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Christ's agony

CHAP. XXII.

in lke garden,

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38 And they said, Lord, behold, || move this cup from me: nevertheless A. Ml. 4033 . 4. D. 9. An. Olymp. here are two swords. And he said ' not my will, but thine, be done. An. Olynip. unto them, It is enough.

43 And there appeared an angel 39. And he came out, and went, as he unto him from heaven, strengthening him. was wont, to the mount of Olives, and his dis- 44 " And being in an agony he prayed more ciples also followed him.

earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great 40. And when he was at the place, he said drops of blood falling down to the ground. unto them, Pray that ye enter not into tempt- 45 And when he rose up from prayer, and ation.

was come to his disciples, he found them sleep41 4 And he was withdrawn from them abouting for sorrow, a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, 46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise 42 Saying, Father, if thou be willing, re- and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.

• Matt. 26. 36. Mark 14. 32. John 18. 1.--"ch. 21. 57.--Matt. 6. 13.

Å 26. 41. Mark 14. 38. ver. 46. Matt. 26. 39. Mark 14. 35.

· Gr. willing to remove.-- John 5. 30. & 6.38. Matt. 4. 11.od John

12. 27. Hebr. 5.7.ver. 40.

into his agony.

Verse 38. Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said|ness, and agony in the garden, as well as his death and burial, unto them, It is enough.] These words cannot be well un- were proofs of the latter. As mun, he needs the assistance of derstood as being an answer to the supposed command of an angel to support his body, wora down by fatigue and sufChrist, for every one who had no sword, to go and sell his gar- fering. See at the end of ver. 44. ment and buy one; for in this case, they were not enough, or

Verse 44. Prayed more earnestly) With greater emphasis suficient, as nine of the disciples must be without any instru- and earnest ness than usual, with strong crying and tears, Heb. menl of defence; but they may be understood as pointing | v. 7. the reason given for which is, that he was in an agony. out the readiness and determination of Peter, and perhaps | Kypke well observes, Vor dywna summum animi angorem et some others, to defend our Lord: thou shalt not be treated as dolorem indicat ; et idem est, quod adnikovely Matt. xxvi. 37. a transgressor ; here are two swords, and we will fight for thee. Mark xiv. 34. “The word aywna, (agony) points out the utIn ver. 33. Peter had said, he wus ready to go with Christ most anguish and grief of soul, and is of the same import either to prison or deuth ; which shesed his strong resolution with adnjoves in Matthew and Mark.” See the note on Matt. to stand by, and defend bis Master, even at the expence of xxvi. 37. his life. But alas ! he depended 100 much on himself.

Drops of blood) See the note on Matt. xxvi. 38. Some It is enough. The meaning probably is, there is enough have thought that the meaning of the words is, that the said on the subject; as immediately after this, he entered sweat was so profuse that every drop was as large as a drop

of blood, not that the sweat was blood itself: but this does I must here confess that the matter about the swords ap- not appear likely. There have been cases in which persons pears to me very obscure. I am afraid I do not understand in a debilitated state of body, or through horror of soul, have it, and I know of none who does. Schoetgen and Lightfont had their sweat tinged with blood. Dr. Mead from Galen have said much on the subject; others endeavour to get rid observes, Contingere interdum, poros ex multo aut fervido spiof the difficulty by translating payaugav a knife, which was ritu adeo dilatari, ut etiam ereat sanguis per eos, fiatque suinecessary on long journeys for providing forage and fuel; as dor sanguineus. “Cases sometimes happen in which, through they were to depend wholly on their own industry, under mental pressure, the pores may be so dilated that the blood God, for all the necessaries of life, while going through the may issue from them; so that there may be a bloody sweat.” nations of the earth, preaching the gospel to Jews and Gen- | And Bishop Pearce gives an instance from Thuanus (De tiles. I canpot say which sense the reader should prefer. Thou) of an Italian gentleman being so distressed with the

Verse 40. When he was at the place) Viz. Gethsemane. || fear of death, that his body was covered with a bloody sweat. On this agony of our Lord see the notes on Malt. xxvi. 36But it is fully evident, that the fear of death could have no 46.

place in the mind of our blessed Lord. He was in the bloom Verse 43. There appeared an angel--from heaven] It was of life: in perfect health, and had never suffered any thing as necessary that the fullest evidence should be given, not from disease of any kind; this sweat' was most assuredly only of our Lord's divinity, but also of his humanity-his produced by a preternatural cause. See at the end of the miracles sufficiently attested the former : his hunger, weari. chapter,

Christ is apprehended.

