« הקודםהמשך »
He shews his equality with the Father;
and the blessedness of those who believe.
A. 11.4081. he will shew him greater works than | eth not the Son, honoureth not the 4, M, 1931. An. Olymp. these, that ye may marvel.
Father which hath sent him.
An. Olymp. 21 For as the Father raiseth
the 24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, dead, and quickeneth them ; even so the Son He that heareth my word, and believeth on quickeneth whom he will.
him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and 22 For the Father judgeth no man, but "hath shall not come into condemnation ; but is passcommitted all judgment unto the Son:
ed from death unto life. 23 That all men should honour the Son, even 25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour as they honour the Father. “He that honour- is coming, and now is, when the dead shall
* Luke 7. 14. & 8.54. ch. 11. 25, 43.- Matt. 11. 27. & 28. 18. ver. 27.
ch. 3. 35. & 17. 2. Acts 17. 31. 1 Pet. 4. 5.-1 John 2.23.
« Ch. 3. 16, 18. & 6. 40, 47. & 8 51. & 20. 31.- - 1 John 3. 14. ver. 28.
Ephes. 2. 1, 5. & 5. 14. Col. 2. 13.
mediately mentions; Raising the dead, ver. 21. and Judging godhead. To lead them off from this error, our Lord spoke the world, ver. 22.
the words recorded in these verses. That ye may marvel.] Or, So as to make you wonder. Our Verse 24. He that heareth my word] My doctrine and Lord sometimes speaks of himself as God, and sometimes as believeth on him that sent me--he who credits my divine misthe Ambassador of God. As he had a human and divine sion, that I am come to give light and life to the world by nature, this distinction was essentially necessary. Many er- my doctrine and death—hath eternal life—the seed of this rors have originated from want of attention to this circum- | life is sown in his heart the moment he believes; und shall stance.
not come into condemnation; es nesore, into judgment—that Verse 21. As the Father raiseth up the dead] This he did which will speedily come on this unbelieving race; and that in the case of the widow's son at Sarepta, 1 Kings xviii. 22. which shall overwhelm the wicked in the great day. by the ministry of the prophet Elijah. And again, in the But is passed from death unto life.) MetaßeBnxev, has changed case of the Shunamite's son, 2 Kings iv. 32–35. by the mi- his country, or place of abode. Death is the country where nistry of the prophet Elishah.
every Christless soul lives. The man who knows not God, The Son quickeneth whom he will.] He raiseth from death lives a dying life, or a living death—but he who believes in to life whomsoever he pleases. So he did, for he raised the the Son of God, passes over from the empire of death, to the ruler's daughter, Mark v. 35—42. the widow's son at Nain, empire of life. Reader ! thou wast born in death : hast thou Luke vii. 11–15. and Lazarus, at Bethany, John xi. 14–44. yet changed the place of thy natural residence? Remember,
Whom he will. Here our Lord points out his sovereign that to live in sin, is to live in death; and those who live power and independance; he gives life according to his own and die thus, shall die eternally. will—not being obliged to supplicate for the power by which Verse 25. The dead shall hear the voice] Three kinds of it was done, as the prophets did; his own will being absolute death are mentioned in the scriptures : natural, spiritual, and and sufficient in every case.
eternal. Verse 22. The Father judgeth no man] This confirms what The first consists in the separation of the body and soul. he had said before, ver. 17, 19. that the Father acts not! The second in the separation of God and the soul. The third trithout the Son, nor the Son without the Father; their acts in the separation of body and soul from God, in the other are common, their power equal.
world. Answerable to these three kinds of death, there is Verse 23. That all men should honour the Son, &c.] If a threefold life: natural life, which consists' in the union of then the Son is to be honoured, EVEN AS the Father is ho- the soul and body. Spiritual life which consists in the union noureit, then the Son must be God, as receiving that worship of God and the soul, by faith and love. 'Eternal life, which which belongs to God alone. To worship any creature is consists in the communion of the body and soul with God, idolatry; Christ is to be honoured even as the Father is ho- by holiness, in the realms of bliss. noured; therefore Christ not a creature; and if not a Of the dead, our Lord says, the hour is coming, and now creature, consequently the Creator. See chap. i. 3.
