« הקודםהמשך »
Jesus sups with Martha, Mary,
and Lazarus, at Bethany. among themselves, as they stood in || risees had given a commandment, 4. M. 4133. An. Oly rap.
the temple, What think ye, that he that, if any man knew where he were, An. Olymp. CCIII. will not come to the feast?
he should shew it, that they might 57 Now both the chief priests and the Pha- | take him.
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1 Ch. 7. 11.
Isai. 1. 15. Rorn. 3. 15. 4 Tim. 4. 3.
attending to this: see 2 Chron. xxx. 18, 19. Those mentioned life. The order here spoken of was given in consequence of in the text wished to avoid this inconvenience.
the determination of the council, mentioned ver. 48–53. Verse 56. Then sought they for Jesus) Probably those of Ephraim, in whose company Christ is supposed to have de. Christ's sympathy and tenderness, one of the principal parted for the feast, but having staid behind, perhaps at subjects in this chapter, has already been particularly noted on Jericho, or its vicinity, the others had not missed him till ver. 33. His eternal power and godhead are sufficiently mathey came to the temple, and then enquired among each nifested in the resurrection of Lazarus. The whole chapter other whether he would not attend the feast, Or, the persons abounds with great and important truths, delivered in language mentioned in the text might have been the agents of the the most impressive and edifying. In the whole of our Lord's high-priest, &c. and hearing that Christ had been at conduct in the affair of Lazarus and his sisters, we find maEphraim, came and enquired among the people that came jesty, humanity, friendship, and sublime devotion, blended in from that quarter, whether Jesus would not attend the fes- the most intimate manner, and illustrating each other by their tival, knowing that he was punctual in bis attendance on all respective splendor and excellence. In every act, in every the Jewish solemnities.
word, we see God manifested in the FLESH-Man in all the Verse 57. Had given a commandment) Had given order ; amjableness and charities of his nature; God in the plenitude tytoanv, positive order, or injunction, and perhaps with a of his power and goodness. How sublime is the lesson of grievous penalty, that no one should keep the place of his instruction conveyed by the words Jesus wept ! the heart that residence a secret. This was their hour, and the power of feels them not, must be in the gall of bitterness, and bond of darkness; and now they are fully determined to take away his l iniquity, and consequently lost to every generous feeling.
CHAPTER XII. Jesus
sups in the house of Lazarus, and Mary anoints his feet, 1–3. Judas Iscariot finds fuult, and reproves her, 4-6. Jesus vindicates Mary, and reproves Judas, 7, 8. The chief priests consult to put Lazarus to death, because that through him many believed on Jesus, 9-11. He enters Jerusalem in triumph ; the people meet him, and the Pharisees ure troubled, 12-19. Greeks enquire after Jesus, 20–22. Our. Lord's discourse on the subject, 23—26. Speaks of his passion, and is answered by a voice from Heaven, 27, 28. The people are ustonished at the voice, and Jesus explains it to them, and foretells his death, 29–33. They question him concerning the perpetuity of the Messiah, and he instructs them, 34–36. Many believe not; and in them the saying of Isaiah is fulfilled, 37—41. Some of the chief rulers believe, but are afraid to confess him, 42, 43. Hle proclaims himself the light of the world, and shews the danger of rejecting his words, 44—50.
HEN Jesus, six days before the dead, whom he raised from the dead. A. M.4033. Asary anoints our Lord's
pass-over, came to Bethany, | 2 • There they made him a supper ; An. Olymp. a where Lazarus was which had been and Martha served: but Lazarus was
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a Ch. 11. 1, 43.
Matt. 26. 6. Mark 14. 3.
NOTES ON CHAP. XII.
our sabbath, the first day of the Jewish week, to Bethany, Verse 1. Sir days before the pass-over] Reckoning the day where he supped; and on the next day he made his public of the pass-over to be the last of the six. Our Lord came on lentry into Jerusalem : ver. 12. Calmet thinks that this was
feet with oil of spikendrd.
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. A. D. 99. Ar. Olymp. CCIL 1
A N. 1933. one of them that sat at the table with hundred pence, and given to the A. M.4663
3 Then took · Mary a pound of oint- 6 This he said, not that he cared for ment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the poor ; but because he was a thief, and had the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her the bag, and bare what was put therein. hair : and the house was filled with the odour 7 Then said Jesus, Let her alone : against the of the ointment.
day of my burying hath she kept this. · 4 Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Isca- 8 For the poor always ye have with
you; but riot, Simon's son, which should betray him, me ye have not always. 5 Why was not this ointment sold for three 9 | Much people of the Jews therefore knew
a Luke 10. 38, 39. ch. 11. 2.
