תמונות בעמוד

Observations on the office of


the friend of the bridegroom.

shoshabin took her, and acted to her as a brother-in-law ; || Jews; and that to it, some interesting references are made in which is probable from the place to which he refers, Judg. | the New Testament, the force and true meaning of which xiv. 20. But Sampson's wife was given to his companion, whom passages cannot be discerned, without considering the chahe had used as his friend : or, as both the Syriac and the Tar- racter and office of the Jewish paranymph. See several good gum have it, she was given, it'3'3010 shoshebeeneyah, to his pa- observations on this in Lightfoot's notes on John ij. 1. and ranymph ; which is agreeable to the Alexandrian copy of the Schoetgen, on chap. iii. 29. Septuagint, Και συνωκησεν η γυνη Σαμψον τω Νυμφαγωγω αυτου, ος

As the Christian church was now to take place of the Jewην εταιρος αυτου. .

And Sampson's wife dwelt (or cohabited) with || ish, and the latter was about to be cast off because it was polhis paranymph, who had been his companion. The same reading luted; John, by using the simile of the bride, bridegroom, is found in the Complutensian Polyglott.

and paranymph, or friend of the bridegroom, points out as it From the preceding particulars, collated with the speech were prophetically, of what kind the Christian church must be: of John in ver. 29. and with the words of St. Paul, 2 Cor. it must be as holy and pure as an uncontaminated virgin, bexi. 2. it is plain that Christ is represented as the BRIDEGRoom : cause it is to be the bride or spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ : the church, or his genuine disciples, the BRIDE : the ministers and God honours the Baptist by making him the paranymph; of the gospel, the S'U SHOSHBEENIM, whose great and and indeed his whole preaching and baptism, were excellently important duty it is, to present to the bridegroom a pure, un- calculated to produce this great effect, as he strongly procontaminated virgin, i. e. a church without spot, or wrinkle, or claimed the necessity of a total reformation of heart and manany such thing, Ephes. v. 27. alluding evidently to the office ners, among all classes of the people. See the notes on Matt. ii. of the paranymph, on whom the bridegroom depended, to 8–12. and on Lukę iii. 10–14. He heard the bridegroom's procure him for wife, a chaste and pure virgin. Hence that voice-he faithfully communicated what he had received from saying of St. Paul, who considered himself the paranymph to heaven, ver. 27. and he rejoiced exceedingly to find that he Jesus Christ : I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for had got a people prepared for the Lord. The success of I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as John's preaching greatly contributed to the success of that of a chaste virgin to Christ, 2 Cor. xi. 2.

Christ and his disciples. For this purpose he was endued From all these particulars, we see that the office of the sho- with power from on high, and chosen to be the paranymph shabin or paranymph, was a very important one among the l of the heavenly bridegroom.


CHAPTER IV. Jesus finding that the Pharisees took offence at his making many disciples, leaves Judea to pass into Galilee, 1-3.

And passing through Samaria comes to Sychar, and rests at Jacob's well, 4-6. While his disciples were gone the city to buy meat, a woman of Samaria comes to draw water, with whom our Lord discourses at large on the spiritual nature of his religion, the perfection of the divine nature, and the purity of his worship, 7–94. On his informing her that he was the Messiah, she leaves her pitcher, and goes to inform her townsmen, 25—30. His discourse with his disciples in her absence, 31–38. Many of the Samaritans believe on him, 39–49. He stays two days with them, and goes into Galilee, 43—45. He comes to Cana, and heals the son of a nobleman, in consequence of which, he believes on him, with his whole family, 46——54.

HEN therefore the Lord knew 2 (Though Jesus himself baptized A. 1. 4031. An. Olymp. how the Pharisees had heard not, "but his disciples,)

an. Olymp. that Jesus made and baptized more

3 He left Judea, and departed again disciples than John,

into Galilee.

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may take it for granted, that they were so irritated, that they Verse 1. Jesus made and baptized, &c.] These seem to be were determined to seek an occasion to take away his life ; quoted as the very words which were brought to the Phari- consequence of which, leaving Judea, he withdrew into Gasees : and from onr Lord's conduct after this information, we lilee.


Our Lord's discourse with


the woman of Samaria.

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therefore, being wearied with his jour. An. Olymp. CCI. 3.

5 Then cometh he to a city of Sa-ney, sat thus on the well: and it was maria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel about the sixth hour. of ground 4 that Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw

a Gen. 33. 19. & 48. 22. Josh. 24. 32.

Exod. 2. 15. Heb. 4. 13.

