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John the Baptist's preaching,

CHAP. III.

doctrine and success.

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3 *And he came into all the country | I say unto you, That God is able of A. M. 1030. An. Olymp. about Jordan, preaching the baptisın of these stones to raise up children unto An. Olymp.

repentance for the remission of sins : Abraham. 4 As it is written in the book of the words of 9 And now also the axe is laid unto the root Esaias the prophet, saying, "The voice of one of the trees: 6 every tree therefore which bringcrying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of eth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast the Lord, make his paths straight.

into the fire. 5 Every valley shall be filled, and every moun- 10 And the people asked him, saying, "What tain and hill shall be brought low; and the shall we do then? crooked shall be made straight, and the rough 11 He answereth and saith unto them, · He ways shall be made smooth ;

that hath two coats, let him impart to him that 6 And all flesh shall see the salvation of hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do God.

likewise. 7 Then said he to the multitude that came

12 Then *

came also publicans to be bapforth to be baptized of him, O generation of tized, and said unto him, Master, what shall vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the we do? wrath to come?

13 And he said unto them, 'Exact no more 8 Bring forth therefore fruits' worthy of re-than that which is appointed you. pentance, and begin not to say within your- 14 And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, selves, We have Abraham to our father : for saying, And what shall we do? And he said

• Matt. 3. 1. Mark 1.4.-- bcl. 1.77.- Isai. 40. 3. Matt. 3. 3. Mark 1.3. Or, meet for.- Matt. 7. 19.- Acts 2. 37.—ich. 11. 41. 2 Cor. 8. 14.

John 1. 23. — Ps. 98. 2. Isai. 52. 10. ch. 2. 10.-_e Matt. S. 7. Jam. 2. 15, 16. 1 Jolin 3.17. & 4.20.--Nlatt. 21. 32. ch. 7.29. ch. 19.8.

they? Men of a mortified life and unblameable conversation ? Verse 11. He that hath two coats, &c.] He first teaches the No—they are poets and poetasters; composers of romances, no- great mass of the people their duty to each other. They were dels, intrigues, farces, comedies, &c. full of extravagance and uncharitable and oppressive, and he taught them not to expect impurity. They are pretended moralists that preach up plea- any mercy from the hand of God, while they acted towards sure and sensual gratification; and dissolve as far as they can others in opposition to its dictates. If men be unkind and unthe sacred and civil ties that unite and support society. They charitable towards each other, how can they expect the mercy are men whose guilt is heightened by their assuming the sacred of the Lord to be extended towards themselves ? name of philosophers, and dignifying their impure system with Verse 12. Then came also publicans] He next instructs the a name at which philosophy herself blushes and bleeds. lar-gatherers in the proper discharge of their duty : though it

Verse 3. The baptism of repentance] See on Matt. iii. 4–6, was an office detested by the Jews at large, yet the Baptist does and Mark i. 1, &c. and xvi. at the end.

not condemn it. It is only tbe abuse of it that he speaks against. Verse 5. Every valley shall be filled] All bindrances shall be if taxes be necessary for the support of a state, there must be taken out of the way: a quotation from the Greek version of collectors of them; and, the collector, if he properly discharge Isai. xl. 4. containing an allusion to the preparations made in his duty, is not only a useful, but also a respectable officer. rough countries, to facilitate the march of mighty kings and But it seems the Jewish tax-gatherers exacted much more conquerors. See the instance produced on Matt. iii. 3. from the people than government authorized them to do, ver.

Verse 7-9. On this account of the Baptist's mode of preach- 13. and the surplus they pocketed. This, I am inclined to think ing, see the notes on Matt. iii. 7-11.

is too common an evil : and the executive government is often Verse 10. Ithat shall we do then?] The preaching of the the people's scape-goat, to bear the crimes of its officers; crimes Baptist had been accompanied with an uncommon effusion of in which it has no concern. For an account of the publicuns, that spirit which convinces of sin, righteousness, and judgment. see the note on Matt, v. 46. The people who heard him now earnestly begin to enquire Verse 14. The soldiers likewise demanded of him] He thirdly what they must do to be sured? They are conscious that they instructs those among the military. They were either Roman are exposed to the judgments of the Lord, and they wish to soldiers, or the soldiers of Ilerod or Philip. Use no violence escape from the coming wrath,

to any, undeva darlionti, do not extort money or goods by force John the Baptist's preaching,

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Christ is baptized.

