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They seek to destroy him.

CHAP. X.

He withdraws to Bethabara.

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40 And went away again beyond Jor- An. Olymp. 37 “If I do not the works of my Fa-l dan into the place where John at first ther, believe me not.

baptized : and there he abode. 38 But if I do, though ye believe not me, "be- 41 - And many resorted unto him, and said, lieve the works: that ye may know, and believe, John did no miracle: "but all things that John that the Father is in me, and I in him. spake of this man were true. 39 Therefore they sought again to take 42 · And many believed on him there.

*Ch. 5. 17, 18. ver, 30.- Luke 1. 35. ch. 9. 35, 37.ch. 15. 24.

dch. 5. 36. & 14. 10, 11.

e Ch. 14. 10, 11. & 17. 21. ch. 7. 30, 44. & 8. 59. ch. 1. 28.

hich 3. 30.-ich. 8. 30. & 11. 45.

one.

dent from that Scripture which cannot be gainsaid; what || risees with all their science could not draw a conclusion so just. greater reason then have I to say, I am the Son of God, and Truth and common sense are often on the side of the common one with God, when as Messiah, I have been consecrated, sent people, whom the insolently wise and the unsanctifiedly learned into the world to instruct and save men; and when as God, I sometimes disingenuously brand with the epithets of mob and have wrought miracles which could be performed by no power swinish multitude. less than that of omnipotence ?

Verse 37. If I do not the works, &c.] I desire you to be- 1. This and the preceding chapter contain two remarkable lieve only on the evidence of my works : if I do not do such discomfitures of the Jewish doctors. In the former they were works as God only can perform, then believe me not. confounded by the testimony of a plain uneducated man, sim

Verse 38. Believe the works] Though ye do not now credit ply appealing to the various circumstances of a matter of fact, what I have said to you, yet consider my works, and then ye at which they cavilled, and which they endeavoured to decry: will see, that these works prove that I am in the Father and in this chapter the wise are taken in their own craftiness: the the Father in me; and consequently, that I and the Father are Pharisees are confounded by that wisdom which is from above,

This seems to be the force of our Lord's argument; and speaking of and manifesting the deep things of God. Someevery man must see and feel that it is conclusive. There was times God himself stops the mouths of gainsayers ; at other no possibility of weakening the force of this reasoning, but times he makes the simplest of his followers too mighty for by asserting that these miracles were not wrought by the the most learned among the doctors Ancient and modern power of God: and then they must have proved, that not only martyrologies of the people of God abound with proofs of a man, but a bad mun, such as they said Jesus was, could | both these facts. And the persecutions of the Protestants by work these miracles. As this was impossible, then the argu- the Papists in the reign of Queen Mary afford a very large proment of Christ had a complete triumph.

portion of proofs. In these the mighty power of God and the Verse 39. They sought again to take him! They could not prevalence of truth were gloriously apparent. Both the word reply to his arguments but by stones. The evidence of the of God and the Protestant cause were nobly illustrated by those truth could not be resisted ; and they endeavoured to destroy transactions. May that abomination that maketh desolate nethe person who spoke it. Truth may confound the obstinately ver more sit in the holy place ! wicked, but it does not convert them : and it is a just judg- 2. It must be remarked by every serious Reader, that our ment of God, to leave those to perish in their gainsayings, Lord did frequently speak of himself to the Jews, as being not who obstinately continue to gainsay and disbelieve.

only sent of God as their Messiah, but as being one with him. But he escaped] In such a way as we know not, for the And it is as evident that in this sense, the priests and Pharisees Evangelist has not specified the manner of it.

understood him: and it was because they would not credit Verse 40. Beyond Jordan] Rather to the side of Jordan, this, that they accused him of blasphemy: Now, if our Lord not beyond it. See the note on chap. vi. 22. and Matt, xix. 1. was not the person they understood him to state himself to be,

Where John at first baptized] That is, at Bethabara : see he had the fairest opportunity from their strong remonstrances, chap. i. 28. Afterwards, John baptized at Ænon: chap. iii. 23. to correct their misapprehension of his words, if they really

Verse 42. Many believed on him there.] The people be- had mistaken his meaning—but this he never attempts. He lieved on him, 1. because of the testimony of John the Baptist, rather strengthens his assertions in his consequent discourses whom they knew to be a good and a wise man, and a prophet with them ; which, had not his positions been true, he could of the Lord ; and they knew he could neither deceive nor be not have done, even as an honest man. He not only asserted deceived in this matter: and 2. they believed because of the himself to be equal with God, but wished them to believe it to miracles which they saw Jesus work. These fully proved that be true: and he amply confirmed this heavenly doctrine by all that John had suid of him was true. The scribes and Pha- ll the miracles he wrought.