St. LUKE.

Peter denies him.

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47 | And while he yet spake, .be- || brought him into the high priest's 4. M. 4038. An. Olymp. hold a multitude, and he that was | house. f And Peter followed afar off. An. Olymap.

called Judas, one of the twelve, went 55 5 And when they had kindled a before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down him.

together, Peter sat down among them. 48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest 56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat thou the Son of man with a kiss ?

by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and 49 When they which were about him saw what said, This man was also with him. would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall 57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I we smite with the sword ?

know him not. 50 | And one of them smote a servant of 58 - And after a little while, another saw him the high priest, and cut off his right ear. and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter

51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer yesaid, Man, I am not. thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed 59 And about the space of one hour after, him.

another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth 52 * Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, this fellow also was with him : for he is a Gaand captains of the temple, and the elders, lilean. which were come to him, Be ye come out, as 60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what against a thief, with swords and staves ? thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet

53 When I was daily with you in the temple spake, the cock crew. ye stretched forth no hands against me: but 61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon this is your hour, and the

power

of darkness. Peter. * And Peter remembered the word of the 54 Then took they him, and led him, and Lord, how he had said unto him, 'Before the

a Matt. 26. 47. Mark 14. 43. John 18. 3. - Matt. 26. 51. Mark 14.47. John 18. 10.- Matt. 26. 55. Mark 14. 48. John 12. 27.—Matt 26. 57.—of Niatt. 26. 58. John 18. 15.

3 Matt. 26. 69. Mark 14. 66. Jolm 18. 17, 18. Matt. 26. 71. Mark 14. 69. John 18. 25. Matt. 26. 73. Mark 14. 70. Jolin 18. 26. Matt 26. 75. Mark 14. 72.—Matt. 26. 34, 75. Jolin 13. 33.

Verse 48. Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?] Dost This is your hour, and the power of darkness.] That is, the thou attempt to kiss me as a friend, while thou art delivering time in which you are permitted to unrein your malice; me up into the hands of my enemies? We need not wonder which ye could not do before, because God did not permit at all this, as Satan himself had entered into the heart of this you; and so perfectly are ye under his controul, that neither traitor; see ver. 3. consequently we can expect nothing from you nor the prince of darkness can proceed a hair's breadth him but what is fell, deceitful, and cruel.

against me, but through this permission : see at the end of Verse 50. Cut off his right car.] See the note on Matt. | the chapter. What a comfortable thought is it to the folxxvi. 51.

lowers of Christ, that neither men nor dæmons can act against Verse 51. Suffer ye thus far.) Or, Suffer me to go thus them, but by the permission of their heavenly Father; and far. As they had now a firm hold of Christ, Matt. xxvj. 50. | that he will not suffer any of those who trust in him, to be he wished them to permit him to go as far as Malchus, whose tried above what they are able to bear; and will make the ear was cut off; that he might beal it. See the objections trial issue in their greater salvation, and in his glory. brought against this interpretation, answered by Kypke; and Verse 56. A certain maid beheld him] Or, Attentively besee the examples he produees. However, the words may be holding him, ateroasa. And this she did by the help of the understood as an address to his disciples : Let them proceed; light of the fire at which Peter sat. make no resistance, for in this way only are the scriptures to Verse 57. And he denied him] See the notes on Matt. xxvi. be fulfilled.

58, 69, &c. Verse 53. I was daily with you in the temple] Alluding to Verse 61. The Lord turned, and looked upon Peter.) See the four preceding days, during the whole of which he taught the note on Matt. xxvi. 75. where this delicate reproof is parin the temple, see chap. xxi. 37. and Matt. xxi. 17.

ticularly noted.

Christ is condemned for acknowledging

CHAP. XXII.

himself to be the son of God.

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4.1.1.9. cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. | 67 « Art thou the Christ? tell us.

62 And Peter went out, and wept | And he said unto them, If I tell you, An. Olymp. bitterly.

ye will not believe : 63 | And the men that held Jesus mocked 68 And if I also ask you, ye will not answer him, and smote him.

me, nor let me go. 64 And when they had blindfolded him, they 69 69 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, right hand of the power of God. Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?

