloak and coat, see the note on against our Lord, therefore it could not be changed: but this Luke vi. 29. form of speech is common in the Jewish writings, and means Verse 24. That the scripture might be fulfilled] These words simply, what is done shall continue. Pilate seems to speak || are found in the common printed text, in Matt. xxvii. 35. but prophetically. This is the king of the Jews: they shall have they are omitted by ABDEFGHKLMSU. Mt. BHV, 150 no other Messiah for ever.
others; the principal Versions, Chrysostom, Tit. Bost. ExVerse 23. To every soldier a part] So it appears there were thymius, Theophylact, Origen, Hilary, Augustin, Juren. See four soldiers employed in nailing him to, and rearing up the Griesbach's second edition. But in the text of John they are
not omitted by one MS. version, or ancient commentator. The coat was without seam] Several have seriously doubted The words are taken from Psal. xxii. 18. where it appears whether this can be literally understood, as they imagine that they were spoken pro
they were spoken prophetically of this treatment which Jesus nothing with sleeves, &c. can be woven without a seam. But || received, upwards of a thousand years before it took place! Baun, de Vest. Sacer. Heb. I. 1. c. 16. has proved, not only But it should be remarked that this form of speech which that such things were done by the ancients, and are still frequently occurs, often means no more than that the thing so done in the East; but himself got a loom inade on which these fell out, that such a portion of scripture may be exactly apkinds of tunics, vents, sleeves, and all, were woven in one piece.
plied to it. See much on this subject in Calmet.
Verse 25. Mary the wife of Cleophas) She is said, in Matt. Our Lord was now in the grand office of high-priest, and xxvii. 56. (see the note there) and Mark xv. 40. to have been was about to offer the expiatory victim for the sin of the world. the mother of James the Less, and of Joses; and this James her And it is worthy of remark, that the very dress he was in, was son is said, in Matt. x. 3. to have been the son of Alpheus ; similar to that of the Jewish high-priest. The following is | hence it seems that Alpheus and Cleopas were the same person. the description given of his dress by Josephus, Ant. b. iii. || To which may be added, that Hegesippus is quoted by Euć. vii. s. 4. “ Now this coat (x-two) was not composed of two sebius, Hist. Eccles. l. jii. c. 11. as saying that Cleopas was the pieces, nor was it sewed together upon the shoulders and sides, brother of Joseph, the husband of the virgin. Theophylact says, but it was one long vestment, so woven as to have an opening that Cleopas, (brother of Joseph, the husband of the virgin) for the neck; not an oblique one, but parted all along the having died childless, his brother Joseph married his widor, back and breast : it was also parted where the hands were to hy whom he had four sons, called by the Evangelists the come out.” A little before, the same author says, that " the brothers of our Lord, and two daughters, the one named high-priest had a long robe of a blue colour, which hung down Salome, the other Mary daughter of Cleopas, because she was to the feet, and was put over all the rest.” It is likely that this his daughter according to law, though she was the daughter of was the same with that upper garment which the soldiers divided Joseph according to nature. There are several conjectures among them, it being probably of a costly stuff. I may just || equally well founded with this last to be met with in the add here, that I knew a woman who knit all kinds of clothes, ll ancient commentators : but in many cases, it is very difficult