תמונות בעמוד

The question about paying


tribute, answered.

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God truly :

21 And they asked him, saying, the first took a wife, and died without A M. 4058. Master, we know that thou sayest children.

and teachest rightly, neither acceptest 30 And the second took her to wife, thou the person of any, but teachest the way of and he died childless.

31 And the third took her; and in like man22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Cæ- ner the seven also : and they left no children, sar, or no ?

and died. 23 But he perceived their craftiness, and said 32 Last of all the woman died also. unto them, Why tempt ye me?

33 Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of 24 Shew me a penny. Whose image and su- them is she? for seven had her to wife. perscription hath it? They answered and said, 34 And Jesus answering said unto them, The Cæsar's.

children of this world marry, and are given in 25 And he said unto them, Render therefore marriage: unto Cæsar the things which be Cæsar's, and 35 But they which shall be accounted worthy unto God the things which be God's.

to obtain that world, and the resurrection from 26 And they could not take hold of his words the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marbefore the people: and they marvelled at his an- riage : swer, and held their peace.

36 Neither can they die any more : for they 27 | Then came to him certain of the Sad- are equal unto the angels; and are the childucees, which deny that there is any resurrec- dren of God, being the children of the resurtion; and they asked him,

rection. 28 Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, 37 Now that the dead are raised, even Moses If any

man's brother die, having a wife, and shewed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord he die without children, that his brother should the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, take his wife, and raise up seed unto his bro- and the God of Jacob. ther.

38 For he is not a God of the dead, but of the 29 There were therefore seven brethren: and living: for k all live unto him.

* Matt. 22. 16. Mark 19. 14.- Or, of a truth. See Matt. 18. 28.

d Matt. 22. 23. Mark 12. 18.

e Acts 23. 6, 8. f Deut. 25. 5.-81 Cor. 15. 42, 49, 52. 1 John 3. 2.

ħ Rom. 8. 23.- Exod. 3, 6. * Rom. 6, 10, 11.

those who lie in wait, or in ambush, to surprise and slay. Jo- | See the Jewish testimonies to the resurrection of the human sephus uses the word to signify a person bribed for a particular body, quoted at length on 1 Cor. xv. 42. purpose. See War, b. ii. c. ii. s. 5. and b. vi. c. 5. s. 2. No Verse 38. All live unto him.] There is a remarkable passage doubt the persons mentioned in the text were men of the in Josephus's account of the Maccabees, chap. xvi. which basest principles, and were hired by the malicious Pharisees proves that the best informed Jews believed that the souls of to do what they attempted in vain to perform.

righteous men were in the presence of God in a state of hapVerse 22. Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Cæsar] See piness. They who lose their lives for the sake of God, live this insidious, but important question considered at large on unto God, as do Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the rest of Matt. xxii. 16-22.

the Patriarchs.And one not less remarkable in Shemoth Verse 29. There were therefore seven brethren] See on Matt. | Rabba, fol. 159. “ Rabbi Abbin saith, the Lord said unto xxii. 23-33.

Moses, find me out ten righteous persons among the people, Verse 34. The children of this world) Men and wonen in l' and I will not destroy thy people. Then said Moses, behold, their present state of mortality and probation; procreation here am I, Aaron, Eleazar, Ithamar, Phineas, Caleb, and Joshua ; being necessary to restore the waste made by death, and to " but God said, here are but seven, where are the other three ? keep up the population of the earth.

When Moses knew not what to do, he said, O Eternal God, Verse 36. Equal unto the angels] Who neither marry nor die.'' do those live that are dead? Yes, saith God. Then said Moses,

How is the Christ David's son.


Hypocrisy of the scribes.

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39 Then certain of the scribes an- 44 David therefore calleth him Lord, 4. M. 4033 An. Olymp. swering said, Master, thou hast well how is he then his son ?

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45 | “Then in the audience of all 40 And after that, they durst not ask him any the people he said unto his disciples, question at all.

