« הקודםהמשך »
Satan tempts Judas to
belray his master.
The chief priests and scribes plot our Lord's destruction, 1, 2. Judas, at the instigation of the Devil, betrays him,
3-6. He eats his last supper with his disciples, 7–18. Institutes the eucharist, 19, 20. Announces one of his disciples as the traitor, 21–23. The contention which should be greatest, 24–30. Warns Peter against Satan's derices, 31, 32. Peter's resolution, 33. His denial foretold, 34. Tells his disciples to make prudent provision for their own support, 35—37. The two swords, 38. lle goes to the mount of Olives, and has his agony in the garden, 39--46. Judas comes with a mob, 47, 48. Peter cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant, which Christ heuls by a touch, 49-51. He addresses the chief priests and captains of the temple, 52, 53. him to the high priest's house, and Peter follows and denies his Master, 51-60. Christ looks upon him, he is stung with remorse, and weeps bitterly, 61, 62. Jesus is mockell, and variously insulted, 63–65. The next morning he is questioned before the council, 66, 67. Ile acknowledges himself to be the Son of God, 68–70. They condemn him, 71.
OW a the feast of unleavened 3 Then entered Satan into Judas A. 11.4033. An. Olymp. bread drew nigh, which is called surnamed Iscariot, being of the num. An. Olymp.
ber of the twelve. 2 And the chief priests and scribes sought 4 And he went his way, and communed with how they might kill him; for they feared the the chief priests and captains, how he miglit people.
betray him unto them.
A. D. 29.
• Matt. 26. 2. Mark 14. 1. Ps. 2. 2. John 11. 47. Acts 4. 27.
* Matt. 26. 14. Mark 14. 10. John 13, 2, 27.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXII.
Verse 4. And captains) Among the priests who were in Verse 1. The feast of unleavened bread, &c.] See this waiting at the temple, some were appointed quiaxes, for a largely explained Exod. xxiii. 14. Levit. xxiii. 2—40. and guard to the temple; and over these were seateyou, commandon Matt. xxvi. 2.
ing officers : both sorts are mentioned by Josephus, War, b.vi. Verse 2. They feared the people.) The great mass of the c. 5. s. 3. Bp. Pearce. See another sense of captains, in people seem to have been convinced, that Christ was at least the note on Matt. xxvii. 63. Dr. Lightfoot supposes these a prophet sent from God; and it is likely they kept steady in to have been the captains over the watches ; for in three their attachment to him. The multitude, who are represent places the priests kept watch and ward in the temple, viz. ed as clamouring for his blood at the crucifixion, appear to in Beth Abtenes, in Beth Nitsots, and in Beth Mokad. The have been a mere mob, formed out of the creatures of the Levites also in twenty-one places more, Middoth, chap. I. chief priests and Pharisees.
Though these watches consisted of several persons in each, : Verse 3. Then entered Satan into Judus) The Devil filled | there was one set over them, as the captain or head of that the heart of Judas with avarice; and that infamous passion watch. He thinks that Matthew, chap. xxvii. 65. refers to led him to commit the crime here specified. This at once one of these : Ye have a watch of your own ; let some of accounts for the whole of this most unprincipled and unnatu- them be sent to guard the sepulchre. The captain of the ral transaction. None but a devil, or he who is possessed by temple, he supposes to have been the chief or head of all these one, could have been guilty of it :-let the living lay this to watches, and thus he was captain of the captains. In the heart. A minister of the gospel, who is a lover of money, same Talmudical tract it is said, The ruler of the mountain of is constantly betraying the interests of Christ. He cannot the temple, (i. e. captain of the temple) takes his walks through serve two masters; and while his heart is possessed with the every watch with torches lighted before him: if he found any." love of pelf; the love of God, and zeal for perishing souls, upon the watch, that was not standing on his feet, he said, cannot dwell in him. What Satan could not do by the envy || Peace be with thee : but if he found bim sleeping, he struck and - malice of the high priests and Pharisees; he effects by him with a stick, and he might also bury his clothes. And Judas, a false and fallen minister of the gospel of God. None when it was said by others, What noise is that in the court ? are so dangerous to the interests of Christianity as persons of the answer was, It is the noise of a Levite under correction, this stamp
whose garments they are burning, because he slept upon his
Our Lord eats a pass-over
with his disciples.