Account of the sickness

ST. JOHN.

: and death of Lazarus.

CHAPTER XI.

Account of the sickness of Lazarus, 1. His sisters Martha and Mary send for Christ, 2. Our Lord's discourse

with his disciples on this sickness and consequent death, 3-16. He arrires at Bethany four days after the burying of Lazarus, 17, 18. Martha meets Christtheir conversation, 19–27. She returns, and Mary goes out to meet him, in great distress, 28-33. Christ comes to the grave-his conversation there, 34–42. He raises Lazurus from the dead, 43–46. The priests and Pharisees hearing of this, hold a council, and plot his destruction, 47, 48. The remarkable prophecy of Caiaphas, and the consequent proceedings of the Jews, 49—53. Jesus withdraws into a city called Ephraim, 54. They lay wait for him at the Pass-over, 55–57.

NOW, a certain man was sick, 1.2. It was that Mary which anointed

named Lazarus, of Bethany, the the Lord with ointment, and wiped An. Olymp.

town of - Mary and her sister Mar- his feet with her hair, whose brother tha.

Lazarus was sick.)

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• Luke 10. 38, 39.

• Matt. 26. 7. Mark 14. 3. ch. 12. 3.

NOTES ON CHAP. XI.

January, Lazarus fell sick : Christ did not leave Bethabara Verse 1. Lazarus, of Bethany) St. John, who seldom re- till after the death of Lazarus, which happened about the lates any thing but what the other Evangelists have omitted, 18th of the same month. does not tell us what gave rise to that farniliar acquaintance Bishop Neucone supposes that our Lord might have staid and friendship that subsisted between our Lord and this fa- about a month at Bethabara. mily. It is surprising that the other Evangelists bave omitted The harmonists and chronologists differ much in fixing so remarkable an account as this is, in which some of the finest dates, and ascertaining times. In cases of this nature, I betraits in our Lord's character are exhibited. The conjecture lieve men may innocently guess as well as they can; but they of Grotius has a good deal of weight. He thinks that the should assert nothing. other three Evangelists wrote their histories during the life of Verse 2. It was that Mary which anointed] There is much Lazarus ; and that they did not mention him for fear of ex- | disagreement between learned men, relative to the two anointciting the malice of the Jews against him. And indeed we ings of our Lord; and the persons who performed these acts. find from chap. xii. 10. that they sought to put Lazarus to The various conjectures concerning these points, the Reader death also, that our Lord might not have one monument of his will find in the notes on Matt. xxvi. 7, &c. but particularly power and goodness remaining in the land. Probably both at the end of that chapter. Lazarus and his sisters were dead before St. John wrote. Be- Dr. Lightfoot enquires, why should Bethany be called the thany was situated at the foot of the mount of Olives about two town of Martha and Mary, and not of Lazarus ? And be miles from Jerusalem. Bishop Peurce observes that “ there thinks the reason is, that Martha and Mary had been well is a large gap in John's history of Christ in this place. What known by that anointing of our Lord, which is mentioned is mentioned in the preceding chapter passed at the feast of Luke vii. 37. (see the note there) but the name of Lazathe dedication, ver. 22. about the middle of our December: rus had not been mentioned till now, there being no transac. and this miracle of raising Lazarus from the dead, seems to tion by which he could properly be brought into view. lle have been wrought but a little before the following pass-over, therefore thinks that the aorist ansvfura, which we translate in the end of March, at which time Jesus was crucified, as anointed, should have its full force, and be translated, who may (he thinks) be gathered froin verses 54 and 55 of this had formerly anointed; and this he thinks to have been the chapter, and from chap. xii. 9.” John has therefore, accord reason of that familiarity which subsisted between our Lord ing to the Bishop's calculation, omitted to mention the several and this family, and on this ground, they could confidently miracles which our Lord wrought for above three months after send for our Lord when Lazarus fell sick. This seems a very the things mentioned in the preceding chapter.

reasonable conjecture; and it is very likely that the familiCulmet says, Christ left Jeru alem the day after the Dedi- arity arose out of the anointing. cation took place, which was the 18th of December. He Others think that the apoisting of which the Evangelist went then to Bethabara, where he continued preaching, and speaks, is that mentioned chap. xii. I, &c. and which haphis disciples baptizing. About the middle of the following ! pened about six days before the Pass-over. St. John, there Account of the sickness

CHAP. XI.

and death of Lazarusa

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3 Therefore his sisters sent unto him, l 7 Then after that saith he to his dis- A. M. 40333. An. Olymp. saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou ciples, Let us go into Judea again. lovest is sick.