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19 But Herod the tetrarch, be. A. Ml. 4031. An. Olymp.

neither accuse any falsely; and being reproved by him for Herodias his An.Olymp. content with your wages.

brother Philip's wife, and for all the 15 T And as the people were “in expecta- evils which Herod had done, tion, and all men mused in their hearts of 20 Added yet this above all, that he shut up John, whether he were the Christ, or not;

John in prison, 16 John answered, saying unto them all, I 21 | Now when all the people were A. M.1030, indeed baptize you with water; but one might-baptized, 'it came to pass, that Jesus An. Olymp. ier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes also being baptized, and praying, the I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize heaven was opened, you with the Holy Ghost and with fire :

22. And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily 17 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came throughly purge his floor, and 8 will gather the from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will Son; in thee I am well pleased. burn with fire unquenchable.

23 And Jesus himself began to be about 18 And many other things in his exhortation, thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) 'the preached he unto the people.

son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli,

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* Or, Put no man in fear.—Exod. 23. 1. Lev. 19. 11.---Or, allmvance. d Or, in suspence.

e Or, reasoned, or, debated. Matt. 3. 11.

& Mic. 4. 12. Matt. 13. 30.- Matt. 14. 3. Mark 6. 17.-Matt. 3. 13. Jobn 1. 32.-k See Numb. 4.3, 35, 39, 13, 47.—Matt. 13. 55. John 6.4%.

or violence from any. This is the import of the words nemi- Verse 21. Jesusbeing baptized] See on Matt. iii. 16, 17. nem concutite, used here by the Vulgate, and points out a Verse 23. Thirty years of age] This was the age required crime, of which the Roman soldiers were notoriously guilty, by the law, to which the priests must arrive before they their own writers being witnesses. Concussio has the above could be installed in their office; see Numb. iv. 3. meaning in the Roman law. See Raphelius in loco.

Being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph] This same Neither accuse'any falsely] Or, on a frivolous pretence phrase is used by Herodotus to signify one who was only repende ouro@artnonte, be not sycophants, like those who are base puted to be the son of a particular person : TOUTOU FAIS, Pope flatterers of their masters, who, to ingratiate themselves into he was SUPPOSED to be this man's son. their esteem, malign, accuse, and impeach the innocent.

Much learned labour has been used to reconcile this gene. Bishop Pearce observes, that when the concussio above re- || alogy with that in St. Matthew, chap. i. and there are several ferred to, did not produce the effect they wished, they often | ways of doing it: the following which appears to me to be falsely accused the persons, which is the reason why this ad- | the best, is also the most simple and easy. For a more elabo.sice is added. See the note on chap. xix. 7.

rate discassion of the subject, the Reader is referred to the Be content with your wages.] Of WNIOS. The word signifies additional observations at the end of the chapter. not only the money which was allotted to a Roman soldier, Matthew in descending from Abraham to Joseph, the which was two oboli, about three half-pence per day, but spouse of the blessed Virgin, speaks of sons properly such, also the necessary supply of wheat, barley, &c. See Ruphelius. by way of natural generation : Abraham begat Isaac, and

Verse 15. Whether he were the Christ] So general was the Isaac begat Jacob, &c. But Luke in ascending from the SaTeformation which was produced by the Baptist's preaching, I viour of the world, to God himself, speaks of sons either that the people were ready to consider him as the promised properly or improperly such : on this account he uses an ixMessiah. Thus John came in the spirit and power of Elijah,|| determinate mode of expression, which may be applied to and reformed all things ; shewed the people, the tar-gatherers, || sons either putatively or really such. And Jesus himself began and the soldiers, their respective duties; and persuaded them to be about thirty years of age, being as was suppOSED, the to put away the evil of their doings. See the note on Matt. | son of Joseph--of Heli-of Matthat, &c. This receives conxvii. 1.

siderable support from Ruphelius's method of reading the Verses 16, 17. On these verses see Matt. iii. 11, 12. and original wy (ws EVOMISTO Vios Iwono) Tou Has, being, (when reMark i. 7; 8. and particularly the note on John iii. 5. puted the son of Joseph) the son of Heli, &c. That St. Luke

Verse 19. Herod the tetrarch] See this subject explained || does not always speak of sons properly such, is evident from at large Matt. xiv. 1, &c. and Mark vi. 21, 23.

the first and last person which he names : Jesus Christ was

The genealogy of our Lord

CHAP. III.

from Joseph to Adani.