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5 And they were glad, and `cove- || 12 And he shall shew you a large A.M. 404). An. Olymp. nanted to give him money.
upper room furnished : there make An. Olymp. 6 And he promised, and sought op- ready. portunity to betray him unto them, in the ab- 13 And they went, and found as he had said sence of the multitude.
unto them : and they made ready the pass-over. 7 Then came the day of unleavened bread, 14 . And when the hour was come, he sat when the pass-over must be killed.
down, and the twelve apostles with him. 8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go 15 And he said unto them, With desire I and prepare us the pass-over, that we may eat. have desired to eat this pass-over with you be
9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou fore I suffer : that we prepare ?
16 For I say unto you, I will not any more 10 And he said unto them, Behold, when yeeat thereof, * until it be fulfilled in the kingdom are entered into the city, there shall a man of God. meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow 17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, him into the house where he entereth in. and said, Take this, and divide it among your11 And
say unto the good man of the selves : house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is 18 For 5 I say unto you, I will not drink of the guestchamber, where I shall eat the pass-the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God over with my disciples ?
* Zech. 11. 12. Or, without tumult. Matt 26. 17. Mark 14. 12.
• Matt, 26. 20. Mark 14. 17.
e Or, I have heurtily desired.fch. 14. 15. Acts 10. 41. Rev. 19. 9.
& Matt. 26. 29. Mark 14. 25.
watch. This custom casts light on Rev. xvi. 15. Behold, I have desired most earnestly. Our Lord's meaning seems to be, come as a thief: blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his that having purposed to redeem a lost world by his blood, he garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. It is ardently longed for the time in wbich he was to offer himself easy to distinguish this captain of the mountain of the temple, up. Such love did the holy Jesus bear to the human race. from the ruler of the temple or sagan : the former presided This eucharistic pass-over was celebrated once by way of anonly over the guards ; the latter over the whole service of the ticipation, before the bloody sacrifice of the victim of salvatemple. We have them both distinguished Acts iv. 1. there tion, and before the deliverance it was appointed to commeis the captain of the temple ; and Annas, who was the sugan. morate; as the figurative pass-over had been likewise once See Lightfoot.
celebrated before the going out of Egypt, and the deliverance Verse 5. They---covenanted to give him money.) Matthew of God's chosen people. Quesnel. says thirty pieces, or staters, of silver, about 41. 10s. English, Verse 16. Until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.) the common price of the meanest slave. See the note on That is, until that of which the pass-over is a type, is fulfilled Matt. xxvi. 15.
in my death, through which, the kingdom of God, or Verse 6. And he promised] That is, to do it-iwpodeyno: : of heaven, (see Matt. iii. 2.) shall be established among or, he accepted the proposal. See Wakefield.
Verse 7. The pass-over] Ilæoxa, ver. 1. is the name of the Verse 17. He took the cup] This was not the saoramental festival ; to tacxa here, is supposed to be the name of that cup, for that was taken after supper, ver. 20. but was the cup on which they feasted, viz. the sacrificed paschal lamb. But which was ordinarily taken before supper. see the notes on Matt. xxvi. and especially the observations at Divide it among yourselves] Pass the cup from one to anthe end of that chapter.
other : thus the cup which Christ gave to the first person on Verse 8–13. Ile sent Peter and John, &c.] See the sub- his right hand, continued to be handed from one to another, ject of these verses largely explained on Matt. xxvi. 17-19. till it came to the last person on his left. and Mark xiv. 13, 15.
Verse 18. I will not drink of the fruit of the vine] That Verse 14. And when the hour was come] That is, the even- is, before the time of another pass-over, the Holy Ghost shall ing. See Matt. xxvi. 20. and Mark xiv. 17.
descend, the gospel of the kingdom be established, and the Verse 15. With desire I have desired] A Hebraism for, Isacramental supper shall take place of the paschal Jamb: for
A strife among the disciples,
who should be greatest.
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19 [ * And he took bread, and gave was determined: but woe unto that A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. thanks, and brake it, and gave unto man by whom he is betrayed !
them, saying, This is my body which 23 And they began to enquire is given for you: “this do in remembrance of among themselves, which of them it was that
should do this thing. 20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, | 24 “And there was also a strife among them, * This cup is the new testament in my blood, which of them should be accounted the greatest. which is shed for you.