is, when they shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and live. He that honoureth not the Son] God will not receive that The hour is coming, when all that sleep in the dust, shall man's adoration who refuses to honoar Jesus, even as he awake at the voice of the son of man, and come to judghonours him. The Jews expected the Messiah as a greatment: for he giveth life to the dead, ver. 21, 28, 29. Again, and powerful Prince, but they never thought of a person the hour is coming, when some of those who have died a nucoming in that character, enrobed with all the attributes of tural death, shall hear the voice of the Son of God and live
Christ shews himself to be the quickener
of the dead, and judge of the world.
4. M.4951. hear the voice of the Son of God: and done good, unto the resurrection of 4.1,9081. An. Olymnp. they that hear shall live.
life ; and they that have done evil, An. Olymp. 26 For as the Father hath life in him- unto the resurrection of damnation. self; so hath he given to the Son to have life in 30 ° I can of mine own self do nothing: as I himself;
hear, I judge: and my judgment is just ; be. 27 And ? hath given him authority to exe-cause I seek not mine own will, but the will cute judgment also, because he is the Son of of the Father which hath sent me. man.
31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness 28 Marvel not at this : for the hour is coming, is not true. in the which all that are in the graves shall hear 32 There is another that beareth witness of his voice,
me; and I know that the witness which he wit29 And shall come forth : 4 they that have nesseth of me is true.
* Ver. 22. Acts 10. 12. & 17. 31.- b Dan 7. 13, 11. c Isai. 26. 19.
1 Thess. 4. 16. 1 Cor. 15. 52.- Dan. 12. 2. Matt. 25. 32, 33, 46.
• Ver. 19.—Matt. 26. 39. ch. 4. 54. & 6.38.- See ch. 8. 14. Rer.
S. 14. Matt. 3. 17. & 17.5. ch. 8. 18. 1 Jolin 5. 6, 7, 9:
again bere. It is likely that our Lord had not as yet raised | ing wisdom and justice, shall adjudge the wicked to hell, and any from the dead; and he refers to those whom he intended the righteous to heaven. The first sense, however, of this to raise; see on ver. 21. Lastly, the hour now is, when passage, appears to some the most probable; though they many who are dead in trespasses and sins, shall hear the both amount nearly to the same meaning. voice (the word) of the Son of God, believe and receive Verse 30. I can of mine own self do nothing] Because of spiritual life through him.
my intimate union with God. See on ver. 19. Verse 26. Hath he given to the Son to have life, &c.] Here I seek not mine own will) I do not, I cannot attempt to do our Lord speaks of bimself in his character of Messiah or any thing without God. This, that is, the Son of man, the envoy of God.
human nature which is the temple of my divinity, chap. i. 14. Verse 27. Because he is the Son of man] Because he is is perfectly subject to the Deity that dwells in it. In this rethe Messiah; for in this sense, the phrase Son of man, is spect, our blessed Lord is the perfect pattern of all his followoften to be understood. But some join this to the next verse, In every thing their wills should submit to the will of thus :-Marvel not at this, because he is the Son of man. their heavenly Father. Nothing is more common than to
Verse 28. Marvel not at this] I think it quite necessary to hear people say, I will do it because I chuse. He who has no follow here, as noted above, the punctuation of both the Syriac, || better reason to give for his conduct than his own will, shal the Armenian, Chrysostom, Damascenus, Theophylact, Euthymius, in the end have the same reason to give for his eternal destrucand others; which is found also in some very good MSS. tion. “ I followed my own will, in opposition to the will oj Theophylact says that the common method of reading this God, and now I am plunged in the lake that burneth with fire which he highly objects to, was the invention of Paul of Sa- | and brimstone." mosuta. In ver. 26. and 27. our Lord speaking of himself Reader, God hath sent thee also to do his will :-his will is, as envoy of God, said, the Father had given him to have life, that thou shouldst abandon thy sins, and believe in the Lord in himself, so that like any of the ancient prophets, he could Jesus. Hast thou yet done it? vivify others; and that