« הקודםהמשך »
The nature and importance
of the kerald's office.
were known, by generally carrying a caduceus. This was a || heralds, and the inviolability of their persons. Agamemnon rod with two spread wings at the top, and about which two commands the heralds, Talthybius and Eurybates, his faithful serpents were entwined. The poets fabled, that this rod was ministers, to go to the tent of Achilles, seize the young Brigiven by Apollo, the god of wisdom and music, to Mercury, seis, and bring her to him. They reluctantly obey; but when the god of eloquence, and the messenger of the gods. To it they come into the presence of Achilles, knowing the injustice wonderful properties are ascribed—especially that it pro- of their master's cause, they are afraid to announce their misduces sleep, and that it raises the dead. Who does not at sión. Achilles, guessing their errand, thus addresses them: once see, that the caduceus and its properties clearly point Χαιρετε, κηρυκες, Διος αγγελοι, ηδε και ανδρων. %. 7. 2. out the office, honor, and influence of the herald ? As persons of |“ Hail, O ye heralds, messengers of God and of men ! come strong voice, and ready speech, and copious eloquence, were forward. I cannot blame you—Agamemnon only is culpaalways chosen for heralds, they were represented as endued ble, who has sent you for the beautiful Briseis. But come, with wisdom and eloquence from above. They lulled men to godlike Patroclus, bring forth the damsel, and deliver her sleep, i. e. by their persuasive powers of speech, they calmed to them, that they may lead her away, &c.” Iliad. i. 334, &e. the turbulent dispositions of an enflamed populace, when
II. Their functions were numerous ; they might enter proceeding to acts of rebellion and anarchy - or they roused without danger into besieged cities, or even into battles. the dormant zeal of the community, who, through long op
III. They convoked the assemblies of the leaders, accordpression, despairing of succour or relief, seemed careless | ing to the orders they received from the general or king. about their best interests; being stupidly resolved to sink un- IV. They commanded silence, when kings were to address der their burdens, and expect release only in death. the assembly (Iliad. xviii. 503. Knguxes d'aga lawy ignituor. See
As to the caduceus itself, it was ever the emblem of peace also Iliad. ii. 280.) and delivered the sceptre into their hands, among the ancients: the rod was the emblem of power, the before they began their harangue. two serpents of wisdom and prudence, and the two wings of
Hy d'agos xngus diligence and dispatch. The first idea of this wonderful rod,
Χερσι σκηπτρον εθηκε, σιωπησαι τ' εκελευσεν. Ιliad xxiii. 567. seems to have been borrowed from the rod of Moses. See
V. They were the carriers and executors of the royal comthe note on Exod. iv. 17.
mands (Niad. i. 320.) and went in search of those who were The word xnguš kerux, or herald, here used, is evidently de- summoned to appear, or whose presence was desired. rived from xnçiso:v, to proclain, call aloud ; and this froin ympus,
VI. They were entrusted with the most important missions ; the voice : because these persons were never employed in any and accompanied princes in the niost difficult circumstances. business, but such only as could not be transacted, but by Priam, when he went to Achilles, took no person besides, a the powers of speech, and the energy of ratiocination,
herald with him. (Iliad. xxiv. 674, 689.) When Ulysses sent For the derivation of the word herald, we must look to the two of his companions to treat with the Lestrygons, he sent northern languages. Its meanings in Junius, Skinner, and
a herald at the same time. (Odys. x. 102.) Agamemnon, when Minshieu, are various, but not essentially different; they all he wished to soften Achilles, joined Eurybates and Hodius, seem to point out different parts of the herald's office. 1. his heralds, to the deputation of the princes. (Iliad. ix. 170.) In the Belgic, heer signifies urny. Hence heer-alt, a scnior
VII. Heralds were employed to proclaim and publish whatofficer, or general, in the army. 2. Or heer: held, the hero of
ever was to be known by the people. (Odys. xx. 276.) the army: he who had distinguished himself most in his
VIII. They declared war and proclaimed peace. (Odys. country's behalf. 3. Or from the Gallo-teutonic herr-haut, xviii. 334.) the high lord, because their persons were so universally re
IX. They took part in all sacred ceremonies : they minspected, as we have already seen. 4. Or from the simple gled the wine and water in the large bowls for the libations, Teutonic herr-hold, he who is faithful to his lord. And lastly, which were made at the conclusion of treaties. They were according to Minshieu, from the verb kier-holden, stop here; the priests of the people in inany cases ; they led forth the because, in proclaiming peace, they arrested bloodshed and victims, cut them in pieces, and divided them among those death, and prevented the farther progress of war.
