« הקודםהמשך »
Āt his last supper, Christ
washes his disciples' feet.
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A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
O W before the feast of the 1 3 Jesus knowing that the Father A.N. 4038.
pass-over, when Jesus knew that had given all things into his hands, An. Olymp.
bhis hour was come, that he should and that he was come from God, depart out of this world unto the Father, hav- and went to God; ing loved his own which were in the world, he 4 'He riseth from supper, and laid aside his loved them unto the end.
garments; and took a towel, and girded him2 And supper being ended, the devil having self. now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's 5 After that, he poureth water into a bason, son, to betray him ;
and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to
• Matt. 26. 2. Luke 22. 1. ch. 12. 23. & 17. 1, 11.- Luke 22. 3.
& Matt. 11. 27. & 28. 18. ch. 3. 35. & 17. 2. Acts 2. 36. 1 Cor. 15. 27.
Hebr. 2. 8.ch. 8. 42. & 16. 28. Luke 22.27. Pbil. 2. 7, 8.
NOTES ON CHAP. XIII.
the passion, and at once goes from Monday evening to ThursVerse 1. Now before the feast of the pass-over, when Jesus day evening. It is remarkable that St. John says nothing knew, &c.] Or, as some translate, Now Jesus having known about the institution of the Holy Sacrament, which Matt. before the feast of the pass-over, that his hour was comé, &c. xxvi. 26, &c. Mark xiv. 22, &c. and Luke xxii. 19, &c. deThe supper mentioned in ver. 2. is supposed to bave been scribe so particularly. No other reason can be assigned for that on the Thursday evening, when the feast of the pass-this, than, that he found it completely done by the others ; over began : and though in our common translation, this and that he only designed to supply their defects. passage seems to place the supper before that feast; yet, ac- The devil having now put into the heart] Judas formed his cording to the amended translation, what is here said, is con- plot six days before this, on occasion of what happened at the sistent with what we read in the other Evangelists. See Matt. || house of Simon the leper : see Matt. xxvi. 14. Calmet. xxvi. 2. John xü. ).
Verse 3. Knowing that the Father had given, &c.] Our Having loved his own] His disciples.
Lord seeing himself almost at the end of his race, and being Which were in the world] Who were to continue longer in about to leave his apostles, thought it necessary to leave them its troubles and difficulties.
a lesson of humility exemplified by himself, to deliver them He loved them unto the end.] Continued his fervent affec-| from the bad influence of those false ideas, which they formed tion towards them, to his latest breath; and gave them that concerning the nature of his kingdom. On all occasions preconvincing proof of it, which is mentioned ver. 5. That viously to this, the disciples had shewn too much attachment the disciples alone, are meant here, every man must see. to worldly honours and dignities : if this ambition had not
Verse 2. And supper being ended] Rather, destrou y Erope Evou, been removed, the consequences of it would have been dreadwhile supper was preparing. To support this new translation ful in the establishment of the religion of Christ; as after of the words, it may be remarked, that from ver. 26. and 30. his death, it would have divided and infallibly dispersed them. it appears that the supper was not then ended : nay it is pro-It was necessary therefore to restrain this dangerous passion ; bable that it was not then begun; because the washing of feet and to confirm by a remarkable example what he had so (ver. 5.) was usually practised by the Jews before they en- often told them, that true greatness consisted in the depth of tered
upon their meals, as may be gathered from Luke vii. 44. humility; and that those who were the willing servants of all, and from the reason of the custom. I think, that John wrote should be the highest in the account of God. not yevomerou, but ysroutyou, as in BL. Cant. and Origen, which Verse 4. He riseth from supper] Not from eating, as Bishop latter reading is approved by several eminent critics, and Pearce has well observed; but from his place at table; proshould be translated as above. By the supper I suppose to be bably the dishes were not as yet laid down, though the guests meant, not only the eating of it, but the preparing and dress were seated. According to the custom of the Jews and other ing of it, and doing all things necessary, previously to the Asiatics, this washing must have taken place before the supe eating of it. The devil bad, before this time of the supper, || per. See on ver. 2. put it into Judas's heart to betray his Master. See Matt. Laid aside his garments] That is, his gown or upper coat, xxvi. 14, &c. Mark xiv. 10, 1). and Luke xxii. 3, &c. See with the girdle wherewith it was girded close to his tunic or also Bishop Pearce, from whose judicious commentary, the under coat; and instead of this girdle, he tied a towel about preceding notes are principally taken.
him, 1. that he might appear in the character of a servant ; Calmet observes, that John, designing only to supply what and 2. that he might have it in readiness to dry their feet after was omitted by the other Evangelists, passes over all the trans- he had washed them. actions of the Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, before Verse 5. Poureth water into a bason, &c.] This was the
The conversation between
our Lord and his disciples.