8 His disciples say unto him, Master, 4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness | the Jews of late sought to stone thee ; and gois not unto death, a but for the glory of God, that est thou thither again ? the Son of God might be glorified thereby. 9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours

5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and in the day? " If any man walk in the day, he Lazarus.

stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this. 6 When he had heard therefore that he was world. sick, "he abode two days still in the same place 10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumwhere he was.

bleth, because there is no light in him.

“Ch. 9. 3. ver, 40,-5 cm. 10. 40.

Ch. 10. 31.ch. 9. 4. ch. 19. 33.

fore, is suppo:ed to anticipate the account, because it served Verse 9. Are there not twelve hours in the day?] The Jews, more particularly to designate the person of whom he was | as well as most other nations, divided the day from sunspeaking

rising to sun-setting, into twelve equal parts : but these parts Verse 3. He whom thou lovest is sick.) Nothing could or hours, were longer or shorter, according to tlie different be more simple, nor more modest, than this prayer: they | seasons of the year. See the note on chap. i. 39. do not say, Come and heal bim : or, Command the disease Our Lord alludes to the case of a traveller, who has to to depart even where thou art, and it will obey thee :- walk the whole day: the day points out the time of life-the they content themselves with simply stating the case, and night, that of deuth. He had already used the same mode of using an indirect, but a most forcible argument, to induce | speech, chap. ix. 4. I must work the works of him that sent our Lord to shew forth his power and goodness :—He is me, while it is day : the night cometh, when no man can work. sick, and thou lovest hintherefore thou canst neither aban- | Here he refers to what the apostles had just said— The Jews don him, nor us.

were but just now going to stone thee. Are there not, said he, Verse 4. This sickness is not unto death] Not to final pri- || twelve hours in the day? I have not travelled these twelve vation of life at this time; but a temporary death shall be hours yet-my last hour is not yet come; and the Jews, with now permitted, that the glory of God may appear in the mi- || all their malice and batred, shall not be able to bring it a racle of his resurrection. It is very likely that this verse con- moment sooner than God has purposed. I am immortal till tains the message which Christ sent back, by the person | my work is done ; and this that I am now going to Bethany whom the afflicted sisters had sent to him: and this, no doubt, || to perform, is a part of it. When all is completed, then served much to strengthen ibeir confidence, though their faith their hour, and that of the power of darhness, shall commence. must have been greatly exercised by the death of their bro- || See Luke xxii. 53. ther : for when this took place, though they buried him, yet If uny man walk in the day, he stumbleth not] A traveller. they believed even then, probably on the ground of this mes- should use the day to walk in, and not the night. During the sage, that Jesus might raise him from the dead. See ver. 22. day he has the sun, the light of this world: he sees his way, and

Verse 5. Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and La- || does not stumble : but if he walk in the night, he stumbleth, zarus.)

. Therefore his staying two days longer in Bethabara | because there is no light, in it, ver. 10. i. e. there is no sun. was not through lack of affection for this distressed family ; || above the horizon. The words sy autw, ver. 9. refer not to the but merely that he might have a more favourable opportunity | man, but to the world, the sun its light, not being above the of proving to them how much he loved them. Christ never horizon. Life is the time to fulfil the will of God, and to prepare denies a less favour, but in order to confer a greater. God's de- || for glory. Jesus is the light of the world; he that walks in his lays in answering prayers offered to him by persons in distress, Spirit, and by his direction, cannot stumble-cannot fall into are often proofs of his purpose to confer some great kindness : {| sin, nor be surprised by an unexpected death. But he who and they are also proofs, that his wisdom finds it necessary to || walks in the night, in the darkness of his own heart, and accordpermit an increase of the affliction, that his goodness may be ing to the maxims of this dark world, he stumbles-falls into more conspicuous in its removal.

sin, and at last falls into hell. Reader! do not dream of Verse 8. The Jews of late sought to stone thee) It was but walking to heaven in the night of thy death. God has given a few weeks before, that they were going to stone him in the thee the warning: receive it, and begin to live to him, and", temple, on the day of the feast of the Dedication, chap. x. 31. ll for etergity.

Account of the sickness

St. JOHN.

and death of Lazarus.