70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son 65 And many other things blasphemously, spake of God? And he said unto them, ‘Ye say they against him.

that I am. 66 And as soon as it was day, the elders 71 % And they said, What need we any furof the people, and the chief priests, and the ther witness ? for we ourselves have heard of scribes came together, and led him into their his own mouth. council, saying,

* Matt. 26. 67, 68. Mark 14. 65.-Matt. 27. 1.

-Acts 4. 26. See
Acts 22. 5. Matt. 26. 63. Mark 14. 61.

e Matt. 26. 64. Mark 14. 62. Heb. 1. 3. & 8. 1.- Matt. 26. 64. Mark

14. 62.-8 Matt. 26. 65. Mark 14. 63.

Verse 62. And Peter went out] The word Peter is omitted || God looked on, and treated him as if he were a sinner.” There by BDKLM. and many other good MSS. with some of the is something very shocking in this supposition; and yet it is ancient Versions. Griesbach leaves it out of the text. truly astonishing, how general it is. The ministry of the

Verse 63. Mocked him, and smote him.] This and the fol- | angel, in this case, is a sufficient refutation of this opinion; lowing verses are placed by Matthew and Mark before the for what sort of strength could an angel give Christ against relation of Peter's denial. For their explanation, see on Matt. God's indignation ? Angelic strength could not enable him to XXVI. 67, 68.

bear either the sin of the world, or God's wrath. If an angel Verse 68. And if I also ask you] Concerning the Christ, could have succoured him in this, an angel might have made in case ye cannot give me such an answer as may prove I am || the whole atonement. Indeed the ministry of the angel, who not the Christ, ye will not let me go; for I know ye are de- | must have been sent from God, and sent in lore too, is a full termined to put me to death.

proof that God's wrath was not poured out on our blessed Verse 69. Hereafter] From this very time, ato tou yuy. The Redeemer al this time. Dr. Lightfoot conjectures, that his kingdom of God is now going to be set up. See the note on conflict in the garden, was with a devil, who appeared to him Matt. xvi. 27, 28.

in a bodily shape, most horrible; and that it was through this Verse 70. Art thou then the Son of God?] They all in- || apparition, that he began to be sore amazed, and very heavy, sisted on an answer to this question, and the high priest par- | Mark xiv. 33. for as Satan assaulted the first Adam in a garticularly put it to him, Matt. xxvi. 63.

den, in a bodily shape, it is not unreasonable to conclude that Verse 71. We ourselves have heard] We have heard him in the same way, he assaulted the second Adam, in a garden. profess himself the Son of God; he is therefore guilty of blas- St. Luke tells us, chap. iv. 15. that when the Devil had finishphemy, and as an impious pretender to a divine mission, weed all his temptations, he departed from him for a season : this must proceed against, and condemn him to death. See the season in the garden, probably was the season, or fit oppornote on Matt. xxvi. 66. Thus they proceeded as far as they | tunity for him to return the prince of this world came and could; he must now be brought before Pilate, as the Jews found nothing in him; John xiv. 30. but though there was had no power to put him to death. His trial before Pilate is nothing in the immaculate Jesus, on which Satan could work, related in the subsequent chapter.

yet he might, as the Doctor supposes, assume some horrible

shape, in order to appal his mind, and shake his firmness: and On our Lord's agony in the garden, related in the 430 | the Evangelist seems to intimate, that he had desired to be

perand 44th verses, much has been written, but to little purpose. mitted to try or sift the disciples in this way, see ver. 31. The cause of this agony seems not to have been well under- and it is probable, that it is to some personal, horrid appear. stood; and there have been many wild conjectures concerning ance, that the apostle alludes, when he speaks of the messenger it. Some think it was occasioned by “the divine wrath pressing of Satan that buffeted him, 2 Cor. xii. 7. . The angel therein upon him; for as he was bearing the sin of the world, fore from heaven, may be supposed to come against this

Christ is led to Pilate

Sr. LUKE.

and vehemently accused.