A. D. 29.
A.M1.4033. wipe them with the towel wherewith my feet. Jesus answered him, "If I 4. M. 4663. An. Olymp. he was girded.
wash thee not, thou hast no part with An. Olynep 6 Then cometh he to Simon Peter: me. and · Peter said unto him, Lord, dost thou 9 Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my wash my feet?
feet only, but also my hands and my head. · 7 Jesus answered and said unto him, What I 10 Jesus saith to him, He that is washed, do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know needeth not save to wash his feet, but is hereafter.
clean every whit; and
and “ye are clean, but not 18 Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash || all :
a Gr. he. See Matt. 3. 14. ver. 12.
Ch. 3. 5. 1 Cor. 6. 11. Eph. 5. 26. Tit. 3. 5. Heb. 10. 23.—ch. 15. 5.
office of the meanest slaves. When David sent to Abigail,|| It was the common custom of our Lord, to pass from sento inform her that he had chosen her for wife, she arose and sible and temporal things, to those which were spiritual and said : Bshold, let thy hundmaid be a servANT, t0 WASH the eternal; and to take occasion from every thing that presented feet of the servants of my Lord: 1 Sam. xxv. 41. Some itself, to instruct his disciples, and to raise their souls to God. of the ancients have supposed, that our Lord began with If the discourse was of bread, water, learen, father, mother, washing the feet of Judas, to inspire bim with sentiments of riches, &c. he immediately changed the literal sense, and uncompunction and remorse, to melt him down with kindness, der the figure of these things, spoke of matters altogether and to shew all his disciples how they should act towards spiritual and divine. I have met with many good persons, their enemies. Dr. Lightfoot supposes he washed the feet of who have attempted to imitate our blessed Lord in this, but Peter, James, and John only; but this is not likely: the I never knew one to succeed in it. The reason is, ii requires verb azxeoleks in the Sacred Writings, signifies not only to not only very deep piety, but sound sense, together with an commence, but to finish an act, Acts i. 1. and in the Septua- | accurate knowledge of the nature and properties of the subgint, Gen. ii. 3. There is every reason to believe, that hejects, which in this way, the person wishes to illustrate ; and washed the feet of all the twelve. See on v. 9.
very few can be found, who have such deep philosophical Verse 6. Lord, dost thou wush my feet ?] Every word knowledge, as such cases require. The large folio, which a here is exceedingly emphatic. Peter had often seen the great good-intentioned man printed on the metaphors, is, alas! à humility of his Lord, but never saw his condescension so par. || standing proof, how little mere piety. can do in matters of ticularly marked as in tliis instance.
this kind, where the sciences, and especially practical philoVerse 7. What I do thou knowest not now, &c.] As if our sophy, are totally wanting. Jesus Christ was a consummate Lord had said ; Permit me to do it now, and I will shortly | philosopher : every subject appears grand and noble in his explain to you the nature of this action, and my motives for hands. See an ample proof in the preceding chapter, ver. 24. doing it.
Verse 9. Lord, not my feet only, &c.] It appears that Peter Thou shalt know hereafter.) METAL TOUTO, after this business entered into our Lord's meaning, and saw that this was emis finished. And so we find he explained the whole to them, blematical of a spiritual cleansing: therefore he wishes to be as soon as he had finished the washing : see ver. 12-17. I completely washed. cannot think that this refers to any particular instruction re- Verse 10. He that is washed] That is, he who has been in ceived on this head, after the day of Pentecost, as some have the bath, as probably all the apostles had lately been, in order conjectured.
to prepare themselves the better for the paschal solemnity: Verse 8. If I rush thee not, thou hast no part with me.] for on that occasion, it was the custom of the Jews to bathe Thou canst not be my disciple unless I wash thee. It is cer- twice. tain, Christ did not mean to exclude him from the apostolic Needeth not save to wash his feet) To cleanse them from office, if he should persist, through the deepest reverence for any dirt or dust that might have adhered to them, in consehis Master, to refuse to let him wash his feet : this act of his quence of walking from the bath to the place of supper.