It was

Verse 2. Jesus himself baptized not] See chap. iii. 22.- some pieces of a very thick wall, the remains perhaps of the

Verse 4. And he must needs go through Samaria.] Or, It ancient Sychem, still to be seen not far from hence. Over it was necessary for him to pass through Samaria : for this plainstood formerly a large church, erected by the empress Irene ; reason, and no other, because it was the only proper road. || but of this the voracity of time, assisted by the hands of the Samaria lay northward of Judea, and between the great sea, Turks, has left nothing but a few foundations remaining. The Galilee, and Jordan ; and there was therefore no going from well is covered at present with an old stone vault, into which Galilee to Jerusalem, but through this province. See the you are let down by a very strait hole; and then removing a note on Luke xvii. 11. From Jerusalem to Galilee through broad flat stone, you discover the well itself. It is dug in a Samaria, according to Josephus, was three days' journey. firm rock, is about three yards in diameter, and thirty-five in See his own Life.

depth, five of which we found full of water. This confutes a Verse 5. A city-called Sychar] This city was anciently story frequently told to travellers, ' That it is dry all the year called Shechem. It seems to have been situated at the foot of round, except on the anniv rsary of that day, on which our mount Gerizim, in the province of Samaria, on which the blessed Saviour sat upon it; but then bubbles up with abundtemple of the Samaritans was built. After the ruin of Sama- ance of water. At this well the narrow valley of Sychem ria by Salmanczer, Sycher, or Shechem, became the capital of ends, opening itself into a wide field, which probably is part the Samaritans: and it continued so, according to Josephus, of the ground, given by Jacob to his son Joseph. It is waAnt. l. xi. c. 8. in the time of Alexander the Great.

tered by a fresh stream, running between it and Sychem, about ten miles from Shiloh, forty from Jerusalem, and fifty- which makes it exceedingly verdant and fruitful.” See two from Jericho. It probably got the name of Sychar, which 'Maundrell's Travels, 5th edit. p. 62. signifies drunken, from the drunkenness of its inhabitants. With Sat thus] Chrysostom enquires what the particle thus, this crime the prophet Isaiah (ch. xxviii. 1, 3, 7, 8.) solemnly outws, means here? and answers, that it simply signifies, he charges the Ephraimites, within whose limits this city stood. sat not upon a throne, seat, or cushion ; but (as the circumThis place is remarkable in the Scriptures, 1. As being that stances of the case required) upon the ground. This is a where Abram first stopped, on his coming from Haran to Ca- sense which is given to the word in the ancient Greek writnaan. 2. Where God first appeared to that patriarch, and ers. See Raphelius, Wetstein, and Pearce. It is probably a promised to give the land to his seed. 3. The place where mere expletive, and is often so used by Josephus. See several Abram first built an altar to the Lord, and called upon his examples in Rosenmuller. name, Gen. xii. 7. The present name of this city is Nea- The sixth hour.] About twelve o'clock: see the note on polis, or Naplouse. See Calmet.

chap. i. 39. The time is noted here, 1. To account for Christ's That Jacob gave to his son Joseph.) Jacob had bought this fatigue—he had already travelled several hours. 2. To acfield from the children of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for count for his thirst-the sun had at this time waxed hot. 3. a hundred pieces of silver, or lambs, Gen. xxxiij. 19. and in To account for the disciples going to buy food, ver. 8. because it he built an altar, which he dedicated to El Elohey Yishrael, this was the ordinary time of dinner among the Jews. See the strong God, the covenant God of Israel, ver. 19. This, the note referred to above. Dr. Macknight thinks the sixth Jacob left as a private or overplus inheritance to Joseph and hour, to be the Roman six o'clock in the afternoon. See note his children. See Gen. xlviii. 21, 22. and Josh. xxiv. 32. on chap. i. 29.

Verse 6. Jacob's well was there.] Of this well, Mr. Maun- Verse 7. There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water] drell gives the following account. “ About one third of an That this was the employment of the females, we see in difhour from Naplosa, the ancient Sychar and Sychem, stood ferent parts of the Sacred Writings. See Gen. xxiv. 11, &c. Jacob's well. If it be enquired, whether this be the very Exod. ii. 16. and the note at the end of that chapter. The place, seeing it may be suspected to stand too remote from Jews say, that those who wished to get wives, went to the Sychar, for the woman to come and draw water, we may wells where young women were accustomed to come and answer : that in all probability, the city extended farther in draw water : and it is supposed, that women of ill fame freformer times than it does now, as may be conjectured from quented such places also. See several proofs in Schoetgen.

Our Lord's discourse with


the woman of Samaria.

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water : Jesus saith unto her, Give me, have asked of him, and he would have A. M. 4031. A. D. 27.