angel from hell; and as the one appeared to terrify, the other no doubt with most critics, of their anthenticity. After all appeared to strengthen him. It was not necessary to exert that has been said, or perhaps can be said on this subject, the divine power to crush this devil, and therefore an angel there will remain mysteries which only the bright light of the from heaven is sent to counteract his influence. This is the sum eternal world can sufficiently illustrate. That Christ was of Dr. Lightfoot's reasonings upon this very difficult subject. now suffering, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us

Others supposé, that while our Lord was praying intensely to God; and that he was bearing in his body, the punishment in the garden, the extreme fervor of his application to God due to their sins, I have no doubt: and that the agony of his in the behalf of the poor deluded Jews, and in behalf of the mind, in these vicarious sufferings, caused the effusion from world, was too much for his human nature to support; that his body, of the bloody sweat, may be easily credited, withhe, in consequence, fell into a swoon, in which he had a out supposing him to be at all under the displeasure of his VISION of an angel coming from heaven to strengthen him. Let heavenly Father; for as God can see nothing but as it is, he these sentiments stand on their respective merits.

could not see him as a sinner who was purity itself. In every What renders this circumstance more difficult, is, that act, Jesus was that beloved Son, in whom the Father was erer there is no mention of il in any of the other Evangelists : | well pleased. and it is worthy of remark, that among many of the ancients, As to the angel strengthening him, probably no more is the authenticity of these two verses, the 13d and 44th, has meant by it than a friendly sympathizing of one of those been doubted, and in consequence, they are omitted in se- heavenly beings, with their Lord in distress : this circumveral MSS. and in some Versions and Fathers. The Coder stance is the most difficult in the whole relation : but understood Alerandrinus, and the Coder Vaticanus, the two oldest MSS. thus, the difficulty is removed; for what strength could the in the world, omit both verses; in some other very ancient highest angel in heaven afford to our blessed Lord, in his MSS. they stand with an asterisk before them, as a mark of | atoning acts? Surely none. The bare supposition is insupdubiousness; and they are both wanting in the Coptic frag- || portable. But if we allow that the angel came to sympathize ments published by Dr. Ford. They are however extant in with him during his passion, the whole account will appear such a vast number of MSS. Versions, and Fathers, as to leave ll plain and consistent.

CHAPTER XXIII. Christ is led to Pilate and accused by the Jews, 1, 2. Pilate examines, and pronounces him imocent, 3; 4. The

Jews virulently accuse him, 5. Pilute understanding that he was of Galilee, sends him to Herod, by whom he is exumined, 6–9. The chief priests and scribes vehemently accuse him, and Herod and his soldiers mock him, 10, 11. Pilate and Herod become friends, 12. Pilate before the chief priests, rulers, and people, pronounces Christ to be innocent, and offers to release him, 13—20. The Jews clamour for his condemnation, and Pilate gites him up to their will, 21—25. Simon bears his cross, 26. The people bewail him, and he foretells the destruction of the Jewish state, 27–31. He and two malefactors are brought to Calvary, and are crucified, 32, 33. He prays for his crucifiers, 34. He is derided, mocked, and insulted by the rulers, and by the soldiers, 35-37. The superscription on the cross, 38. The conduct of the two malefactors, to one of whom he promises paradise, 39–43. The great darkness, 44, 45. He gives up the ghost, 46. The Centurion and many others are greatly affected at his death, 47-49. Joseph of Arimathea begs the body, and puts it in his own new tomb, 50–53. The women prepare spices and ointments to embalm him, 54–56.

ND * the whole multitude of 2 And they began to accuse him, A, M. 1995. An. Olymp. them arose, and led him unto saying, We found this fellow per- An. Olymp. Pilate.

verting the nation, and “forbidding to

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* Matt. 27. 2. Mark 13. 1. John 18. 28.

Acts 17.7. See Matt. 17. 27. & 22. 21. Mark 12. 17.

persons hired for the purpose, made up the multitude menVerse 1. The whole multitude] It seems most probable, || tioned here. The common people were generally favourers that the chief priests, elders, scribes, and captains of the of Christ; and for this reason the Jewish rulers caused him temple, together with their servants, dependants, and other to be apprehended in the night, and in the absence of the peoPilate sends him to Herod.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.

CHAP. XXIII.

Herod and Pilate become friends.