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11 These things said he : and after 15 And I am glad for your sakes that A.M.1038 An. Olymp. that he saith , unto them, Our friend I was not there, to the intent ye may be. An. Olymp.

Lazarus - sleepeth ; but I go, that I lieve; nevertheless let us go unto him. may awake him out of sleep.

16 Then said Thomas, which is called Didy12 Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, mus, unto his fellow disciples, Let us also go, he shall do well.

that we may die with him. 13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his death : but 17 Then when Jesus came, he found that he they thought that he had spoken of taking of had lain in the grave four days already. rest in sleep.

18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, 14. Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus about fifteen furlongs off: is dead.

19 And many of the Jews came to Martha and

* So Deut. 31. 16. Dan. 12. 2. Matt. 9. 24. Acts 7. 60. 1 Cor. 15, 18, 51.

6 That is, about two miles.

that we may

to say,

Verse 11. Lazarus sleepeth] It was very common among Sun Thaom, was his Hebrew name, and signifies a twinthe Jews to express death by sleep ; and the expressions, fall one who had a brother or a sister born with him at the same ing asleep--sleeping with their fathers, &c. were in great use time : Didymus, Aidomos, is a literal translation of the Hebrew among them.

The Hebrews probably used this form of word into Greek. In Gen. xxv. 24. Esau and Jacob are called speech, to signify their belief in the inmortality of the soul, | Sini thomcem, twins; Septuag. Siden.sx, from Siduos, a tuin; and the resurrection of the body.

from the Anglo-saxon zpinan, to double. It is certain that our Lord received no intimation of Laza Let us also

go,

dic with him.] That is, “ See. rus’s death from any person ; and that he knew it through || ing we cannot dissuade our Lord from going, and his death that power by which he knows all things.

is likely to be the inevitable consequence; let us give him the Verse 12. If he sleep, he shall do well.] That is, if he sleep fullest proof we can of our love, by going and suffering death only, &c. Though the word sleep frequently meant death, with bim.” Some think Thomas spoke these words peevishly, (see Acts vii. 60. 1 Cor. xi. 30. xv. 18, 20.) yet as it was an and that they should be translated thus, Must we also go, and ambiguous term, the disciples appear here to have mistaken | erpose ourselves to destruction with him ? which is as much as its meaning. Because, in certain acute disorders, the com

“ If he will obstinately go and risk his life in so imposing the patient to rest, was a favourable sign; therefore the minent a danger, let us act with more prudence and caution." words, If he sleep, he shall do well, or recover, became a prover- || But I think the first sense is to be preferred. When a matter bial form of speech among the Jews. In most diseases, sleep is spoken which concerns the moral character of a person, a very favourable prognostic: hence that saying of Menander, and which may be understood in a good and a bad sense, “Υπνος δε πασης εσιν υγιεια νοσου, ,

that sense which is most favourable to the person, should cerSleep is a remedy for every disease. See Grotius here. The tainly be adopted. This is taking things by the best handle, meaning of the disciples seems to have been this : There can and both justice and mercy require it. The conduct of most be no need for thee to go into Judea to awake our friend La men widely differs from this: of such an old proverb says, zarus ; he will awake time enough, and his very sleep is a pre They feed like the flies-pass over all a man's whole parts, sage of his recovery: therefore do not hazard thy life by going to light upon

his sores.Verse 15. I um glad for your sakes that I was not there] Verse 17. He had lain in the grave four days already.) “ I tell you plainly, Lazarus is dead : and I am glad I was Our Lord probably left Bethabura the day, or the day after not there—if I had, I should have been prevailed on to have || Lazarus died. He came to Bethany three days after : and it healed him almost as soon as he fell sick, and I should not appears that Lazarus had been buried abont four days, and have had so striking an occasion to manifest the glory of God consequently that he had been put in the grave the day or 10 you, and to establish you in the faith.” It was a miracle day after he died. Though it was the Jewish custom to emto discover that Lazarus was dead, as no person had come to balm their dead, yet we find from ver. 39. that he had not announce it. It was a greater miracle to raise a dead man,been embalmed, and God wisely ordered this, that the miracle than to cure a sick man. And it was a still greuter miracle, || night appear the more striking. to raise one that was three or four days buried, and in whose Verse 18. Fifteen furlongs About two miles: for the Jewbody putrefaction might have begun to take place; than to | ish miles contained about seven furlongs and a ball. So raise one that was but newly dead. Sce ver. 39.

Lightfoo!, and the Margin. Verse 16. Thomus, which is called Didymus] Thomus, or Verse 19. Many of the Jews came] Bethany being so nich

..