+ Ch. 13. 99..
-c Matt. 26. 11. Mark 14. 7.
about two months after the resurrection of Lazarus, on the 9th | by the Evangelist, the word itself must be considered as suof Nisan, (March 29) in the thirty-sixth year of our Lord's perfluous : for when we are told that he had the bag, we ‘age. It lias been observed before, that Calmet adds three need not be informed that he had what was in it. But the years to the common account.
Apostle says he was a thief ; and because he was a thief, and · Verse 3. Then took Isary a pound of ointment] See the note had the common purse in his power, therefore he stole as on Matt. xxvi. 7. see also Mark xiv. 3. It does not seem the much as he conveniently could, without subjecting himself most likely that this was the same transaction with that men- to detection. And as he saw that the death of Christ was at tioned above. Some think that this was, notwithstanding that hand, he wished to secure a provision for himself, before he before, is said to have been at the house of Simon the leper. | left the company of the apostles. I see that several copies The arguments pro and con, are largely stated in the notes at of the old Itala version, understood the word in this sense, the end of Matl. xxvi. to which I beg leave to refer the Reader. and therefore have translated the word by, auferebat, expor
Verse 5. Three hundred pence] Or denarii : about 91. 138. | tabat—took away, carried away. Jerom, who professed to 9d. of our money ; reckoning the denarius at 74d. One of mend this version, has in this place, (as well as in many ny MSS. of the Vulgate (a MS. of the 14th century) reads, cthers) marred it, by rendering tesatar, by portabat. cccc denarii.
The yaworoxouov, which we translate bag, meant originally Verse 6. Not that he cared for the poor] There should be the little box or sheath, in which the tongues or reeds used a particular emphasis laid on the word he, as the Evangelist for pipes were carried ; and thus it is interpreted by Pollur studies to shew the most determined detestation to his con- in his Onomasticon; and this is agreeable to the etymology of duct.
the word. The Greek word is used in Hebrew letters by the And bare what was pul therein.] Or rather, as some emi- Talmudists, to signify a purse, scrip, chest, coffer, &c. As nent critics contend, And stole what was put in it. This our Lord and his disciples lived on charity, a bag or scrip seems the proper meaning of Basays; and in this sense it is was provided to carry those pious donations, by which they used chap, xx. 15. lj thou hast stolen him away—s ou eßas- were supported. And Judas was steward and treasurer to
In the same sense the word is used by Josephus, this holy company. Ant. b. xii. c. V, s. 4. where, speaking of the pillage of the Verse 7. Let her alone : against the day of my burying huth temple by Antiochus, he says, Ta cxeun Tov tov Basaras, He she kept this.] Several MSS. and Versions read thus : Ass; carried off, or stoly, also the vessels of the Lord. See also αυτην, ενα εις την ημερας του ενταφιασμου μου, τηρηση-Let her alone, Ant. b. viii.c. 2. s. 2. where the harlot says before Solomon, con- That she may keep it to the day of my embalming. This is the cerning her child, Bacacata de Toupov ex twv yoyatwy zagos autnu reading of BDLQ. four others, Arabic, Coptic, Æthiopic, ustaRiça--She STOLE away my child out of my bosom, and re- || Armenian, latter Syriac in the margin, Slavonic, Vulgate, all moved it to herself. And Ibid. b.-ix. e. 4. s: 5. speaking of the Itala but one; Nonnus, Ambrosius, Gaudentius, and Authe ten lepers that went into the Syrian camp, he says, find gustin. This reading, which has the approbation of Hill, ing the Syrians fled, They entered into the camp, and ate, and Bengel, Griesbach, Pearce, and others, intimates, that only drank ; and having STOLEN away (Basara") garments, and a part of the ointment was then used, and that the rest much gold, they hid them without the camp. See the objections was kept till the time that the women came to embalm to this translation answered by Kypke, and the translation it- the body of Jesus: Luke xxiv. 1.' See the notes on Matt
. self vindicated. See also Pearce in loc. Wakefield, Toup. xxvi. 12, 13. Em, ad Suid. p. iii, p. 203. If stealing were not intended Verse 9. Much people of the Jews) John, who was a Gali
τασας αυτον. .
Jesus enters Jerusalem on an ass.
Certain Greeks desire to see him.