he had given him authority to execute Verse 31. If I bear witness] f I had no proof to bring judgment, probably referring to that judgment which he was of my being the Messiah, and equal to God, common sense shortly to execute on this unbelieving nation : and apparently, would direct you to reject my testimony: but the mighty in direct reference to Dan. vii. 13. Behold, one like the Son of power of God, by which I work my miracles, sufficiefftly atman came with the clouds, &c. a place which the Jews ex- tests that my pretensions are well founded. pound of the promised Messiah. In this verse he anticipates Bishop Pearce gives a different turn to this verse, by transan objection, as if they had said : “ This cannot be: thou lating it interrogatively, thus : " If I only bear witness of myart a man-thou wast born among us." Our Lord answers : self, is not my witness true ? i. e. is it, on that account, not Don't marvel at this, because I am a man—for greater things true ? In chap. viii. 14. he says, Though I bear record of mythan these shall be done by me: he who now addresses you, self, yet my record is true. And in ver. 18. he says, I am one though disguised under the form of a man, shall appear in the that bear uitness of myself." great day, to be the Judge of quick and dead : by his al- Verse 32. There is another] God the Father, who, by his mighty power, he shall raise all the dead; and by his unerr- Spirit in your prophets, described my person, office, and miHis testimony concerning
John the Baptist.
33 Ye sent unto John, “and he bare|| 35 He was a burning and a shining 4.1.095.. A. D. 27. An. Olymp. witness unto the truth.
light: and “ye were willing for a sea. An. Olymp. CCI. 3.
34 But I receive not testimony from son to rejoice in his light. man : but these things I say, that'ye might be 36 | But I have greater witness than that of saved.
John : for the works which the Father hath
• Ch. 1. 15, 19, 47, 32.-b2 Pet. 1. 19.-See Matt. 13. 20. & 21. 26.
Murk 6. 20.- 1 John 5. 9.-ech. 3. 2. & 10. 25. & 15. 24.
racles. You read these Scriptures, and you cannot help see his light continued no longer to shine, our Lord says he ing that tlicy testify of me :-no person ever did answer the description there given, but myself; and I answer to that de- The oxpression of lamp, our Lord took from the ordinary scription in the fullest sense of the word. See ver. 39. custom of the Jews, who termed their eminent doctors, the
And I know] Instead of ondoe, I know, ondati, ye know, is lamps of Israel. A lighted candle is a proper emblem of a the reading of the Coder Beze, Armenian, and iwo of the minister of God; and alteri serviens consumor—" In serving Itala. Ye believe the Scriptures to be of God, and that he others, I myself destroy:"-a proper motto. There are few cannot lie ; and yet ye will not believe in me, though these
who preach the gospel faithfully that do not lose their lives Scriptures have so clearly foretold and described me! It is loy it. Burning may refer to the zeal with which John exenot one of the least evils attending unbelief, that it acts not cuted his message; and shining may refer to the clearness of only in opposition to God, but it also acts inconsistently with the testimony which he bore concerning Christ. Only tò itself. It receives the Scriptures in bulk, and acknowledges shine, is but vanity; and to burn without shining, will never them to have come through divine inspiration, and yet be- edify the church of God. Some shine, and some burn, but lieves no part separately. With it the whole is true, but no
few both shine and burn; and many there are who are depart is true! The very unreusonableness of this conduct, nominated pastors, who neither shine nor burn. He who shews the principle to have come from beneath, were there wishes to save souls, must both burn and shine : the clear light no other evidences against it.
of the knowledge of the sacred records must fill his underVerse 33. Ye sent unto John] I am not without haman tes standing; and the holy flame of loving zeal must occupy his timony of the most respectable kind :-Ye sent to John, and heart. Zeal without knowledge is continually blundering; and he bare witness. There are several circumstances in John's knowledge without zeal makes no converts to Christ. character, which render his testimony unexceptionable. 1.