Conversation between

CHAP, XÍ.

our Lord and Martha.

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shall rise again.

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CCII.1. 20 Then Martha, as soon as she 24 Martha said unto him, 6 I know heard that Jesus was coming, went and met that he shall rise again in the resurrection at him: but Mary sat still in the house.

the last day. 21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if 25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrecthou hadst been here, my brother had not died. I tion, and the life : € he that believeth in me,

22 But I know, that even now, whatsoever though he were dead, yet shall he live: thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee? 26 And whosoever liveth and believeth in

a Ch. 9. 31. Luke 14. 14. ch. 5. 29. ch. 5. 21. & 6. 39, 40, 44.

4 Ch. 1. 4. & 6.35. & 14. 6. Col. 3. 4. 1 John 1.1, 2. & 5. 11.

1 John 5. 10, &c.

ech. S. 30.

to Jerusalem, many of the relatives and friends of the family Verse 22. I know, that coen now] She durst not ask so came, according to the Jewish custom, to mourn with the great a favour in direct terms; she only intimated modestly, afllicted sisters. Mourning, among the Jews, lasted about that she knew he could do it. thirty days : the three first days, were termed days of weep- Verse 23. Thy brother shall rise again.) That is, directly : ing: then followed seven of lamentation. During the three for it was by raising him immediately from the dead, that days, the mourner did no servile work; and if any one sa

he intended to comfort her. luted him, he did not return the salutation. During the seven

Verse 24. I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection] days, he did no servile work, except in private-lay with his The doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, was then combed on the floor—did not put on his sandals—did not washmonly received; and though it was our Lord who fully nor anoint himself—had his head covered—and neither read exemplified it by his own resurrection; yet the opinion was in the Law, the Mishnali, nor the Talmud. All the thirty i common, not only among God's people, but among all those days he continued unshaven, wore no white or new clothes, who believed in the God of Israel. The Jewish writings and did not sew up the rents which he had made in his gar- after the captivity, are full of this doctrine. See 2 Macc. vii. ments. See Lightfoot, and see on ver. 31.

9, 11, 23, 36. xii. 43. xiv. 46. Wisd. v. 1, 7, 17. vi. 6, 7. Verse 20. Martha-went and met him] Some suppose she | See also Josephus, and the Targums, passim. was the eldest of the two sisters---she seems to have had the Verse 25. I am the resurrection, and the life] Thou sayest management of the house. See Luke x. 40.

that thy brother shall rise a gainin the res vection at the Mary sat still in the house.] It is likely that by this cir- last day; but by whom shall he arise if not by me, who am cumstance, the Evangelist intended to convey the idea of her the author of the resurrection, and the source of life? And sorrow and distress; because anciently, afflicted persons were is it not as easy for me to raise him now, as to raise hini accustomed to put themselves in this posture, as expressive of then? Thus our blessed Lord raises her hope, animates her their distress : their grief having rendered them as it were faith, and teaches her that he was not a mere man, but the immoveable. See Ezra ix. 3, 4. Neh, i. 4. Psal. cxxxvii. 2. essential principle and author of existence. Isai. xlvii. I. Luke i. 79. and Matt. xxvii. 61.

Though he were dead] Every man who has believed or Verse 21. If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.) shall believe in ine, though his believing shall not prevent Mary said the same words to him a little after, ver. 32. which him from dying a natural death; yet his body shall be reaniproves that these sisters had not a complete knowledge of the

mated, and he shall live with me in an eternal glory. And omnipotence of Christ—they thought he could cure at hand, every one who is now dead, dead to God, dead in trespasses but not at a distance; or they thought that it was because and sins; if he believe in me, trust on me as his sole saviour, he did not know of their brother's indisposition, that he per- he shall live, shall be quickened by my spirit, and live a life mitted him to die. In either of these cases, it plainly ap- of faith, working by love. pears they had not a proper notion of his divinity; and in- Verse 26. Shall never die.] Or, Shall not die for erer. deed the following verse proves that they considered him in Though he die a temporal death, he shall not continue under no other light than that of a prophet. Quere~Was it not its power for ever; but shall have a resurrection to life eternal. proper that Christ should, in general, as much as might be, Believest thou this?] God has determined to work in the hide the knowledge of his divinity from those with whom he behalf of men, only in proportion to their faith in him : it ordinarily lodged? Had they known him fully, would not the was necessary therefore, that these persons should be well reverence and awe connected with such a knowledge, have instructed concerning his nature, that they might find no overwhelmed them?

obstacles to their faith. These sisters had considered hint

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