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A. M.4083 that he was there: and they came not 16 These
16 These things
understood not A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. for Jesus' sake only, but that they | his disciples at the first : ' but when An, Olymp.
might see Lazarus also, whom he Jesus was glorified, " then rememhad raised from the dead.
bered they that these things were written of 10 But the chief priests consulted that they him, and that they had done these things unto might put Lazarus also to death ;
him. 11 Because that by reason of him, many
of 17 The people therefore that was with him, the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus.
when he called Lazarus out of his grave, and 12 | “On the next day, much people that raised him from the dead, bare record. were come to the feast, when they heard that 18 'For this cause the people also met him, Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,
for that they heard that he had done this mi13 Took branches of palm trees, and went racle. forth to meet him, and cried, o Hosanna: Bless- 19 The Pharisees therefore said among themed is the King of Israel, that cometh in the selves, TM Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing ? name of the Lord.
behold, the world is gone after him. 14 'And Jesus, when he had found a young 20 [ And there were certain Greeks among ass, sat thereon ; as it is written,
them, °that came up to worship at the feast : 15 : Fear not, daughter of Sion : behold, thy 21 The same came therefore to Philip, which King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt.
was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him,
• Ch. 11. 48, 44.—Luke 16. 31. ch. 11. 45. ver. 18.21. 8. Mark 11. 8. Luke 19. 35, S6, &c.-- Ps. 118. 25, 26.21. 7.
& Zech. 9. 9.- Luke 18. 34. mich. 7. 39. ch. 11. 26. ver.
-mch. 11. 47, 48.-" Acts 17. 4.—1 Kings 8. 41, 42. Acts 8. 27. Pch. 1. 44.
lean, often gives the title of Jews, to those who were inhabit- The world is gone after him.] The whole mass of the people ants of Jerusalem.
are becoming his disciples. This is a very common form of Verse 10. Consulted that they might put Lazarus also to expression among the Jews; and simply answers to the French, death] As long as he lived, they saw an' incontestable proof tout le monde, and to the English, every body; the bulk of the of the divine power of Christ; therefore they wished to put people. Many MSS. Versions, and Fathers, add oros, the bim to death, because many of the Jews who came to see him WHOLE world. As our Lord's converts were rapidly increasthrough curiosity, became converts to Christ through his tes- ing; the Pharisees thought it necessary to execute without Limony. How blind were these men, not to perceive that he delay, what they had purposed at their first council. See who had raised him after he had been dead four days, could || chap. xi. 35. raise him again, though they had slain him a thousand Verse 20. Certain Greeks] There are three opinions contimes !
cerning these. 1. That they were proselytes of the gate or Verse 12. On the next day) On what we call Monday. covenant, who came up to worship the true God at this feast.
Verse 13. Took branches] See on Matt. xxi. 1, &c. and 2. That they were real Jews, who lived in Grecian provinces, Mark xi. 1-6. where this transaction is largely explained. and spoke the Greek language. 3. That they were mere. Gen
Verse 16. Then remembered they, &c.] After the ascension tiles, who never knew the true God; and hearing of the fame of Christ, the disciples saw the meaning of many prophecies of the temple, or the miracles of our Lord, came to offer sawhich referred to Christ; and applied them to him, which crifices to Jehovah, and to worship him according to the manthey had not fully comprehended before. Indeed it is only ner of the people of that land. This was not an unfrequent in the light of the New Covenant, that the Old is to be fully | case : many of the Gentiles, Romans, and others, were in the understood.
habit of sending sacrifices to the temple at Jerusalem. Of Verse 17. When he called], It appears that these people these opinions the Reader may chuse, but the first seems best who had seen him raise Lazarus from the dead, were publish-founded. ing abroad the miracle, which increased the popularity of Verse 21. The same came therefore to Philip] Some supChrist, and the envy of the Pharisees.
pose that these Gentiles were of Phænicia or Syria ; or perVerse 19. Ye prevail nothing] Either by your threatenings haps inhabitants of Decapolis, near to the lake of Gennozareth or excoinmunications,
and Bethsaida : and therefore they addressed themselves to
Our Lord's parable concerning
the multiplication of grain.
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1. N1, 4053. saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. 24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, An. Olymp.
22 Philip cometh and telleth An-Except a corn of wheat fall into the An. Olymp.
drew: and again Andrew and Philip ground and die, it abideth alone: but tell Jesus.
if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. 23 | And Jesus answered them, saying, “The 25 He that loveth his life shall lose it; and hour is come, that the Son of man should be he that hateth his life in this world, shall keep it glorified.
unto life eternal.
* Ch. 13. 32. & 17.1.1 Cor. 15. 36.