25 · And he said unto them, The kings of the 21 [ " But, behold, the hand of him that be- Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they trayeth me is with me on the table.
that exercise authority upon them are called be. 22 · And truly the Son of man goeth, 'as it nefactors.
a Matt. 26. 26. Mark 14. 29. - 1 Cor. 11. 24.-_1 Cor. 10.16.- Ps. Il e Matt. 26. 24.-Acts 2. 23. & 4. 28.—Matt. 26. 22. John 13. 94, 95, 41. 9. Matt. 26. 21, 23. Mark 14. 18. John 13. 21, 26.
h Mark 9. 54. Luke 9. 46. Matt. 20. 25. Dlark 10. 42.
in a few hours his crucifixion was to take place. See on Matt. can be desired more, says Dr. Lightfoot, as a demonstration xxvi. 29.
that Judas was present at the Eucharist ? And whereas the Verse 19. Took bread] See the nature and design of the contrary is endeavoured to be proved out of John xiii. nothing Lord's supper explained in the notes on Matt. xxvi. 26 is made out of nothing ; for there is not one syllable, through-29.
out that whole chapter, of the paschal supper ; but of a sup.. This do in remembrance of me.] That the Jews in eating per before the feast of the pass-over. the pass-over, did it to represent the sufferings of the Mes Verse 22. The Son of man goeth] That is, he is about to siah, is evident from the tract Pesachim, fol. 119. quoted by die. Aneexio das, obxeolar, abire, going, going away, and deSchoetgen. Why do we call this the great hullel ? (i. e. the parting, are used by the best Greek and Latin writers, for hymn composed of several Psalms, which they sung after the death and dying. See Rosenmuller. paschal supper.) Ans. Because, in it, these five things are Verse 23. They began to enquire among themselves] See the contained : 1. The Exodus from Egypt. 2. The dividing of notes on Matt. xxvi. 23, 24. the Red sea. 3. The promulgation of the law. 4. The re Verse 24. There was also a strife among them] There are surrection of the dead. And 5. The sufferings of the Mes- | two different instances of this sort of contention or strife mensiah. The first is referred to, Ps. cxiv. 1. When Israel went tioned by the Evangelists, each of which was accompanied with out of Egypt, &c. The second in Ps. cxiv. 3. The sea saw it, very different circumstarices; one by Matthew, in chap. xviii
. and fled. The third in Ps. cxiv. 4. The mountains skipped like 1, &c. by Mark, chap. ix. 33, &c. and by Luke, in chap. ix. rams, &c. The fourth in Ps. cxvi. 9. I will walk before the 46, &c. That contention, cannot have been the same with Lord in the land of the living. The fifth in Ps. cxv. 1. Not this which is mentioned here. The other, related in Matt. unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory; xx. 20, &c. and Mark x. 35, &c. must be what Luke intendfor thy mercy and thy truth's suke. See the note on Matt.ed here to record : and this strife or contention was occasioned xxvi. 30.
by the request which Zebedee's wife made to our Lord in Verse 20. This cup is the new testament in my blood] Per- | favour of her sons, James and John : but then, Luke has menhaps it might be better to paraphrase the passage thus : This tioned this, very much out of the order of time, it having cup which is poured out for you, signifies the blood of the new happened wbile our Lord and his disciples were on their way covenant, which is shortly to be ratified in (or by) the shed- to Jerusalem : Matt. xx. 17. Mark x. 32. See Bp. Pearce. ding of my blood. Or, This cup is the new covenant, poured Verse 25. Are called benefactors.] The very Greek word out for you
my blood :—that is, the paschal sacrifice and used by the Evangelist, Evegyetou, was the surnume of some of my sacrifice happen together. But see Kypke.
the Ptolemies of Egypt; Ptoleny Euergetes, i.e. the Benefactor. It does not appear that our Lord handed either the bread It was a custom among the ancient Romans, to distribute part or the cup to each person : he gave it to him who was next of the lands which they had conquered on the frontiers of the to him, and by handing it from one to another, they shared empire to their soldiers : those who enjoyed such lands were it among themselves, ver. 17. In this respect, the present called beneficiarii, beneficed persons : and the lands themselves mode of administering the Lord's supper is not strictly ac were termed heneficia, benefices, as being held on the beneficording to the original institution.
cence of the sovereign : and it is no wonder that such soveVerse 21, The hand of him that betrayeth me, &c.] What reigns, however tyrannical or oppressive they might have beca
Christ teaches his disciples,
foretells Peter's denial..
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A, D. 29.