46 Beware of the scribes which desire to walk 41 | And he said unto them, How say they in long robes, and love greetings in the marthat Christ is David's son ?

kets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, 42 And David himself saith in the book of and the chief rooms at feasts ; Psalıns, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou 47 Which devour widows' houses, and for a on my right hand,

show make long prayers : the same shall receive 43 Till I make thine enemies thy footstool. greater damnation.

* Matt. 22. 42. Mark 12. 35.—6 Ps. 110. 1. Acts 2. 34.- Matt. 23. 1.

Mark 12. 38. Matt. 23.5.

e ch. 11. 43. Matt. 23. 14.

if those that are dead do live, reinember Abraham, Isuac, and and died in his yoke, should have their bodies raised again. Jacob.So the resurrection of the dead, and the immortality | The justice of God is as much concerned in the resurrection and immateriality of the soul were not strange or unknown of the dead, as either his power or mercy. To be freed from doctrines among the Jews.

earthly incumbrancès, earthly passions, bodily infirmities, Verse 40. They durst not ask] Or, did not venture to ask sickness, and death, to be brought into a state of conscious any other question, for fear of being again confounded, as they existence with a refined body, and a sublime soul, both imhad already been.

mortal, and both ineffably happy; how glorious the privilege! Verse 41. How say they] See the note on Matt. xxii.But of this, who shall be counted worthy in that day? Only 42—16.

those who have washed their robes, and made them white in Verse 43. Thy footstool.] Literally the footstool of thy feet. the blood of the Lamb; and who, by patient continuing in They shall not only be so far humbled that the feet may be set well-doing, have sought for glory and honour and immortality. on them; but they shall be actually subjected, and put com- 2. A bad example, supported by the authority, reputation, pletely under that Christ whom they now despise, and are and majesty of religion, is a very subtle poison from which about to crucify.

it is very difficult for men to preserve themselves. It is a great Verse 46. Beware of the scribes] Take heed that ye be not misfortune for any people to be obliged to beware of those very seduced by those who should shew you the way of salvation. persons who ought to be their rule and pattern. This is a reSce on Matt. xxiii. 4-14.

flexion of pious Father Quesnel; and while we admire its depth,

we may justly lament that the evil he refers to should be so 1. How it can be supposed that the ancient Jewish church | prevalent, as to render the observation, and the caution on had no distinct notion of the resurrection of the dead is to me which it is founded, so necessary. But let no man imagine truly surprising. The justice of God so peculiarly conspicu-that bad and immoral ministers are to be found among one ous under the old covenant, might have led the people to infer class of persons only. They are to be found in the branches that there must be a resurrection of the dead, if even the as well as in the root : in the different sects and parties as well passage to which our Lord resers, had not made a part of our as in the mother or national churches, from which the others law. As the body makes a part of the man, justice requires, have separated. On either hand there is little room for glothat not only they who are martyrs for the testimony of God, rying.---Professors and Ministers may change, but the Truth of but also all those who have devoted their lives to his service, the Lord abideth for ever!

CHAPTER XXI. The poor widow casting two mites into the treasury, 1–4. The destruction of the temple foretold, 5, 6. The signs

of this desolation, 7. False Christs, 8. Wars, 9, 10. Earthquakes and fearful sights, 11. Persecutions against the godly, 12—19. Directions how to escape, 20—22. The tribulation of those times, 23—28. The parable of the fig-tree, illustrative of the time when they may expect these calamities, 29—33. The necessity of sobriety and watchfulness, 34—36. He teaches by day in the temple, and lodges by night in the mount of Olives, and the people come early to hear him, 37, 38.

The poor widow and her offering.


Destruction of the temple foretold.