For a season] The time between his beginning to preach
and his being cast into prison. He is consulted by the very enemies of Christ, as a very holy and extraordinary man. 2. He is perfectly free from all self
To rejoice] Ayaradaconyon, to jump for joy, as we would interest, having declined making the least advantage by his express it. They were exceedingly rejoiced to hear that the own reputation. 3. He is sincere, undaunted, and so averse
Messiah was come, because they expected him to deliver from all kinds of flattery, that he reproves Herod at the ha- them out of the hands of the Romans: but when a spiritual zard of his liberty and life. 4. He was so far froin being deliverance, of infinitely greater moment, was preached to solicited by Christ to give his testimony, that he had not even
them, they rejected both it, and the light which made it
manifest. seen him, when he gave it. See chap. i. 19–28.
Verse 36. ]
But I have greater witness However decisive Verse 34. But I receive not testimony from man [only] I have no need of John's testimony: the works that I do, bear lamp of Israel, a miracle of grace, filled with the spirit of
the judgment of such a man as John may be, who was the sufficient testimony to me, ver. 36.
Elijah, and more than any prophet, because he pointed out, But these things I say, &c.] You believed John to be a pro- not the Messiah who was to come, but the Messiah who was phet-a prophet cannot lie: he bore testimony that I am the already come: nevertheless, I am not obliged to depend on Lamb of God, that beareth away the sin of the world, chap. his testimony alone; for I have a greater one, that of Him i. 29. therefore, that ye may be saved by believing in me as
whom you acknowledge to. be your God. And how do I. such, I have appealed to John's testimony.
prove that this God bears testimony to me? By my works : Verse 35. He was a burning and a shining light] H, o | these miracles, which attest my mission, and prove by themaux9os ó xasqueros xan Qasywv, should be translated, He was a selves, that nothing less than unlimited power and boundless burning and a shining LAMP. He was not το φως του κόσμου, ,
love could ever produce them. By my word only, I have the light of the world, i. e. the sun : but he was o auxros, a perfectly and instantly healed a man who was diseased thirty lamp, to give a clear and steady light till the sun should arise. and eight years. Ye see the miracle-the man is before you It is supposed that John had been cast into prison about four whole and sound. Why then do ye not believe in my mission, months before this time. See the note on chap. iv. 35. Asll that ye may embrace my doctrine, and be saved ?
The witnesses to the person
and doctrine of Christ.
A. D. 27.
AM, 4931. given me to finish, the same works for whom he hath sent, him ye believe A.M. 4031. An. Olymp. that I do, bear witness of me, that not.
An. Olymp. the Father hath sent me.
39 | Search the scriptures; for in 37 And the Father himself, which hath sent them ye thmuk ye have eternal lite: and they me, a hath borne witness of me. Ye have nei- are they which testify of me. ther heard his voice at any time, "nor seen his 40 € And
ye will not come to me, that ye might shape.
have life. 38 And
have not his word abiding in you : 41 | I receive not honour from men.
a Matt. 3. 17. & 17. 5. ch. 6. 97. & 8. 18. Deut. 4. 12. ch. 1. 18. 1 Tim. 1. 17. 1 John 4. 12.- Isai. 8. 20. & 34. 16. Luke 16. 29. ver. 46.
Acts 17. 11. - Deut. 18. 15, 18. Luke 24. 27. h 1. 45. ch. 1. 11. & 3. 19.- vf ver. 34. 1 Thess, 2. 6.
Verse 37. The Father kimself-hath borne witness] That is, The word egtuvatt, which might be translated, Ye search by his prophets.