A. D. 9, An. ( lymp. to drink.

given thee bliving water.

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CCI 3. 8 (For his disciples were gone away

11 The woman saith unto him, Sir, unto the city to buy meat.)

thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is 9 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto deep : from whence then hast thou that living him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest water ? drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria ? 12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, for a the Jews have no dealings with the Sama- which gave us the well, and drank thereof himritans.

self, and his children, and his cattle ? 10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou 13 Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoknewest the gift of God, and who it is that ever drinketh of this water shall thirst again : saith to thee, Give me to drink ; thou wouldest 14 But whosoever drinketh of the water that

* 2 Kings 17. 24. Luke 9. 52, 53. Acts 10. 48.

Isai, 12. 3. & 41. 3. Jer. 2. 13. Zech. 13. 1. & 14. 8. ch. 6. 55, 58.

Verse 9. That thou, being a Jew] Probably the inhabitants Living water.) By this expression, which was common to of. Judea distinguished themselves from those of Samaria, by the inhabitants both of the East and of the West, is always some peculiar mode of dress; and by this, the Samaritan wo- meant spring water, in opposition to dead, stagnant water, man might have known Christ : but it is likely that our Lord contained in ponds, pools, and cisterns : and what our Lord spoke the Galilean dialect, by which we find, from Mark means by it, is evidently the Holy Spirit, as may be seen xiv. 70. a Jew of that district miglit easily be known. chap. vii. 38, 39.

The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.] Perhaps As water quenches the thirst, refreshes and invigorates the better, (Jews have no communion with Samaritans.) These body, purifies things defiled, and renders the earth fruitful: words appear to be added by the Evangelist himself, in expla- l so it is an apt emblem of the gift of the Holy Ghost, which nation of the woman's question. The original word, ouyxowy- so satisfies the souls that receive it, that they thirst no more T&o, has been variously translated and understood. It comes for earthly good: it purifies also from all spiritual defilement, from ouv, together, and xpouas, I use, or borrow : hence it has on which account it is emphatically stiled the Holy Spirit, , been understood to mean, the Jews will be under no kind of and it makes those who receive it, fruitful in every good word obligation to the Samaritans--will borrow nothing from them and work. —will not drink out of the same cup or well with them-will Verse H. Thou hast nothing to draw with] OUTE CITATY? not sit down to meals with them, nor eat out of the same ves- Xevs, thou hust no bucket. Good water is not plenty in the selwill have no religious connection, no commercial dealings East : and travellers are often obliged to carry leathern bottles with them. The word communion, I think, fully expresses the or buckets with them, and a line also, to let them down into sense of the original; and being as extensive in its meaning the deep wells, in order lo draw up water. If the well was as our word dealings, is capable of as general an interpreta- | in our Lord's time, as it was found by Mr. Maundrell, thirtytion. The deadly hatred that subsisted between these two na- five yards deep, it would require a considerable line to reach tions is known to all. The Jews cursed them, and believed it; and with such, it is not likely that even the disciples of them to be accursed. Their most merciful wish to the Sama- our Lord were provided. The woman might well say, Tke ritans was, that they might have no part in the resurrection ; | well is deep, and thou hast nothing to draw with ; whence then or, in other words, that they might be annihilated.

hast thou that living water ? Verse 10. If thou knewest the gift of God) Awgræs signifies Verse 12. Our father Jacob] The ancient Samaritans were a free gift. A gift is any thing that is given, for which no undoubtedly the descendants of Jacob ; for they were the ten equivalent has been, or is to be returned : a free gift, is that tribes that revolted in the reign of Rehoboam : but those in which has been given without asking or intreaty. Such a gift our Lord's time were not genuine Israelites, but a corrupted of kindness was Jesus Christ to the world, chap. iii. 16. and race, sprung from a mixture of different nations, sent thither through him comes the gift of the Spirit, which those who by Salmanezer, king of the Assyrians. See 2 Kings xvii. believe on his name were to receive. Christ was not an object Verse 14. Springing up into everlasting life.] On this acof desire to the world—no man asked for him: and God, count he can never thirst :-for how can be lack water, who moved thereto by his own eterual mercy, freely gave him. has in bimself a living, eternal spring? By this water oor Through this great gift, comes the Holy Spirit, and all other Lord means also his doctrine, explaining and promising the gifts, which are necessary to the salvation of a lost world. gifts and graces of the Holy Ghost, which proceed from Jesus

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4. N. 1931. I shall give him shall never thirst; but || husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou An. Olymp. the water that I shall give him a shall hast well said, I have no husband :

be in him a well of water springing up 18 For thou hast had five husbands into everlasting life.

and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband : 15 The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me in that saidst thou truly. this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither 19 The woman saith unto him, Sir, “I perto draw:

ceive that thou art a prophet. 16 Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, 20 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain ; and come hither.

and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where 17 The woman answered and said, I have no men ought to worship.