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ND he looked up, ` and saw the when shall these things be? and what A.M.4038.

rich men casting their gifts into sign will there be when these things An. Olymp. the treasury.

shall come to pass ? 2 And he saw also a certain poor widow cast- 8 And he said, 'Take heed that ye be not deing in thither two mites.

ceived: for many shall come in my name, say3 And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, ing, I am Christ ; & and the time draweth near : that this poor widow hath cast in more than go ye not therefore after them. they all :

9 But when ye shall hear of wars and commo4 For all these have of their abundance cast tions, be not terrified: for these things must first in unto the offerings of God: but she of her come to pass ; but the end is not by and bye. penury hath cast in all the living that she had. 10 " Then said he unto them, Nation shall

59 "And as some spake of the temple, how rise against nation, and kingdom against kingit was adorned with goodly stones and gifts, he dom: said,

11 And great earthquakes shall be in divers 6 As for these things which ye behold, the places, and famines, and pestilences; and feardays will come, in the which there shall not be ful sights and great signs shall there be from left one stone upon another, that shall not be heaven. thrown down.

12 · But before all these, they shall lay their 7 9 And they asked him, saying, Master, but hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you

Mark 12. 41.-_ See Mark 19. 42. .cz Cor. 8. 12. Matt. 21. 1.

Mark 13. 1.-ech. 19. 44.

f Matt. 24. 4. Mark 13. 5. Eph. 5. 6. 2 Thess. 2. 3. Or, and the time,

Matt. 3. 2. & 4. 17.-Matt. 24.7.- Mark 13. 9. Rev. 2. 10.


Verse 5. Goodly stones] Or, costly stones. It has been Verse 1. The rich men custing their gifts into the treasury.] thought, by some, that this relates not so much to the stones See all this from verse 1 to 4. explained on Mark xii. 41–44. of which the temple was built, but to the precious stones with

Verse 2. A certain poor widow] A widow miserably poor : // which it was decorated. For an account of the stones of the this is the proper import of mixçay, and her being miserably temple, see on Mark xii. 1. poor, heightened the merit of the action.

And gifts] Or, consecrated things, avaimuar. Ayaemua proTwo mites.] Which Mark says, chap. xii. 42. make a perly signifies a thing consecrated to sacred uses : Arabisua sigfarthing or quadrans, the fourth part of an As, or penny, nifies a thing devoted to a curse, or to destruction. They both as we term it. In Plutarch's time we find the smallest piece come from the same root, avetionpes, I lay up, separate : and of brass coin in use among the Romans was the quadrans, but though two meanings cannot be more opposite than those asit appears that a smaller piece of money was in circulation signed to these words, yet in the words themselves a short among the Jews in our Lord's time, called here, and in Mark, vowel (s) in the place of a long one (n) makes all the differchap. xii. 42. a lepton, i. e. small, diminished, from mw, Ience between blessing and cursing. fail. In ancient times our penny used to be marked with a Verse 6. One stone upon another] This was literally fulfilled. deep indented cross, dividing the piece into four equal parts, See Matt. xxiv. 2. which, when broken in two, made the half-penny, and when Verse 8. Many shall come in my name] Usurping my broken into four made the fourthing, what we have corrupted name: calling themselves the Messiah. See Matt. xxiv. 5. into farthing. Probably the Roman quadrans was divided in Concerning this prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem, this way for the convenience of the poor. Our term mite. and its literal accomplishment, see the notes on Matt. xxiv. seems to have been taken from the animal called by that name; 14-42. for as that appeared to our ancestors, to be the smallest of all Verse 9. Commotions) Seditions and civil dissentions, with animals, so this being the smallest of all coins was called by which no people were more agitated than the Jews. its name. Junius says that miite was a small base coin among Verse 1]. Fearful sights] What these were the Reader will the Dutch. Our word mite seems to be a contraction of the find in detail on Matt. xxiv. 7. Latin minutum, a small thing, whence the French miéte, a Verse 12. Synagogues] Or, assemblies, &c. See these all ex crumb, a very small morsel. See the note on Mark xii, 41. plained on Mark xiii. 9.

Destruction of Jerusalem


and the temple foretold.