The was emblematical of something spiritual; of something that washing therefore of the feet of such persons, was all that concerned the salvation of Peter; and without which washing, I was necessary, previously to their sitting down to table. he could neither be an apostle, nor be finally saved; there- If these last words of our Lord had any spiritual reference, føre our Lord said, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with it is not easy to say what it was. A common opinion is the me. There is a mystical washing by the blood of Christ, | following: Ile who is washed—who is justified through the John i. 7. and by his Spirit, 1 Cor. vi. 11. Tit. iii. 5, 6. l blood of the Lamb; needeth only to wash his fect-to regalate On washing their feet. He teaches
them the necessity of humility.
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A. M. 4033. 11 For a he knew who should betray | ye should do as I have done to
I A. M. 4053. An. Olymp. him; therefore said he, Ye are not all you.
An. Olymp. clean.
16. ' Verily, verily, I say unto you, · 12 So after he had washed their feet, and had The servant is not greater than his lord ; taken his garments, and was set down again, he neither he that is sent, greater than he that said unto them, Know ye what I have done to sent him.
17 5 If ye know these things, happy are ye · 13 "Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say if ye do them. well; for so I am.
18 s I speak not of
all: I know whom I · 14 · If I then, your Lord and Master, have have chosen : but that the scripture may be washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one fulfilled, "He that eateth bread with me hath another's feet.
lifted up his heel against me. : 15 For I have given you an example, that 19 NowI tell you before it come, that
*Ch. 6. 64. Matt. 23. 8, 10. Luke 6.46. 1 Cor. 8. 6. & 19. 3. Phil. 2. 11.- Luke 22. 27.-Rom. 12. 10. Gal. 6. 1, 2. 1 Pet. 5. 5.e Matt. 11. 29. Phil. 2. 5. 1 Pet. 2. 21. 1 Jolin 2. 6.
f Matt. 10. 24. Mark 9. 35. Luke 6.40. ch. 15. 20,- Jam. 1.95 n Ps. 41. 9. Matt. 26. 23. ver. 21.-cb. 14. 29. & 16. 4.- Or, From henceforth.
all his affections and desires ; and to get by faith, his con- their successors in the ministry; therefore I think the original science cleansed from any fresh guill, which he may have word Anosodos, should be translated' apostle, rather than he contracted since his justification.
that is sent, because the former rendering ascertains, and · Ye are clean, but not all.] Eleren of you are upright and determines the meaning better. sincere : the twelfth is a traitor. So it appears he had washed Verse 17. If ye know these things, happy, &c.) True hapthe feet of all the twelve : but as no external ablutions can piness consists in the knowledge of God, and in obedience to purify a hypocrite or a traitor, therefore Judas still remained him. A man is not happy because he knows much; but unclean.
because he receives much of the divine nature, and is, in all Verse 12. Know ye what I have done] Our Lord had told his conduct, conformed to the divine will. They who have Peter, in the presence of the rest, ver. 7. that he should after- | read many books (says Menu) are more exalted than such as wards know what was the intent and meaning of this washing; have seldom studied; they who retuin what they have read, and now he begins to fulfil his promise; therefore I think it than forgetful readers; they who fully understand, than such more likely that he gives a command here, than asks a question, as only remember ; and they who perform their known duly, as he knew himself that they did not comprehend his design. than such as barely know it. Sacred knowledge and devotedness On this account ywrxett, might be translated, in the impera- to God, are the means by which a man can arrive at beatitive mood, CONSIDER what I have done.
tude.” See Institutes of MENU, c. xii. Inst. 103, 104. For a Verse 13. Ye call me Master and Lord] o Sidarxados xan o heathen, this saying is very remarkable. xuftos, similar to 137, Rabbi, and 12, Mar, titles very common Verse 18. I speak not of you all] This is a continuation of among the Jewish doctors, as may be seen in Schoetgen. This that discourse which was left off at the tenth verse. double title was not given except to the most accredited teach- ceding verses may be read in a parenthesis. ers, Tip 37, Rabbi vemore, my master, my lord!.
I know. whom I have chosen] I am not deceived in my Verse 14. Ye also ought to wash one another's feet.] That choice: I perfectly foresaw every thing that has happened, or is, ye should be ready, after my example, to condescend to all can happen. I have chosen Judas, not as a wicked man, nor the weakness of your brethren ; to be willing to do the mean- | that he should become such, but I plainly foresaw that he est offices for them, and to prefer the least of them in honour would abuse my bounty; give way to iniquity; deliver me to yourselves.
into the hands of my enemies, and bring ruin прот
limself. Verse 16. The servant is not greater than his lord] Christ That the scripture may be fulfilled] Or, thus the scripture is has ennobled the acts of humility by practising them himself. fulflled. Christ applies to Judas what David had said of his The true glory.of a Christian consists in being, in his measure, li rebellious son Absalom; Psal. xli. 9. who was one of the as humble as his lord.
most express eniblems of this traitor : see.on. chap. xii. 38, 39. Neither is he that is sent] Oude Atosoros, nor an apostle. He that eateth bread with-me] That is, he who was in habits As I think these words were intended for the suppression of of the utmost intánacy with me. all worldly, ambition and lordly conduct in the apostles and Hath lifted up his heel] An allusion to a restive ill-natured
Christ points out Judas
Iscariot as the traitor.