diligently, is very expressive. Homer, Il. xviii. I. 321. apYe have neither heard his voice] I make these words, with plies it to a lion deprived of his whelps, who “
scours the Bp. Pearce, a parenthesis: the sense is—" Not that my Fa- || plains, and traces the fool-steps of the man.” And in ther ever appeared visibly or spake audibly to any of you; ! Odyss. xix. 1. 436. to dogs tracing their game by the scent but he did it by the mouths of his prophets." Lately, how- of the foot. ever, he had added to their testimony his own voice from In the Septuagint, the verb szeuvaw answers to the Hebrew heaven, on the day of Christ's baptism. See Matt. iii. 17. won chapash, to search by uncovering; to apn chakar, to
Verse 38. Ye hare not his word abiding in you] Though search minutely, to explore; to own chashaph, to strip, make ye believe the Scriptures to be of God, yet ye do not let them bare; and to wun mashash, to feel, search by feeling. It is take hold of your hearts-liis word is in your mouth, but not compounded of sgw, I seek, and even, a bed; "and is," says in your mind. What a miserable lot! to read the Scriptures | St. Chrysostom, “ a metaphor taken from those who dig deep, as the true sayings of God, and yet to get no salvation from and search for metals in the bowels of the earth. They look them! Thy word, says David, (Psal. cxix. 11.) have I hid in for the bed where the metal lies, and break every clod, and my heart, that I might not sin against thee. This, these Jews sift and examine the whole, in order to discover the ore." had not done. Reader, hast thou ?
Those who read the verse in the imperative mood, consider Verse 39. Search the Scriptures] Egtuvate tas vez pas. This it an exhortation to the diligent study of the Sacred Writings. should be translated, not in the imperative, but in the in- | Search ; that is, shake and sift them, as the word also signidicative mood — Thus, Ye search the Scriptures diligently. fies: search narrowly, till the true force and meaning of erery That these words are coinmonly read in the imperative mood sentence, yea, of every word and syllable, nay, of every letter is sufficiently known; but this reading can never accord well and yod therein, be known and understood. Confer place with the following verse, nor can the force and energy of the with place ; the scope of one place with that of another; things words be perceived by this version.
going before with things coming after: compare word with The Rabbins strongly recommend the study of the Scrip- word, letter with letter, and search the whole thoroughly. tures. The Talmud, Tract, Shabbath, fol. 30. brings in God See Purkhurst, Mintert, and Leigh. thus addressing David : “ I am better pleased with one day in Leaving every translation of the present passage out of the which thọu sittest and studiest the Law, than I shall be with a question, this is the proper method of reading and examining thousand sacrifices which thy son Solomon shall offer upon the Scriptures, so as to become wise unto salvation through
them. Perhaps the Scriptures were never more diligently searched Verse 40. And ye will not come to me) Though ye thus than at that very time: first, because they were in expectation search the Scriptures, in hopes of finding the Messiah and of the immediate appearing of the Messiah ; secondly, be- eternal life in them, yet ye will not come unto me, believe in cause they wished to find out allegories in them, (see Philo;) || me, and be my disciples, though so clearly pointed out by and thirdly, because they found these Scriptures to contain them, that ye may have that eternal life which can only come the promise of an eternal life. Ie, said they, who studies through me. daily in the Law, is worthy to have a portion in the world to Verse 41. I receive not honour from men.) I do not stand come, Sohar. Geneș. fol. 31. Jlence we may infer, Ist. That in need of you or your testimony. I act neither through selfthe Jews had the knowledge of a future state before the com- | interest, nor vanity. Your salvation can add nothing to me, ing of Christ; and 2dly. that they got that knowledge from nor can your destruction injure me: I speak only through my the Old Testament scriptures.
love for your souls, that ye may be saved.
A. M. 4031.
A. D. 27.
The Jews reprehended for their
carthlymindedness and unbelief. 42 But I know you, that ye have not 45 Do not think that I will accuse A. M. 401. An. Olymp. the love of God in you.
you to the Father : “there is one that An. Olymp. 43 I am come in my Father's name, accuseth you, even Moses, in whom and ye receive me not : if another shall come ye trust. in his own name, him ye will receive.
46 For had ye believed Moses, ye would have 44 * How can ye believe, which receive honour believed me: " for he wrote of me. one of another, and seek not the honour that 47 But if ye believe not his writings, how shall cometh from God only ?
*Ch. 12. 43. Rom. 2. 29.-- Kom. 2. 12.-Gen. 3. 15. & 12. 3.
& 18. 18. & 22. 18. & 49. 10. Deut. 18. 15, 18. ch. 1. 45. Acts 26. 22.