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24 Which was the son of Matthat, 30 Which was the son of Simeon, A.M. 40.30. An. Olymp. which was the son of Levi, which was which was the son of Juda, which was Au. Olymp.

the son of Melchi, which was the son the son of Joseph, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph,

of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim, 25 Which was the son of Mattathias, which 31 Which was the son of Melea, which was was the son of Amos, which was the son of N:1- the son of Menan, which was the son of Mattaum, which was the son of Esli, which was the tha, which was the son of a Nathan, which was son of Nagge,

The son of David, 26 Which was the son of Maath, which was 32 Which was the son of Jesse, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Se- the son of Obed, which was the son of Booz, mei, which was the son of Joseph, which was which was the son of Salmon, which was the son the son of Juda,

of Naasson, 27 Which was the son of Joanna, which was 33 Which was the son of Aminadab, which the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zoroba- | was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esbel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was rom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Neri,

the son of Juda, 28 Which was the son of Melchi, which was 34 Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abrawhich was the son of Elmodam, which was the ham, which was the son of Thara, which was son of Er,

the son of Nachor, 29 Which was the son of Jose, which was 35 Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Matthat, which was the which was the son of Heber, which was the son son of Levi,

of Sala,

a Zech. 12. 12.02 Sam. 5. 11. 1 Chron. 3. 5.

с

Ruth 4. 18, &c. 1 Chron. 2. 10, &c. Gen. 11. 21, 26.

only the supposed son of Joseph, because Joseph was the And Salathiel, son of Jechonias, according to the former, was Husband of his mother Mary: and Adam who is said to be son-in-law of Neri, according to the latter. the son of God, was such, only by creation. After this ob Mary therefore appears to have been the daughter of Heli, servation it is next necessary to consider, that in the genea- so called by abbreviation for Heliachim, wbich is the same in logy described by St. Luke, there are two sons improperly Hebrew with Jouchim. such : i. e. two sons-in-law, instead of two sons.

Joseph son of Jacob, and Mary daughter of Heli, were As the Hebrews never permitted women to enter into their of the same family: both came from Zerubbabel; Joseph from genealogical tables, whenever a family happened to end with Abiud, his eldest son, Matt. i. 13. and Mary by Rhese, the a daughter, instead of naming her in the genealogy, they in- youngest. See ver. 27. serted her husband as the son of him, who was in reality, but Saluthiel and Zorobabel, from whom St. Matthew and St. bis father-in-law. This import, Bishop Pearce has fully shewn | Luke cause Christ to proceed, were themselves descended sous tohat bears, in a variety of places-- Jesus was considered from Solomon in a direct line: and though St. Luke says that according to law, or allowed custom, to be the son of Joseph, Salathiel was son of Neri, who was descended from Nathan, as he was of Heli.

Solomon's eldest brother, 1 Chron. iii. 5. this is only to be The two sons-in-law who are to be noticed in this genea- understood of his having espoused Nathan's daughter, and logy are Joseph the son-in-law of Heli; whose own father that Neri dying, probably without male issue, the two branches was Jacob, Matt. i. 16. and Salathiel, the son-in-law of Neri; il of the family of David, that of Nathan, and that of Solomon, whose own father was Jechonius, 1 Chron. iii. 17. and Matt. were both united in the person of Zerubbabel, by the marriage 1. 12. This remark alone, is sufficient to remove every diffi- of Salathiel chief of the regal family of Solomon, with the culty. Thus it appears that Joseph son of Jacob, according | daughter of Neri, chief and heretrix of the family of Nathun. to St. Matthew, was son-in-law of Heli, according to St. Luke. // Thus it appears, that Jesus son of Mary re-united in himself

The genealogy of our Lord

ST. LUKE.

from Joseph to Adam.

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36 · Which was the son of Cainan, || Jared, which was the son of Maleleel, A. M. 4050. An Olymp. which was the son of Arphaxad, which which was the son of Cainan,

was the son of Sem, which was the son 38 Which was the son of Enos, which of Noe, which was the son of Lamech,

was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, 37 Which was the son of Mathusala, which which was the son of God. was the son of Enoch, which was the son of

* See Gen. 11. 12. Gen. 5. 6, &c. & 11. 10, &c.