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be 24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned A. M. 4033 An. Olymp. lieve that I am he.
to him, that he should ask who it An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
20 “Verily, verily, I say unto you, should be, of whom he spake. He that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth 25 He then lying on Jesus' breast, saith unto me; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him him, Lord, who is it? that sent me.
26 Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall 21 6. When Jesus had thus said, he was give a 'sop, when I have dipped it. And when troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Ve- he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Isrily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you cariot, the son of Simon. shall betray me.
27 5 And after the sop Satan entered into him. 22 Then the disciples looked one on another, Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do doubting of whom he spake.
quickly. 23 Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom 28 Now no man at the table knew for what one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.
intent he spake this unto him.
Luke 22. 3.
• Matt. 10. 40. & 25. 40. Luke 10), 16.-__ Matt. 26. 21. Mark 14. 18.
Luke 22. 21.-ich. 12. 47. - Acts 1. 17. 1 John 2. 19.
• Ch. 19. 26. & 20. 9. & 21.7, 20, 21.--- Or, morsel.–
ch. 6. 70.
horse, who sometimes kicks even the person who feeds and The person here mentioned was John, the writer of this histakes care of him.
tory, who being more tenderly loved by Christ than the rest, Verse 19. That-ye may believe] These frequent predic- had always that place at table which was nearest to his Lord. tions of his death, so circumstantial in themselves, had the Verse 25. He then lying on Jesus' breast] Emitow, laying most direct tendency to confirm the disciples not only in the his head against the breast of Christ, in a loving, respectful belief of his being the Messiab; but also in that of his om
As the expressions in the text are different here niscience.
from those in the preceding verse, it shews that Jobn altered Verse 20. He that receiveth whomsoerer I send] See similar his position at table, in order to ask the question which Peter words, Matt. x. 40, &c. Our Lord spoke this to comfort his suggested ; which he probably did by whispering to our Lord; disciples : he shewed them that although they should be for, from ver. 28. we may learn, that the other disciples bad rejected by many, they would be received by several; and that not heard what John said; and it is likely that the following whoever received them, should reap the utmost benefit by it. words— It is he to whom I shall give the morsel when I hate
Verse 21. Was troubled in spirit] See the note on chap. xi. 33. dipped it ; were whispered back by Christ to John.
Verse 26. And when he had dipped the sop] Dr. Lightfoot Shall betray me.] Ilagadwoan us, will deliver me up. Judas observes that it was no unusual thing to dip a sop and give it had already betrayed our blessed Lord, and he was now on the to any person; and it is probable that the rest of the disciples point of delivering him up into the hands of the chief priests. considered it as given to Judas that he might hurry to do some By all these warnings, did not our Lord intend that Judas' work on wh he wished to employ him ; and not wait to should be benefited ? That he should repent of his iniquity, finish his supper in a regular manner. They did not hear the and turn, and find mercy ?
question that John asked, nor our Lord's answer: but they Verse 22. Looked one on unother, doubting of whom he no doubt heard the words, That thou doest, do quickly and spuke ] See the notes on Matt. xxvi. 20—25. Every one might understand them as above. but Judas, conscious of his own innocence, looked about upon Verse 27. Satan entered into him.) He had entered into bim all the rest, wondering who in that company could be such a before, and now he enters again, to strengthen him in his traitor! Even Judas himself is not suspected. Is not this a purpose of delivering up his master. But the morsel was not proof that his general conduct had been such as to subject him the cause of this entering in; the giving of it only marks the to no suspicion ?
time in which the Devil confirmed Judas in his traitorous pur. Verse 23. Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom] The pose. Some have thought that this morsel was the sacrament Jews of those days, at their suppers, reclined, supported by of the Lord's supper: but this is an utter mistake. their left arm, on couches placed round the table, as the Thut thou doest, do quickly.) As if he had said, “Thou Grecks and Romans did. On each couch there were two or art past all counsel ; thou hast filled up the measure of tby three persons; and the head of one of them came near to the iniquity, and hast wholly abandoned thyself to Satan: I will bo:om of him who reclined above him on the same couch. not force thee to turn from thy purpose, and without this
Judas leaves the disciples. Christ
gives them a new commandment.