• Matt. 10. 39. & 16. 25. Mark 8. $5. Loke 9. 24. & 17. 3
Philip, who was of the latter city, and probably known to 3. The mystery of his death, which we must credit, with them. The latter Syriac calls them Arameans or Syrians. out being able fully to comprehend; as we believe the dead The Vulgate, and several copies of the Itala, call them Gentiles. grain multiplies itself, and we are nourished by that multi
Sir, we would see Jesus.] We have heard much concerning plication, without being able to comprehend how it is done. him, and we wish to see the person of whom we have heard The greatest philosopher that ever existed could not tell hor such strange things. The final salvation of the soul, often one grain became thirty, sixty, a hundred, or a thousandoriginates under God, in a principle of simple curiosity. how it vegetated in the earth how earth, air and water, its Many have only wished to see or hear a man, who speaks component parts, could assume such a form and consistence, much of Jesus, his miracles, and his mercies; and in hear- emit such odours or produce such tastes. Nor can the wisest ing, have felt the powers of the world to come, and have man on earth tell how the bodies of animals are nourished by become genuine converts to the truths of the gospel. this produce of the ground; how wheat, for instance, is assi
Verse 22. Andrew and Philip tell Jesus.] How pleasing to milated to the very nature of the bodies that receive it; and God is this union, when the ministers of his gospel agree and how it becomes flesh and blood, nertes, sinews, bones, &c. All unite together to bring souls to Christ. But where self-love we can say is, the thing is so : and it has pleased God that it prevails, and the honour that comes from God is not sought, should be so, and not otherwise. So there are many things in this union never exists. Bigotry often ruins every generous the person, death, and sacrifice of Christ, which we can neisentiment among the different denominations of the people of ther explain nor comprehend. All we should say here is, It God.
is by this means that the world was redeemed—through this Verse 23. The hour is come, that the Son of man, &c.] The sacrifice men are saved: it has pleased God that it should be time is just at hand, in which the gospel shall be preached to so, and not otherwise: Some say “our Lord spoke this accordall nations, the middle wall of partition broken down, and ing to the philosophy of those days, which was by no means corJews and Gentiles united in one fold. But this could not be rect.” But I would ask, has ever a more correct philosophy en till after his death and resurrection, as the succeeding verse this point appeared ? Is it not a physical truth, that the whole teaches. The disciples were the first-fruits of the Jews ; these body of the grain dies, is converted into fine earth which forms Greeks, the first-fruits of the Gentiles.
the first nourishment of the embryo plant, and prepares it to reVerse 24. Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and ceive a grosser support from the surrounding soil; and that nodie] Our Lord compares himself to a grain of wheat; his thing lives but the germ, which was included in this body, and death to a grain sown and decomposed in the ground; his resur- which must die also, if it did not receive from the death or purection to the blade which springs up from the dead grain; trefaction of the body of the grain, nourishment, so as to enable which grain thus dying, brings forth an abundance of fruit. I it to unfold itself? Though the body of our Lord died, there must die to be glorified; and unless I am glorified, I cannot was still the germ, the quickening power of the Divinity, which establish a glorious church of Jews and Gentiles upon earth. reanimated that body, and stamped the atonement with infiIn comparing himself thus to a grain of wheat, our Lord nite merit. Thus the merit was multiplied, and through the shews us,
death of that one person, the man Christ Jesus united to the 1. The cause of his death :-the order of God, who had | eternal WORD, salvation was procured for the whole world. rated the redemption of the world at this price; as in nature Never was a simile more appropriate, nor an illustration more, he had attached the multiplication of the corn, to the death happy or successful. or decomposition of the grain.
Verse 25. He that loreth his life] See on Matt. x. 39. Luke 2. The end of his death :--the redemption of a lost world; xiv. 26. I am about to give up my life for the salvation of the justification, sanctification, and glorification of men : asmen; but I shall speedily receive it back with everlasting hethe multiplication of the corn, is the end for which the grain nour, by my resurrection from the dead. In this I should is sown and dies.
be imitated by my disciples, who should, when called to it,
The honour of those who serve
The voice from heaven.
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26 If any man serve me, let him fol- . 28 Father, glorify thy name. Then A. M. 4083. An. Olymp. low me; and “where I am, there shall came there a voice from heaven, say- An. Olymp.
also my servant be: if any man serveing, I have both glorified it, and will me, him will my Father honour.
glorify it again. 27 Now is my soul troubled ; and what shall 29 The people therefore that stood by, and I say? Father, save me from this hour: but heard it, said that it thundered: others said, An for this cause came I unto this hour.
angel spake to him.