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up to the synagogues, and ` into pri- || the mountains; and let them which A.M.40:3. An. Olymp. sons, being brought before kings and are in the midst of it depart out; and An. Olymp. rulers for my name's sake.

let not them that are in the countries 13 And it shall turn to you for a testimony. enter thereinto. 14 Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to

22 For these be the days of vengeance, that meditate before, what ye shall answer :

* all things which are written may be fulfilled. 15 For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, 23 " But woe unto them that are with child, ' which all your adversaries shall not be able to and to them that give suck, in those days ! for gainsay nor resist.

there shall be great distress in the land, and 16 5 And ye ||

shall be betrayed both by parents, wrath upon this people. and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and 24 And they shall fall by the edge of the

you shall they cause to be put to death. sword, and shall be led away captive into all na17 And

ye shall be hated of all men for my tions : and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of name's sake.

the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles 18 " But there shall not a hair of your head be fulfilled. perish.

25 And there shall be signs in the sun, 19 In your patience possess ye your souls. and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon 20 'And when ye shall see Jerusalem com- the earth distress of nations, with perplexity : passed with armies, then know that the desola- | the sea and the waves roaring ; tion thereof is nigh.

26 Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for 21 Then let them which are in Judea flee to looking after those things which are coming on

some of

* Acts 4. 3. & 5. 18. & 12. 4. & 16. 24.- . Acts 25. 23.- 1 Pet. 2. 13.

d Phil. 1. 23. 2 Thess. 1.5.e Matt. 10. 19. Mark 13. 11. ch. 12. 11. f Acts 6. 10.8 Mic. 7. 6. Mark 13. 12.-h Acts 7. 59. & 12. 2.

i Matt. 10. 22.-k Matt. 10. 30. Matt. 24. 15. Mark 13. 14. m Dan. 9. 26, 27. Zech. 11. 1.—Matt. 24. 19. — Dan. 9. 27. & 19. 7. Rom. 11. 25.- - Matt. 24. 29. Mark 13. 24. 2 Pet. 3. 10, 12.

Verse 13. It shall turn to you for a testimony.] That is, it Verse 24. They shall fall by the edge of the sword] Those shall turn out on your part for a testimony to them (your per-| who perished in the siege, are reckoned to be not less than secutors), that you are thoroughly persuaded of the truth of eleven hundred thousand. See Matt. xxiv. 22. what you teach; and that you are no impostors.

And shall be led away captive) To the number of ninety-sever Verse 14. Settle it therefore, &c.] See on Matt. x. 19. thousand. See Josephus, War; b. vi. c. ix, s. 2, 3. and on

Verse 15. I will give you a mouth and wisdom] Etoua, a Matt, xxiv. 31. mouth, must appear plain to every person to be used here for Trodden down of the Gentiles] Judea was so completely a ready utterance, or eloquence in speaking. They shall have | subjugated, that the very land itself was sold by Vespasian ; an abundance of wisdom to know what to say ; and they || the Gentiles possessing it while the Jews were either nearly all shall have an irresistible eloquence to say what they ought. killed or led away into captivity.

Verse 18. But there shall not a hair of your head perish.] Of the Gentiles be fulfilled.] Till the different nations of the A proverbial expression for, ye shall not suffer any essential | earth, to whom God shall have given the dominion over this injury. Every genuine Christian shall escape when this deso- land, have accomplished all that which the Lord hath appointed lation comes upon the Jewish state.

them to do; and till the time of their conversion to God take Verse 19. In your patience] Rather, your perseverance, your || place. But when shall this be? We know not. The nations faithful continuance in my word and doctrine. Ye will pre- are still treading down Jerusalem, and the end is known only serve your souls. Ye shall escape the Roman sword, and not to the Lord. See the note on Matt. xxiv. 31. one of you shall perish in the destruction of Jerusalem. In- Verse 25. The sea and the waves roaring] Figuratively stead of xinpasbi, possess, or preserve ye, I read xTwiodi, ye pointing out the immense Roman armies by which Judea was shall preserve. This reading is supported by AB--B. five others; to be overrun and destroyed. both the Syriac, all the Arabic, Æthiopic, Vulgate, all the Itala Verse 26. Men's hearts fuiling them for fear] Or, men except two, Origen, Macarius, and Tertullian.

fainting away through fear (ArOfuxortav) being ready to Verse 22. These be the days of vengeance] See on Matt. xxiv. || die. 21.

Coming on the earth] Or, coming upon this land, sukaupas.