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1.1.5. give tribute to Cæsar, saying, “that he || 8 F And when Herod saw Jesus, he 4.1.1983 An. Olymp. himself is Christ a King.

was exceeding glad : for he was desi. An. Olyrop. 3 "And Pilate asked him, saying, rous to see him of a long season, beArt thou the King of the Jews? And he an-cause he had heard many things of him; and he swered him, and said, Thou sayest it.

hoped to have seen some miracle done by him. 4 Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to 9 Then he questioned with him in many words; the people, o I find no fault in this man. but he answered him nothing.

5 And they were the more fierce, saying, He 10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all vehemently accused him. Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. 11 6 And Herod with his men of war set him at

6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whe- nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a ther the man were a Galilean.

gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. 7 And as soon as he knew that he belonged un- 12 | And the same day Pilate and Herod to “Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, were made friends together : for before they who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time. were at enmity between themselves.

a Jolan 19. 12. Matt. 27.11. 1 Tim. 6. 13.----- 1 Pet. 2. 22.- ch.3. 1.

Ch. 9.9.Matt. 14. 1. Mark 6. 14.

- Isai. 53. 3.-Acts 4. 27.

ple, chap. xxii. 6. and it was now but just the break of day, charge of sedition was deemed frivolous by Pilate, they xxii. 66.

changed it; and brought a charge equally false and groundVerse 2. Perverting the nation] The Greek word does tęsporta, || less against his doctrine. signifies stirring up to disaffection and rebellion. Many MSS. Verse 7. Herod's jurisdiction] The city of Nazareth, in and Versions add newy, our nation. They intimated that he which Christ had continued till he was thirty years of age, not only preached corrupt doctrine, but that he endeavoured || and that of Capernaum, in which he principally resided the to make them disaffected towards the Roman government, last years of his life, were both in Lower Galilee, of which for which, they now pretended to feel a strong aftection! Herod Antipas was tetrarch. Pilate was probably glad of this

Several copies of the Itala, add, destroying our Law and opportunity to pay a little respect to Herod, whom it is likely Prophets-Et solventem Legem nostram et Prophetas.

he had irritated; and with whom he now wished to be friends. Forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar] These were the falsest | See ver. 12. slanders that could be invented. The whole of our Lord's Verse 10. The chief priests-rehemently accused him.] Corconduct disproved them. And his decision in the case of the rupt priests and teachers are generally the most implacable question about the lawfulness of paying tribute to Cæsar, || enemies of Christ and his truth. Evil passions betray those Matt. xxii. 21. was so fully known, that we find Pilate paid who are slaves to them. An affected moderation would have not the least attention to such evidently malicious and un- rendered these accusers less suspected, their accusations more founded accusations. Neither Christ nor any of his followers probable, and the envy less visible than this vehemence : but from that day until now, ever forbad the paying tribute to enry seldom or never consults prudence: and God permits this Cæsar; that is, constitutional taxes to a lawful prince. to be so, for the honour of truth and innocence. Quesnel.

Verse 4. I find no fault in this man.) According to John Verse 11. A gorgeous robe] Erento 2 pm poxy. It probably xviii. 36, 38. Pilate did not say this till after our Lord had de- means a white robe, for it was the custom of the Jewish noclared to him that his kingdom was not of this world ; and || bility to wear such. Hence in Rev. iii. 4. it is said of the probably not till after he had found, on examining witnesses, || saints, They shall walk with me in warte (garments), because (ver. 14. of this chapter) that all their evidence amounted to they are worthy. In such a robe, Herod, by way of mockno proof of bis having set up himself for a temporal king. ery, caused our Lord to be clothed; but the nobility among See Bishop Pearce.

the Romans, wearing purple for the most part, Pilate's solVerse 5. Saying, He stirreth up the people, &c.] In the Coder diers who were Romans, put on Jesus a purple robe, Mark Colbertinus, a copy of the ancient Itala or Antihieronymiun | xv. 17. John xix. 2. both of them following the custom of version, this verse stands thus : He stirreth up the people, begin- | their own country, when by way of mocking our Lord as a ning from Galilee, and teaching through all Judea unto this place; king, they clothed him in robes of state. See Bishop PEARCE, our wives and onr children he hath rendered averse from us, Verse 12. Pilate and Herod were made friends] I do not find and he is not baptized as we are. As the Jews found that their Ilany account of the cause of the enmity which subsisted be

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