engaged in the sacrifices. (Odys. i. 109, &c.) These officers act an important part in all heroic history,
X. In Odyssey lib. xvii. a herald presents a piece of flesh and particularly in the 'Iliad and Odyssey, from which, as the to Telemachus, and pours out his wine. subject is of so much importance, I shall make a few extracts.
XI. They sometimes waited on princes at table, and ren1. Their character was sacred. Homer gives them the epi- dered them many other personal services. (Iliad. ii. 280. thet of ditine, 9E606.
Odyss. i. 143, &c. 146, 153. ii. 6, 38.) In the Iliad. lib. x. 3. Δολων, Ευμηδεος υιος,
Eurybates carries the clothes to Ulysses. And a herald of AlΚηρυκος θειοιο.
Iliad. x. 315.
cinous conducts Demodocus, the singer, into the festive hall. · Dolon, son of Eumedes, the divine herald.” They were also' (Odys. viii. 470.) Many others of their functions, services, termed inviolable, aoudoo; also, great, admirable, &c. In the and privileges, the Reader inay see, by consulting Damm's first book of the Wiad, we have a proof of the respect paid to Homeric Lexicon, under Kew.
Christ fasts forty days in the desart,
and is tempted by Satan.
CHAPTER IV. Jesus, in the wilderness, is tempted by Satan, 1-11. He goes into Galilee, 19; and Capernaum, 13. The prophecy which was thus fulfilled, 14–16. Ile begins to preach publicly, 17. Calls Simon Peter, and his brother Andrew, , 18–20. Calls also James and John, the sons of Zebedee, 21, 22.
of Zebedee, 21, 20. Preaches and works miracles throughout Galilee, 23. Becomes famous in Syria, and is followed by multitudes from various quarters, among whom he works a great variety of miracles, 24, 25. A.M. 4031. THEN was a Jesus led up of the 3 And when the tempter came to 4.4.4931. An. Olymp.
Spirit into the wilderness, to be him, he said, If thou be the Son of An. Olymp. CCL. S. tempted of the devil.
God, command that these stones be 2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty made bread. . nights, he was afterward an hungred.
4 But he answered and said, It is written,
A. D. 97.
• Mark 1. 12, &c. Luke 4. 1, &c. - See 1 Kings 18. 12.
Ezek. 3. 14. & 8. 3. & 11, 1, 24. & 40. 2. & 43. 5. Acts 8. 39.
NOTES ON CHAP. IV.
nights, was hungry: now as hunger naturally diminishes the Verse 1. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit] This trans- strength of the body, the mind gets enfeebled, and becomes action appears to have taken place immediately after Christ's easily irritated; and if much watching and prayer be not baptism; and this bringing up of Christ was through the in- employed, the uneasiness which is occasioned by a lack of fluence of the Spirit of God; that Spirit which had rested food, may soon produce impatience, and in this state of mind upon him in his baptism.
the tempter has great advantages. The following advice of To be tempted] The first act of the ministry of Jesus an Arabian philosopher to his son, is worthy of attention. Christ, was a combat with Satan. Does not this receive light“ My son, never go out of the house in the morning, till from Gen. iii. 17. I will put enmity between the woman's seed thou hast eaten something: by so doing, thy mind will be end thy seed: it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his more firm; and shouldest thou be insulted by any person, keel.