Ch. 14. 3. & 17. 24. 1 Thess. 4. 17. Matt. 26. 38, 39. Luke 12. 50.
Ch. 13. 21
_ Luke 22. 53. ch. 18. 37.
d Matt. 3. 17.
lay down their lives for the truth ; and if they do, they shall hour? when for this cause I am come to this hour. The comreceive them again with everlasting honour.
mon version makes our blessed Lord contradict himself here, Verse 26. If any man serve me] Christ is a master in a by not attending to the proper punctuation of the passage, twofold sense: 1. To instruct men. 2. To employ and appoint and by translating the particle to what, instead of why or how. them their work. He wbo wishes to serve Christ must becomes The sense of our Lord's words is this : “ When a man feels a 1. his disciple or scholar, that he may be taught ; 2. his ser- fear of a sudden or violent death, it is natural to him to cry vant, that he may be employed by and obey his master. To out, Father, save me from this death! for he hopes that the such a person a twofold promise is given : 1. Ile shall be with glory of God and his welfare may be accomplished some other Christ, in eternal fellowship with him, and 2. He shall be ho- way, less dreadful to his nature: but why should I say so, seenoured by the Lord: he shall have an abundant recompence in ing for this very purpose, that I might die this violent death glory; but how great, eye hath not seen, ear heard, nor hath for the sins of mankind, I am come into the world, and have it entered into the heart of man to conceive.
almost arrived at the hour of my crucifixion.” How similar to this is the saying of Creeshna (an incarnation Verse 28. Father, glorify thy name] By the name of God of the supreme God, according to the Hindoo theology) to is to be understood himself in all his attributes; his wisdom, his disciple Arjoon ! “ If one whose ways were ever so evil, || truth, mercy, justice, holiness, &c. which were all more abundserve me alone, he soon becometh of a virtuous spirit, is as antly glorified by Christ's death and resurrection (i. e. shewn respectable as the just man, and obtaineth eternal happiness.forth in their own excellence) than they had ever been before. Consider this world as a finite and joyless place, and serve Christ teaches here a lesson of submission to the divine will. 'me. Be of my mind, my servant, my adorer, and bow down Do with me what thou wilt, so that glory may redound to thy before me. Unite thy soul unto me, make me thy asylum, and name. Some MSS. read, Father, glorify my name: others, glothou shalt go unto me.” And again : “I am extremely dear || rify thy Son. to the wise man, and he is dear to me-I esteem the wise man Then came there a voice from heaven, &c.] The following even as myself, because his devont spirit dependeth upon me is a literal translation of Calmet's note on this
passage, which alone as his ultimate resource.” Bhagvat Geeta, pp. 71 & 82. he has taken from Chrysostom, Theodoret, Theophylact, and
The Rabbins have an extravagant saying, viz. "God is others : "I have accomplished my eternal designs on thee. more concerned for the honour of the just man, than for his | I have sent thee into the world to make an atonement for the own.”
sin of the world, and to satisfy my offended justice. I will Verse 27. Now is my soul troubled] Our blessed Lord took finish my work. Thou shalt shed thy blood upon the cross, upon him our weaknesses, that he might sanctify them to us. My glory is interested in the consummation of thy sacrifice. As a man he was troubled at the prospect of a violent death. But in procuring my own glory, I shall procure thine. Thy Nature abhors death : God has implanted that abhorrence in life and thy death glorify me: I have glorified thee by the minature, that it might become a principle of self-preservation : racles which have accompanied thy mission; and I will conand it is to this that we owe all that prudence and caution by tinue to glorify thee at thy death, by unexampled prodigies, which we avoid danger. When we see Jesus working mi- and thy resurrection shall be the completion of thy glory and racles which demonstrate his omnipotence; we should be led of thy elevation." to conclude that he was not man were it not for such passages Christ was glorificd, Ist. By the prodigies which happened as these. The Reader must ever remember that it was essen- at liis death. 2. In liis resurrection. 3. In his ascension, and tially necessary that he should be man; for without being such | sitting at the right hand of God. 4. In the descent of the he could not have died for the sin of the world.
Holy Ghost on the apostles, and 5. In the astonishing success And what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour] Kan with which the gospel was accompanied, and by which the Tv #TW; TOUTES CROCO pee Ex ons wçocs tautNS: which may be para- | kingdom of Christ has been established in the world. 2 Cor. phrased thus: And why should I say, Father, save me from this | ii. 14.