• Ch. 7. 58. See ch. 6. 34. & 17. 2, 3. Rom. 6. 23. 1 John 5. 20.

c Luke 7. 16. & 24. 19. ch. 6. 14. & 7. 40. — Judg. 9.7.-- Deut.

12. 5, 11. 1 Kings 9. 3. 2 Chron. 7. 12.

Christ their fountain, dwelling in a believing heart. There speak these words to her by way of reproof, 1. Because it is is no eternal life without the Spirit ; no Spirit without Christ, not likely that a woman so far advacced in years, as to have and no Christ to give the Spirit, without dwelling in the had five husbands, should have now been found living in adulheart: this, his whole doctrine proclaims.

tery with a sixth person. 2. Because it is not likely, that Verse 15. Give me this water] She did not as yet compre- our Lord would not, in some part of his discourse, have rehend our Lord's meaning ; but her curiosity was much ex- proved her for her fornication, especially if guilty of it, under cited, and this was the design of our Lord, that he might such gross circumstances. 3. Nor is it likely that a woman have her mind properly prepared to receive the great truths, of so bad a life, should have bad so much influence with the which he was about to announce.

people of her city, that they should, on her testimony, Fer. Verse 16. Call thy husband] Our Lord appears to have 39–42. believe Jesus to be the Messiah. 4. Nor is it at all spoken these words for two purposes : 1. To make the woman' likely, that when a discovery of her guilt was made to her, consider her own state. 2. To shew her that he knew her 'by one whom she acknowledged to be a prophet, ver. 19. that heart, and the secret actions of her life; and was therefore the first thing which came into her thoughts, should be the well qualified to teach her heavenly truths.

inportant question in religion, about the place appointed by Verse 18. Thou hast had five husbands] It is not clear that God for his worship, so warmly contested between the Jews this woman was a prostilute--she might have been legally and Samaritans. 5. Nor is it at all probable, that a person of married to those five, and might have been divorced through such a bad life, without any mentioned sign of repentance, some misbehaviour of her own, not amounting to adultery; should have been the first, (perhaps the only private person) for the adultress was to be put to death, both by the Jewish to whom Jesus is recorded, as declaring himself to be the and Samaritan law, not divorced : or she might have been Christ, as he does to her, ver. 26. cast off through some caprice of her husband : for in the Verse 19. I perceive that thou art a prophet.] And theretime of our Lord, divorces were very common among the fore thought hin well qualified to decide the grand question Jews; so that a man put away his wife for any fault. See in dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans : but she did the note on Matt. v. 31. Some are so very fond of exagge- not perceive him to be the Messiah. rating, that nothing can pass through their hands without an Verse 20. Worshipped in this mountain] Probably pointing increase : hence Heracleon says, she had six husbands; and to mount Gerizim, at the foot of which Syehar was situated. Jerom modestly gives her twenty-two! Viginti duos habuisti The patriarchs had worshipped here--Jacob builded an allar maritos, et ille a quo sepelieris non est trus. “ Thou hast had on this mountain, and worshipped the true God: see Gen. twenty-two husbands, and he by whom thou shalt be buried, | xxii. 2. xxxiii. 20. Thus she could say, Our fathers worshipis not thine." Epist. xi.

ped in this mountain. On this mountain Sanballat had built He whom thou now hast is not thy husband) Nuv o fyts, our thein a temple, about 332 years before our Lord's incarnaETTI GOU aung. Bishop Pearce would translate this clause in tion. See Joseph. Antiq. xi. c. viii. s. 4. and 2 Macc. vi. 2. the following manner : There is no husband whom thou now In the Hebrew Pentateuch, Deut. xxvii. 4, &c. where the hast-or less literally, Thou hast no husband now : probably Israelites are commanded to build an altar on mount Ebal, the meaning is, Thou art contracted to another, but not yet and offer sacrifices, &c. the Samaritan Pentateuch has Gerizim brought home; therefore he is not yet thy husband. See instead of Ebal ; and Dr. Keunicott strongly contends, Dissert. Rosenmuller. Bishop Pearce contends, that our Lord did not || vol. ii. p. 20, &c. that Gerisim is the genuine reading : but