thou wilt find thyself more disposed to suffer patiently : for Verse 2. And when he had fasted forty days] It is remark- hunger dries up, and disorders the brain.” Bibliot. Orient. able, that Moses, the great law-giver of the Jews, previously Suppl. p. 449. The state of our bodily health and worldly to his receiving the Law from God, fasted forty days in the circumstances, may afford our adversary many opportunities mount : that Elijah, the chief of the prophets, fasted also of doing us immense mischief. In such cases, the sin to forty days: and that Christ, the giver of the New Covenant, which we are tempted, may be justly termed, as in Heb. xii. should act in the same way. Was not all this intended to 1. The EUTEZIOTATOY apagtoor, the well circumstanced sin, because shety, that God's kingdom on earth, was to be spiritual and all the circumstances of time, place, and state of body and divine ? that it should not consist in meat and drink, but in mind, are favourable to it. righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost ? Rom. If thou be the Son of God] Or, a son of God, vios Tou tov. xiv. 17. Relative to the forly days' fast of Moses, there is vios is here, and in Luke iv. 3. written without the article; a beautiful saying in the Talmudists. “ Is it possible, that and therefore should not be translated the Son, as if it were any man can fast forty days and forty nights? To whicho vios, which is a phrase that is applicable to Christ as the Rabbi Meir answered, When thou takest up thy abode in Messiah : but it is certain, whatever Satan might suspect, any particular city, thou must live according to its customs. he did not fully know that the person he tempted was the Moses, ascended to heaven, where they neither eat nor drink, true Messiah. Perhaps one grand object of his temptation, therefore he became assimilated to them. We are accustom- was to find this out. ed to eat and drink, and when angels descend to us, they eat Conmand that these stones] The meaning of this temptaand drink also.” Moses, Elijah, and our blessed Lord couldtion is: “ Distrust the divine providence and support, and fast forty days and forty nights, because they were in com- make use of illicit means to supply thy necessities." munion with God, and living a heavenly life.
Verse 4. But by (or, upon, e7o) every word] Pouce, in Greek, Verse 3. And when the tempter] This onset of Satan was answers to 737 dabar in Hebrew, which means not only a word made (speaking after the manner of men) judiciously: he spoken, but also thing, purpose, appointment, &c. Our Lord's time when Jesus, after having fasted forty days and forty meaning seems to be this: God purposes the welfare of his The devil continuing his
temptations, is defeated.
A. M. 4031.
A. D. 27. An. Olymp.
* Man shall not live by bread alone, || at any time thou dash thy foot against 4. M. 1931. An.Olymp. but by every word that proceedeth | a stone. out of the mouth of God.
7 Jesus said unto him, It is written 5 Then the devil taketh him up into the again, « Thou shalt 'not tempt the Lord thy holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the God. temple,
8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an ex6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of ceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the God, cast thyself down : for it is written, *He kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; shall give his angels charge concerning thee : 9 And saith unto him, All these things will I and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
Deut. 8.3. Neh. 11.1, 18. Isai. 48. 2. & 52. 1. ch. 27.53. Rev. 11.2.
'c Psal. 91. 11, 12. Deut. 6. 16.
creatures—all his appointments are calculated to promote this most merciful God deals with the children of men, ever end. Some of them may appear to man to have a contrary | guarding them by his eye, and defending them by his tendency; but even fusting itself, when used in consequence power. of a divine injunction, becomes a mean of supporting that life Verse 7. Thou shalt not tempt] To expose myself to any which it seems naturally calculated to impair or destroy. danger naturally destructive, with the vain presumption that
Verse 5. Pinnacle of the temple] It is very likely that this God will protect and defend me from the ruinous consewas what was called the stock Bocconsxn, the king's gallery; quences of my imprudent conduct, is to tempt God. which, as Josephus says,
“ deserves to be mentioned among Verse 8. An exceeding 'high mountain, and sheweth him. If the most magnificent things under the sun: for upon a the words, all the kingdoms of the world, be taken in a literal stupendous depth of a valley, scarcely to be fathomed by sense, then this must have been a visionary representation, the eye of him that stands above, Herod erected a gallery | as the highest mountain on the face of the globe could not of a vast height, from the top of which if any looked down, suffice to make evident even one hemisphere of the earth, he would grow dizzy, his eyes not being able to reach so and the other must of necessity be in darkness. vast a depth."-Ant. l. xv, c. 14. See Dr. Lightfoot on this But if we take the world to mean only the land of Judea, place.