Verse 42. But I know you, that ye have not, &c.] Don't follow ME. It is no wonder that we never find persons say that you oppose me through zeal for God's honour, and making any progress in religion, who mix with the world, love for his name, because I make myself equal to him: no, and in any respect regulate their conduct by its anti-christian this is not the case. I know the dispositions of your souls; customs, maxims, and fashions. and I know ye have neither love for his name, nor zeal for bis From God only?] Or, from the only God---Jague TOU MOYOU glory. Incorrigible ignorance, and malicious jealousy, actuate dov. Two of the ancient Slavonic Versions read, From the your hearts. Ye read the Scriptures, but ye do not enter only begotten Son of God. into their meaning. Had you been as diligent to find out the Verse 45. Do not think that I will accuse you] You have truth, as you have been to find out allegories, false glosses, || accused me with a breach of the sabbath, which accusation and something to countenance you in your crimes, you | I have demonstrated to be false : I could, in return, accuse would have known that the Messiah, who is equal with you, and substantiate the accusation, with the breach of the God, must be the Son of man also, and the inheritor of whole law; but this I need not do, for Moses, in whom ye David's throne; and that the very works which I do, are trust, accuses you. You read his Law, acknowledge you those which the prophets have foretold the Messiah should should obey it, and yet break it both in the letter and in the perform. See Dan. vii. 13, 14. Isai. ix. 6, 7. xi. 1-5, 10. spirit. This Law, therefore, accuses and condemns you. Xxxv. 4-6.
It was a maxim among the Jews, that none could accuse Verse 43. I am come in my Father's name] With all his in- them but Moses : the spirit of wbich seems to be, that only sa fluence and authority. Among the Rabbins, it was essential to pure and enlightened a legislator could find fault with such a a teacher's credit, that he should be able to support his doc- noble and excellent people! For notwithstanding their abotrine by the authority of some eminent persons who had gone minations, they supposed themselves the most excellent of before. Hence the form, Coming in the name of another. mankind!
If another shall come in his own name] Having no divine in- Verse 46. He wrote of me.] For instance, in reciting the fluence, and no other authority than his own, him ye will prophecy of Jacob, Gen. xlix. 10. The sceptre shall not depart receive. That this was notoriously the case, may appear from 'from Judah, nor a law-giver from between his feet, until Josephus, Antiq. b. xviii. c. 14. Acts v. 36, 87. Eusebius, SHilos come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people Eccl. Hist. b. iv. c. 6. It is by the just judgment of God, be. And in Deut. xviii. 18. I will raise them up a Prophet that those, who will not believe the truth of God, shall be from among their brethren like unto thee ; and I will put my so given up as to believe the most absurd of lies. For an ac- words in his mouth, &c. Confer this with Acts iji. 22. and count of these false Christs, see the notes on Matt. xxiv. 5. vii. 37. Besides, Moses pointed out the Messiah in a mul
Verse 44. How can ye believe, which receive honour, &c.] |titude of symbols and figures, which are found in the history The grand obstacle to the salvation of the Scribes and Phari- of the patriarchs, the ceremonial laws, and especially in the sees was their pride, vanity, and self-love. They lived on whole sacrificial system. All these were well defined, though each other's praise. If they had acknowledged Christ as the shadowy representations of the birth, life, sufferings, death, only teacher, they must have given up the good opinion of the and resurrection of the Saviour of the world. Add to this, mu.titude; and they chose rather to lose their souls than to Mosez has given you certain marks to distinguish the false forfeit their reputation among men ! This is the ruin of from the true prophet, Deut. xiv. 1-3. xviii. 22. which, if millions. They would be religious, if religion and worldly you apply to me, you will find that I am not a false, but a honour were connected: but as the kingdom of Christ is not true Prophet of the Most High God. of this world, and their hearts and souls are wedded to the Verse 47. But if ye believe not his writings, &c.] If you earth, they will not accept the salvation which is offered to lay them not to heart—if you draw not those conclusions from them on these terms-Deny thyself: tuke up thy cross, and I them which their very letter, as well as their spirit, authorizes