Our Lord's discourse with


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21 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, be- the true worshippers shall worship the A. M.4031. An. Olymp. lieve me, the hour cometh, ` when ye Father in spirit and in truth: for An. Olynp.

shall neither in this mountain, nor yet the Father seeketh such to worship at Jerusalem, worship the Father.

him. 22 Ye worship ye know not what : we 24 God is a Spirit : and they that worknow what we worship : for salvation is of ship him must worship him in spirit and in the Jews.


truth. 23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when 25 The woman saith unto him, I know that

a Mal. 1. 11. 1 Tim. 2. 8.02 Kings 17. 29.-

Isai. 2. 3. Luke

24. 47. Rom. 9. 4, 5.

d Phil. 3. 3. ch. 1. 17.- 2 Cor. 3. 17.

our blessed Lord, by the following answer, shews that the The worship of the Samaritans was a defective worship—they place was a matter of little importance, as the divine worship i did not receive the prophetical writings: that of the Jews was no longer to be confined to either : ver. 21. See the note was a carnal worship, dealing only in the letter, and referring on Deut. xxvii. 4.

to the spirit and design, which were at a distance, by types Verse 21. The hour cometh, &c.] The time was now at and ceremonies. The gospel of Christ sliewed the meaning hand, in which the spiritual worship of God was about to be of all these carnal ordinances, and the legal sacrifices, which established in the earth; and all the Jewish rites and cere

had all their consummation in his offering of himself: thus a monies entirely abolished.

spiritual dispensation took place of the carnal one, which Worship the Father.] This epithet shews the mild, benig- prefigured it. 2. The preaching of the Gospel discovered the nant, and tender nature of the Gospel dispensation. Men true nature of God, of salvation, of the human soul, of earthly are called to worship their heavenly Father, and to consider and of heavenly things; and because of this, it is put in opthemselves as his children. In reference to this, our Lord's position to the defective Samaritan worship. prayer begins, Our FATHER, who art in heaven, &c. See Verse 24. God is a Spirit] This is one of the first, the ver. 23.

greatest, the most sublime, and necessary truths in the comVerse 22. Ye worship ye know not what] The Samaritans pass of nature ! There is a God, the cause of all things the believed in the same God with the Jews; but as they rejected fountain of all perfection—without parts or dimensions, for all the prophetical writings, they had but an imperfect know-| he is eternal--filling the heavens and the earth—perrading, ledge of the Deity: besides, as they incorporated the worship governing, and upholding all things : for he is an infinite spiof idols with his worship, they might be justly said to wor Rit! This God can be pleased only with that which resemship him whom they did not properly know. See the ac

bles himself : therefore he must hate sin and sinfulness ; and can count of their motley worship, 2 Kings xvii. 26–34. But delight in those only, who are made partakers of his own divine after Sanballat had built the temple on mount Gerizim, the nature. As all creatures were made by him, so all owe him idolatrous worship of the Cutheans and Sepharvites, &c. was obedience and reverence—but to be acceptable to this infinite entirely laid aside ; the same religious service being perform- Spirit, the worship must be of a spiritual nature ; must spring ed in the Samaritan temple, which was performed in that at from the heart, through the influence of the Holy Ghost : and Jerusalem.

it must be in truth, not only in sincerity, but performed We know what we worship] We Jews acknowledge all the according to that divine revelation, which he has given men attributes of his nature, and offer to him only, the sacrifices of himself. A man worships God in spirit, when, under the prescribed in the Law.

influence of the Holy Ghost, he brings all his affections, apSalvation is of the Jews.] Ex tw lovdawwe totiv, salvation is petites, and desires to the throne of God: and he worships from the Jews.

Salvation seems here to mean the Saviour, him in truth, when every purpose and passion of his heart, the Messiah, as it does Luke ii. 30. Acts iv. 12. and so the || and when every act of his religious worship, is guided and woman appears to have understood it, ver. 25. The Messiah | regulated by the word of God. “The enlightened part of was to spring from the Jews—from them, the preaching of mankind,” says Abu'l Fazel, “ knows that true righteousness the Gospel, and the knowledge of the truth, were to go to all is an upright heart; and believe, that God can only be worthe nations of the world. It was to the Jews that the pro- shipped in holiness of spirit.” Ayeen Akbery, vol. iii. p. mises were made; and it was in their prophetic scriptures, | 254. which the Samaritans rejected, that Jesus Christ was pro

“ Of all worshippers,” says Creeshna, “ I respect him as claimed and described. See Isai, xi. 3.

the most devout, who hath faith in me, and who serveth nic Verse 23, The true worshippers shall worship-in spirit) with a soul possessed of my Spirit.” Geeta, p. 68.

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