26 “But ye shall not be so :
shall not be so : " but he || as my Father hath appointed unto A. M. 4033 An. Olymp. that is greatest among you, let him be me ;
CCII. 1. as the younger ; and he that is chief, 30 That ye may eat and drink at as he that doth serve.
my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones 27 ' For whether is greater, he that sitteth at judging the twelve tribes of Israel. meat, or he that seryeth ? is not he that sitteth 31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, beat meat ? but “ I am among you as he that hold, 'Satan hath desired to have you, that he serveth.
may * sift you as wheat: 28 Ye are they which have continued with me 32 But 'I have prayed for thee, that thy in my temptations.
faith fail not: "and when thou art converted, 29 And 'I appoint unto you a kingdom, strengthen thy brethren.
• Matt. 20. 26. 1 Pet. 5. 3.ch. 9. 48. —sch, 12. 37.Matt. 20. 28. John 13. 13, 14. Phil. 2.7. Hebr. 4. 15. Matt. 24. 47. ch. 12. 32.2 Cor. 1. 7. 2 Tim. 2. 12.
& Matt. 8, 11. ch. 14. 15. Rev. 19. 9.-- Ps. 49. 14. Matt. 19. 28. 1 Cor. 6. 2. Rer. 3. 21.-i 1 Pet. 5. 8.- * Amos 9. 9.John 17. 9. 14, 15,
m Ps. 51. 13. John 21. 15, 16, 17.
in other respects, were termed benefactors by those who were in the Sacred Writings, it appears to be always intended as thus dependant on their bounty.
an expression of love, manifested by a warning voice. As if Verse 26. Let him be as the younger] Dr. Lightfoot justly he had said, While thou and the others are contending for conjectures that Peter was the eldest of all the disciples : supremacy, Satan is endeavouring to destroy you all : but I and he supposes that the strife was kindled between him and have prayed for thee, as being in niost danger. the sons of Zebedee, James and John. These three disciples Satan hath desired-you] That is, all the Apostles, but were those whom Christ had distinguished by peculiar marks particularly the three contenders: the plural pronoun vuas, of his favour : and therefore it is natural to conclude, that the sufficiently proves that these words were not addressed to strife lay between these three, the two brothers and Peter. Peter alone. Satan had already got one, Judas; he had Shall we or Peter be at the head ? Neither, says our Lord. nearly got another, Peter; and he wished to have all. But Let him, Peter, who is chief (o pan fwy, the eldest) among you, we see by this, that the Devil cannot even tempt a man unless be as John, o YEWTEços, the younger. The younger part of the he receive permission. He desires to do all evil; he is per.. disciples do not appear to have taken any part in this con- mitted only to do some. tention; and our Lord shews Peter and the sons of Zebedee, Verse 32. I have prayed for thee) From the natural forthat they must be as unambitious as the younger, in order towardness and impetuosity of thy own spirit, thou wilt be be acknowledged as his disciples. Dr. Lightfoot thinks that brought into the most imminent danger; but I have supplia Peter was the mover of this strife, and therefore our Lord cated for thee, that thy faith may not utterly fail—ExElTn, from: rebukes him by name.
ex, out, and unw, I fail, to fall utterly or entirely off. PeVerse 29. I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath | ter's faith did fail, but not utterly : he did fall, but he did: appointed unto me] The Codex Alexandrinus, with some other not fall off, apostatize or forsake his Master and his cause MSS. the latter Syriac, and Origen, read in the first clause, finally, as Judas did. Every body sees from Peter's denial diadrieny, a covenant. I appoint unto you a covenant, as my of his Lord, that his fuith did fail, and his great courage Father hath appointed unto me a kingdom :-Ye shall be mi- | too ; and yet they read in the common translation, that Christ nisters of the New Covenant, as I am King in that spiritual prayed that it might not fail--Can they then conceive that kingdom to which it relates. This is a curious reading : but our Lord's prayer was heard ? The translation which I have our Lord is probably to be understood, as promising that they given above, removes this embarrassment and apparent conshould get a kingdom-a state of blessedness, as he should tradiction. It was certainly Peter's advantage that our Lord get it--they must go through much tribulation, in order to enter did pray for him; but it was not so much for his honour, that into the kingdom of God. So the Son of man suffered, that he should stand in need of such a prayer, beyond all others.. he might enter into his glory: for the joy that was set before Lightfoot. him, he endured the cross, and despised the shame, and is sat When thou art converted] Restored to a sense of thy folly down on the right hand of God.
and sin, and to me and my cause; establish these thy brethren. Verse 30. Sit on thrones ] See on Matt. xix. 28. Marcion All the disciples forsook Jesus and fled, merely through fear left the whole of this verse out, according to Epiphanius : | of losing their lives; Peter, who continued for a while near probably because he did not understand it.
him, denied his Master with oaths, and repeated this thrice : Verse 31. Simon, Simon] When a name is thus repeated our Lord seems to intimate, that after this fall, Peter would
Peter professes strong
attachment to his Lord.