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29 For some of them thought, be- || also glorify him in himself, and shall A. M. 4053. An. Olymp. cause · Judas had the bag, that Jesus straightway glorify bim.
An. Olymp. had said unto him, Buy those things 33 Little children, yet a little while that we have need of against the feast; or, that I am with you. Ye shall seek me: 'and as I he should give something to the poor.
said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot 30 He then, having received the sop, went come; so now I say to you. immediately out: and it was night.
34 8 A new commandment I give unto you, 31 s Therefore when he was gone out, Jesus That ye love one another; as I have loved you, said, "Now is the Son of man glorified, and that ye also love one another. ‘God is glorified in him.
35 "By this shall all men know that ye are my 32 “If God be glorified in him, God shall disciples, if ye have love one to another.
• Ch. 12. 6.
_. ch. 17. 1,
0 ch. 12. 23. ch. 14. 13. 1 Pet. 4. 11.-
Lev. 19. 18. ch. 15. 12, 17. Epli. 5. 2. 1 Thess. 4. 9. James 2.
thou wilt not. Thy designs are all known to me; what thou him, tubus, immediately : as he did, not only in the miracles art determined to do, and I to permit, do directly ; delay not, wrought at his death, but also in that remarkable case men. I am ready."
tioned, chap. xviii. 6. when the whole crowd that came to Verse 29. Buy those things that we have need of against the seize him, were driven back with a word of his mouth; and fell feast] Calmet's observation here has weight in it.
« The to the ground. disciples, who thought our Lord had said this to Judas, knew Verse 33. Little children] Or rather, beloved children. well that on the day of the pass-over there was neither buying Texna, a word frequently used by this Apostle in 'his Epistles. nor selling in Jerusalem. This, therefore, did not happen on It is an expression which implies great tenderness and affecthe paschal evening; for the feast, according to the common tion; and such as a fond mother uses to her most beloved opinion, must have begun the preceding evening, and Jesus babes. Now that Judas was gone out, he could use this have eaten the pass-over with his disciples the night before epithet without any restriction of meaning. his death :-but it appears to me, by the whole text of St. Yet a little while] The end of my life is at hand; Judas John, that the pass-over did not begin till the time in which is gone to consummate his treason : I have but a few hours to our Lord expired upon the cross. It was then that they were be with you; and you shall be by and bye scattered. sacrificing the paschal lambs in the temple. It is therefore Ye shall seek me] For a few days ye shall feel great distress probable, that the apostles believed that Judas went to pur- because of my absence. chase a lamb, and the other necessary things for the evening, Whither I go, ye cannot yet come] Your time is not
The and for the day of the pass-over.” On this subject, the Jews shall die in their sins, martyrs to their infidelity; but ye Reader is requested to consult the observations at the end shall die in the truth, martyrs for your Lord. of Matt. xxvi. where the subject is considered at large. Verse 34. A new commandment I give unto you] In what
Give something to the poor.] It is well known that our Lord sense are we to understand that this was a new commandment? and his disciples lived on public charity: and yet they gave Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, was a positive precep alms out of what they had thus received. From this we learn, of the law : Lev. xix. 18. and it is the very same that Christ that even those who live on charity themselves, are expected repeats here; how then was it new.? Our Lord answers this to divide a little with those who are in deeper distress and question, Even as I have loved you. Now Christ more than want.
fulfilled the Mosaic precept; he not only loved his neighbour Verse 30. He went immediately out: and it was night.] He set As himself, but he loved him more than himself, for he laid off to Jerusalem from Bethany, which was but about two miles down his life for men. In this, he calls upon the disciples to distant; and under the conduct of the prince of darkness, and imitate him ; to be ready on all occasions to lay down their in the time of darkness, he did this work of darkness.
lives for each other. This was, strictly, a new commandment: Verse 31. Now is the Son of man glorified'] Nur edo zaofn, no system of morality ever prescribed any thing so pure and hath been glorified. Now it fully appears that I am the person disinterested as this. „Our blessed Lord has outdone all the appointed to redeem a lost world by my blood. I have already moral systems in the universe in two words : 1. Love your been glorified by this appointment, and am about to be farther enemies: 2. Lay down your lives for each other. glorified by my death, resurrection, and ascension.
Verse 35. By this shall all men know, &c.] From this time Verse 32. And shall straightway glorify him.] Or, glorify | forward, this mutual and disinterested love shall become tlie