and some of the surrounding nations, as it appears someVerse 6. Cast thyself down] Our Lord had repelled the times to signify, (see on Luke ii. 1.) then the mountain defirst temptation by an act of confidence in the power and scribed by the Abbé Mariti (Travels through Cyprus, &c.) goodness of God; and now Satan solicits him to make trial could have afforded the prospect in question. Speaking of of it. Through the unparalleled subtlety of Satan, the very it, he says, “ Here we enjoyed the inost beautiful prospect means we make use of to repel one temptation, may be used imaginable. This part of the mountain overlooks the mounby him as the ground-work of another. This method he tains of Arabia, the country of Gilead, the country of the often uses, in order to confound us in our confidence.
Amorites, the plains of Moab, the plains of Jericho, the riter He shall give his angels charge, &c.] This is a mutilated Jordan, and the whole extent of the Dead Sea. It was here quotation of Psal. xci. 11. The clause, to keep thee in all that the Devil said to the Son of God, All these kingdoms thy ways, Satan chose to leave out, as quite unsuitable to will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me." his design. That God has promised to protect and support Probably St. Matthew, in the Hebrew original, wrote post his servants, admits of no dispute; but as the path of duty | haurets, which signifies the world, the earth, and often the is the way of safety, they are entitled to no good, when they land of Judea only. What renders this more probable, is, walk out of it.
that at this time Judea was divided into several kingdoms, In their hands they shall bear thee up] This quotation from or governments, under the three sons of Herod the Great, Psal. xci. Il. is a metaphor taken from a nurse's manage- viz. Archelaus, Antipas, and Philip; which are not only ment of her child: in teaching it to walk, she guides it along called Ethnarchs and Tetrarchs in the Gospels, but also plain ground; but when stones or other obstacles occur, she Bacoolsos, kings, and are said Becordeuely, to reign, as Rosenlifts up the child, and carries it over them, and then sets it muller has properly remarked. See chap. ii. 22. xiv. 9. down to walk again. Thus she keeps it in all its ways,
Verse 9. If thou wilt fall down and worship me.) As if he watching over, and guarding every step it takes. To this had said, “ The whole of this land is now under my govern, St. Paul seems also to allude, 1 Thess. ii. 7. We were gentlement, do me homage for it, and I will deliver it into thy umong you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children. Thus the hand.”
A. D. 27.
Angels minister to Christ.
He resides at Capernaum. 10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get 12 | Now when Jesus had heard A. M. 4051.. An Olymp. thee hence, Satan : for it is written, that John was “ cast into prison, he An. Olymp.
· Thou shalt worship the Lord thy | departed into Galilee; God, and him only shalt thou serve.
13 And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt 11 Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in angels came and ministered unto him. the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim ;
· Deut. 6. 13. & 10. 20. Josh. 24. 11. 1 Sam. 7.3.--llcb. 1. 11.
• Mark 1. 14. Luke 3. 20. & 4. 14,51. John t. 43.- Or, delivered up.
Verse 10. Get thee hence) Or, behind me, omoow pow. This is thee, and to prove thee, TO KNOW WHAT WAS IN THY TICART: added by a multitude of the best MSS. Versions, and toods linesteca, topaon oi, Lxx. that he might bore thee Fathers. This temptation, savouring of nothing but diabolic through. The quality and goodness of many things are impudence, Jesus did not treat it as the others; but, with proved by piercing or boring through; for this shews what divine authority, commanded the tempter to return to his is in the heart. Perhaps nothing tenus so much to discover own place.