The destruction of


Jerusalem foretold.

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4. M. 1683. the earth : * for the powers of heaven 34 | And 'take heed to yourselves, A. M. 40s. An. Ołymp. shall be shaken.

lest at any time your hearts be over- An. Olymp. 27 And then shall they see the Son charged with surfeiting, and drunkenof man coming in a cloud with power and greatness, and cares of this life, and so that day come glory.

upon you unawares. 28 And when these things begin to come to

35 For 8 as a snare shall it come on all pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for them that dwell on the face of the whole your redemption draweth nigh.

earth. 29 « And he spake to them a parable ; Behold 36 Watch ye therefore, and pray always, the fig-tree, and all the trees ;

that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all 30 When they now shoot forth, ye see and these things that shall come to pass, and "to know of your own selves, that summer is now stand before the Son of man. . nigh at hand.

37 'And in the day time he was teaching 31 So likewise ye, when ye see these things in the temple ; and " at night he went out, and come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God abode in the mount that is called the mount of is nigh at hand.

Olives. 32 Verily I say unto you, This generation 38 And all the people came early in the shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled.

morning to him in the temple, for to hear 33 · Heaven and earth shall pass away: but him. my words shall not pass away.

Matt. 94. 99.- Matt. 24. 50. Rev. 1.7. & 14. 14. Rom. 8. 19, 23.

d Matt. 24. 32. Mark 13. 28.- Matt. 24. 35. Rom. 13. 13. 1 Thess. 5. 6. 1 Pet. 4. 7.

@1 Thess. 5. 2. 2 Pet. 3. 10. Rer, 3. 3. & 16. 15.- Matt. 24. 42. & 25. 13. Mark 13. 33. —'ch, 18. 1. - Ps. 1.5. Eph. 6. 13. John & 1, 2. -ch, 22. S9.

See this translation of the word vindicated in the note on man is safe, at any time, who does not attend to this advice as chap. ii. 1.

literally as possible. Verse 29. He spake to them a parable] Illustrated all these That shall come to pass] That is, the tribulations which are predicted facts by the simile of a fig-tree. See this explained on their way 10 overwhelm and destroy the Jewish people, on Matt. xxiv. 32.

These are sufficiently stated in the preceding verses. Verse 31. The kingdom of God is nigh at hand.) After the To stund before the Son.of man.) To be acquitted, and to destruction of the Jewish state, the doctrine of Christ cruci-be condemned, are expressed in Rom. xiv. 4. by standing and fied shall be preached every where, and every where prevail. falling. Those who were faithful to the grace they had re

Verse 32. This generation) This race of men; but see onceived, were not only not destroyed in the destruction of Jé. Matt. xxiv, 34. and Mark xiii, 30.

rusalem; but became heralds of the grace and mercy of God Verse 34. Take heed to yourselves] See our Lord's parable to the nations. Thus they were counted worthy to stand be relative to this matter, explained Mark xiii. 34.

fore the Son of man-to minister salvation in his name. Be overcharged] Literally be made heary, as is generally the Verse 37. And in the day time] Or, every daytmespace case with those who have eaten or drank too much. Take This probably relates to the four last days of his life already heed that ye be not rendered secure by an improper use of mentioned. lawful things: do not make this earth your portion: expect its Abode in the mount] He taught all day in the temple, and dissolution, and prepare to meet your God.

withdrew every evening, and lodged in Bethany; a town at Verse 35. The face of the whole earth.] Or, of this whole the foot, or on the declivity of the mount of Olives. See the land. The land of Judea on which these heavy judgments || note on Matt. xxi. 17. were to fall. See ver. 25. see also chap. ii. I.

Verse 38. The people came early] He returned early from Verse 36. Watch ye therefore, and pray always] Perhaps we the mount of Olives, and the people came early in the morn. should connect a fouTt xanęw, continually, with ayeu TVEITs, watch, ing to the temple to hear his teaching. For practical obseras it appears. to be the most natural order. Indeed the word vations on the awful subject of this chapter, see Matt. xxiv, continually belongs equally to both watch and pray, and no at the end.

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