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33. And he said unto him, Lord, I 36 Then said he unto them, But A. M. 4053 An. Olymp. am ready to go with thee, both into now, he that hath a purse, let him An.Olyrup
. prison, and to death.
take it, and likewise his scrip: and 34 · And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock | he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt and buy one. thrice deny that thou knowest me.
37 For" I say unto you, that this that is writ35 And he said unto them, When I sent ten must yet be accomplished in me, “And he you without purse,
and scrip, and shoes, lack- was reckoned among the transgressors : for the ed ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. things concerning me have an end.
a Matt. 26. St. Mark 14. 30. John 13. 38. Matt. 10. 9. ch. 9. 3. & 10. 4.
• Isai. 53. 12. Mark 15. 29.
become more cautious and circumspect than ever; and that word sword, think that it was a proverbial expression intihe should become uncommonly strong in the faith, which mating a time of great difficulty and danger, and that now was the case ; and that notwithstanding the baseness of his the disciples had need to look to themselves, for his murderpast conduct, he should be a proper instrument for strengthen- ers were at hand. The Reader will observe that these words ing the feeble-minded, and supporting the weak. His two were spoken to the disciples just before he went to the garden of Epistles to the persecuted Christians, shew how well he was Gethsemane, and that the danger was now so very near, that qualified for this important work.
there could be no time for any of them to go and sell bis garVerse 34. The cock shall not crow this day] Matthew, xxvi. || ment, in order to purchase a sword to defend himself and his 34. and Mark, xiv. 30. say, this night; both expressions master from the attack of the Jewish mob. are right, because the Jewish day of twenty-four hours, Judea was at this time, as we have already noticed, much hegan with the evening, and ended at the evening of the infested by robbers: while our Lord was with bis disciples, following day. On Peter's denial, see the notes on Matt. they were perfectly safe, being shielded by his miraculous xxvi. 31-35,
power. Shortly they must go into every part of the land, Verse 35. When I sent you without purse] See the notes on and will need weapons to defend themselves against wild Matt. x. 9, 10.
beasts; and to intimidate wicked men, who, if they found Verse 36. He that hath no sword) Bishop Pearce supposes them totally defenceless, would not hesitate to make them that the word maxargar, sword, has been inserted here, from their prey, or take away their life. However the matter may what is said in ver. 38. as it is evident our Lord never in- || be understood, we may rest satisfied that these swords were tended to make any resistance, or to suffer a sword to be neither to be considered as offensive weapons, nor instruments used on the occasion; see Matt. xxvi. 52. The word stands to propagate the truth. The genius and spirit of the Christrather oddly in the passage: the verse translated in the order ian religion is equally against both. Perhaps in this counsel in which it stands, is as follows: And he who hath none, let of our Lord, he refers to the contention about supremacy: him sell his garment and buy-a sword. Now it is plain that as if he had said, Instead of contending among yourselves the verb mwancato, let him buy, may be referred to ingar, a about who shall be the greatest, ye have more need to unite scrip, in the former part of the verse: therefore if according yourselves against the common enemy who are now at hand: to the Bishop's opinion, the word sword be omitted, the pas- this counsel was calculated to shew them the necessity of sage may be understood thus: “When I sent you out before, union among themselves, as their enemies were both numer. chap. x. i, &c. I intended you to continue itinerants only ous and powerful. for a few days, and to preach the gospel only to your coun- Verse 37. Must yet be accomplished] Probably meaning try-men; therefore you had but little need of a staff; purse, that though this prophecy did refer to some particular matter or scrip, as your journey was neither long nor expensive; but in the time of the prophet, yet it farther (76) related to now I am about to send you into all the world, to preach the Christ, and could not have its complete accomplishment, but gospel to every creature; and as ye shall be generally hated in his crucifixion as a criminal. and persecuted for my sake, ye will have need to make every For the things concerning me have an end.) As if he had prudent provision for your journey; and so necessary will said, My work is now almost done; yours is only beginning ; I it be for you to provide yourselves victuals, &c. for your pas- I am now about to be crucified and numbered with the transsage through your inhospitable country, that if any of you | gressors; think what will be done to you, and what ought to have no scrip or wallet, he should sell even his upper gar- || be done by you; and then think, if this be a time for you ment to provide one.” Others who are for retaining the to be contending with each other. Lightfoot,