what we are, as trials either from men or devils. In the course of this trial, it appears that our blessed Shalt thou serve, or pay religious veneration, 2.etgivors. This Lord was tempted, 1st. TO DISTRUST. Command these stones | is Mr. Wakefield's translation, and I think cannot be mended. to become bread. 2:lly. TO PRESUMPTION. Cast thyself down. Aargasce comes from acy rery much, and
I tremble. When 3dly. To worldly AMBITION. All these will I gire. 4thly. || a sinner approaches the presence of God, conscious of 1113 TO IDOLATRY. Fall down and worship me, or, do me homage. | infinite holiness and justice, and of his own vileness, he will There is probably not a temptation of Satan, but is reducible then fully comprehend what this word means. See this reto one or other of these four articles,
ligious reverence exeinplified in the case of Moses, when in From the whole we may learn:
the presence of God: I exceedingly fear, said be, and tremble, First. No man, howsoever holy, is exempted from tempt- | Heb. xii. 21. And yet this fear of God'is the beginning of ation: for God manifested in the flesh, was tempted by the wisdom. See the observations at the end of the chapter. Devil
Verse 13. And learing Nazareth] Or, entirely learing NaSecondly. That the best way to foil the adversary, is by sureth, xon xstado muy on Nažazet, from x6:0, intensive, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, Eph. vi. 17. Altw, I leave. It seems that, from this time, our blessed
Thirdly. That to be tempted even to the greatest abomi- Lord made Capernaum his ordinary place of residence; and nations, (while a person resists) is not sin: for Christ was utterly forsook Nazareth, because they had wholly rejected tempted to worship the Devil.
his word, and even attempted to take away his life. See Fourthly. That there is no temptation which is from its Luke iv. 29. own nature, or favouring circumstances, irresistible. God Galilee was bounded by mount Lebanon on the north, by has promised to bruise even Satan under our feet.
the river Jordan and the sea of Galilee on the east, by As I wish to speak what I think most necessary, on every Chison on the south, and by the Mediterranean on the subject when I first meet it, and once for all, I would ob west. serve, first, That the fear of being templed, may become a Nazareth, a little city in the tribe of Zebulon, in lower most dangerous snare.
Galilee, with Tabor on the west, and Ptolennais on the east. Secondly, That wben God permits a temptation or trial to It is supposed that this city was the usual residence of our come, he will give grace to bear or overcome it.
Lord for the first thirty years of his life. It was here he Thirdly, That vur spiritual interests shall be always ad- became incarnate, lived in subjection to Joseph and Mary. vanced, in proportion to our trials and faithful resistance, and from which he took the name of a Nazorcun.
Fourthly, That a more than ordinary measure of divine Capernaum, a city famous in the New Testament, but consolation shall be the consequence of every victory. never mentioned in the Old. Probably it was one of those
Verse 11. Behold, angels came and ministered unto him.] || cities which the Jews built after their return from Babylon. That is, brought that food which was necessary to support It stood on the sea-coast of Galilee, on the borders of ZaDature.
bulon and Nephthalim, as mentioned in the text. This was The name given to Satan in the third verse is very em called his own city, chap. ix. 1, &c. and here, as a citizen, phatic, o uçakw, the tempter, or trier, from 994, lo pierce he paid the half shekel, chap. xvii. 24. Among the Jews, through. To this import of the name, there seems to be an if a man became a resident in any city for twelve months, allusion Eph. vi, 16. The fiery DARTS of the wicked one. This he thereby became a citizen, and paid his proportion of is the precise idea of the word in Deut. viii, 2. To humble dues and taxes. See Lightfoot. Capernaum is well known to
Christ enters on
his public ministry. 14 That it might be fulfilled which "great light; and to them which sat in A.M.4031. An. Olymp. was spoken by Esaias the prophet, the region and shadow of death, light is An. Olymp. saying,
sprung up 15 * The land of Zabulon, and the land of 17 (From that time Jesus began to preach, Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond and to say, “Repent: for the kingdom of hea. Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles :
ven is at hand. 16 “The people which sat in darkness, saw 18 . And Jesus, walking by the sea of Ga
· Isai. 9. 1, 2.-- Isai. 42.7. Luke 2. 32.
c Mark 1. 14, 15. —dch. 3. 2. & 10.7.--. Mark 1. 16, 17, 18. Luke 5. 2.
have been the principal scene of our Lord's miracles during this glorious time, when Jesus Christ, the true Light, shone the three years of his public ministry.
forth in the beauty of holiness and truth. Christ began his Zabulon, the country of this tribe, in which Nazareth and ministry in Galilee, and frequented this uncultivated place Capernaum were situated, bordered on the lake of Genne- more than he did Jerusalem and other parts of Judea: here sareth, stretching to the frontiers of Sidon, Gen. xlix. 13. || his preaching was peculiarly needful; and by this was the Nephthalim was contiguous to it, and both were on the prophecy fulfilled. east side of Jordan, Josh. xix. 34.
Verse 17. Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent] See - Verse 15. Galilee of the Gentiles] Or of the nutions. Soon chap. iii. 1, 2. Every preacher commissioned by God to called, because it was inhabited by Egyptians, Arabians, and proclaim salvation to a lost world, begins his work with Phænicians, according to the testimony of Strabo and others. I preaching the doctrine of repentance. This was the case The Hebrew Sa goyim, and the Greek dvæv, signify na- with all the Prophets, John the Baptist, Jesus Christ, all the tions; and in the Old and New Testaments, mean those Apostles, and all their genuine successors in the Christian people who were not descendants of any of the twelre tribes. ministry. The reasons are evident in the notes already reThe word Gentiles, from gens, a nation, signifies the same. ferred to; and for the explanation of the word xngucouy, It is worthy of remark, that it was a regular tradition among preaching, or proclaiming as a herald, see at the end of the ancient Jews, that the Messiah should begin his ministry chap. iii. in Galilee. See the proofs in Schoetgen.
Verse 18. Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother] Verse 16. The people which sat in darkness) This is quoted Why did not Jesus Christ call some of the eminent scribes from Isa. ix. 2. where, instead of sitting, the prophet used or Pharisees to publish his gospel, and not poor unlearned the word walked. The Erangelist might on purpose chunge fishermen, without credit or authority? Because it was the the term, to point out the increased misery of the state of kingdom of heaven they were to preach, and their teaching these persons. Sitting in darkness, expresses a greater de- nust come from above : besides, the conversion of sinners, gree of intellectual blindness, than walking in darkness does. though it be effected instrumentally by the preaching of the In the time of Christ's appearing, the people were in a much gospel, yet the grand agent in it is the Spirit of God. As worse state, than in the time of the prophet, which was nearly the instruments were comparatively mean, and the work which 700 years before; as, during all this period, they were grow- was accoinplished by them, was grand and glorious, the exing more ignorant and sinful.
cellency of the power at once appeared to be of God, and The region and shadow. of death] These words are amaz- not of man; and thus the glory, due alone to his name, was ingly descriptive. A region of death-Death's country, where, secured, and the great Operator of all good had the deserved in a peculiar manner, Death liveu, reigned, and triumphed, praise. Seminaries of learning, in the order of God's prosubjecting all the people to his sway,
vidence and grace, have great and important uses; and in Shadow of deatle] Exta Javarov, used only here and in reference to such uses, they should be treated with great Luke i. 79. but often in the Old Covenant, where the Hebrew respect: but to make preachers of the gospel, is a matter to is ning 5x tsal mareth. It is not easy to enter fully into the which they are utterly inadequate; it is a prerogative that ideal meaning of this term. As in the former clause, Death God never did, and never will, delegate to man. is personified, so here. A shadow is the darkness cast upon Where the seed of the kingdom of God is sowed, and a place by a body raised between it and the light or sun. a dispensation of the gospel is committed to a man, a good Death is here represented as standing between the land above- education may be of great and general use: but it no more mentioned, and the Light of Life, or Sun of Righteousness ; follows, because a man has had a good education, that therein consequence of which, all the inhabitants were involved | fore he is qualified to preach the gospel, than it does, that in a continual cloud of intellectual darkness, misery, and because he has not had that, therefore he is unqualified; for sin. The heavenly Sun was continually eclipsed to them, till there may be much ignorance of divine things where there