Gen. 5. 1, 2.

all the blood, privileges, and rights of the whole family of and father of Sala, is not found in any other Scripture geneDavid ; in consequence of which he is emphatically called alogy. See Gen. s. 24. xi. 12. 1 Chron. i. 18, 24. where The Son of David. It is worthy of being remarked that St. Arpharad is made the father of Sala, and no mention at all Matthew who wrote principally for the Jews, extends his ge- || made of Cainan. Some suppose that Cainan was a surname nealogy to Abraham, through whom the promise of the Mes- of Sala; and that the names should be read together thus, siah was given to the Jews: but St. Luke who wrote his | The son of Heber, the son of Salacainan, the son of Arpharad, history for the instruction of the Gentiles, extends his gene- &c. If this does not untie the knot, it certainly cuts it; and alogy to Adam, to whom the promise of the Redeemer was the Reader may pass on without any great scruple or emgiven in behalf of himself and of all bis posterity. See the barrassment. There are many sensible observations on this notes on Matt. i. 1, &c.

genealogy, in the notes at the end of Bishop Newcome's Verse 36. Of Cainan] This Cainan, the son of Arpharad, || Harmony.

FARTHER CONSIDERATIONS

ON THE BEST MODE OF RECONCILING AND EXPLAINING

THE GENEALOGY OF OUR LORD,

ÁS GIVEN BY ST. MATTHEW AND ST. LUKE, CHIEFLY EXTRACTED FROM THE PROLEGOMENA OF THE REV. DR. BARRETT'S

FAC-SIMILE OF A FRAGMENT OF THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW, FROM A MS. IN TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN.

Perhaps few questions have occasioned more trouble and || even the first century, is itself a sufficient proof that neither perplexity to the learned, than that which concerns the ge- || inconsistency nor corruption could be then alledged against nealogy of our blessed Lord, as it is given by the Evange- this part of the evangelical history. If a charge of this natists, St. Matthew, and St. Luke. The tables found in these ture could have been supported, it unquestionably would writers are extremely different, or, as some think, contradice have been made. The Jews and Heathens who agreed in tory. Allowing the Divine inspiration of the authors, we their hostility to the religion of Christ, were equally intermust grant that they could make no mistakes in any point, ested in this subject; and could they have proved that a single and especially on a subject where the truth of the gospel flaw existed in these genealogical tables, they might at once history, and the fulfilment of the ancient prophecies are so have set aside the pretensions of our Lord and his disciples ; nearly concerned. The expression of Le Clerc, however, for if the lineal descent of Jesus from David were not indisUniversam antiquitatem exercitam habuere, is not strictly true. putable, he could not possess the character essential to the In later times, the difficulty has certainly excited much dis- Messiah, nor any right to the Jewish throne. If his title, in cussion; but it is worthy of remark, that while the archives | this respect, were even questionable, it is impossible to supof the Jews remained entire, the accuracy of the Evange- | pose that the Jews would have withheld an allegation which lists was never called in question. Hence it follows, either must fully vindicate them in denying his Messiahship, and in that some corruptions have since that time crept into the putting him to death as an impostor. We may confidently text, or that the true method of reconciling the seeming assert, therefore, that his regular lineal descent from David inconsistencies was then better understood. The silence of could not be disproved, since it was not even disputed, at a the enemies of the gospel, both Heathen and Jewish, during time when alone it could have been done successfully, and by

Observations on the

CHAP. III.

genealogy of our Lord.

those persons who were so deeply interested in the event. | Joseph was the son of Ileli, the son of Melchi-Matthan The sincere believer may consequently be assured that what. and Melchi having each successively married the same wife, erer difficulties appear at present, had formerly no existence, the latter begat children, who were brethren by the mother. and are even now of such a nature as cannot be allowed to Matthan descending from Solomon, begat Jacob of Esthashake the faith of any reasonable man. I would not, however,! After the death of Matthan, Melchi, who descended from be understood to intimate that these difficulties are now insu- Nathan, being of the same tribe but of another race, took liis perable; on the contrary, I ain satisfied that the real difficulties widow to wife, and begat Heli; thus Jacob and IIdli were are few, and that these have, for the most part, been satisfacto- brethren by the mother. Heli dying without issue, Jacob rily explained by most of the Evangelical Harmonists. married his widow, and begat Joseph, who by the law was

Among those who have written on this difficult question, accounted the son of Heli, because the law required the seed few seem to have studied it so deeply as Dr. Barrett; who, to be raised up to the deceased brother. Matthew therefore in his edition of a Fragment of St. Matthew's Gospel, has properly says, Jacob begat Joseph, but Luke says, he was brought an unusual measure of general knowledge, correct the son of Heli, and it is worthy of remark, that this Evancriticism, and sound learning, to bear upon this point; and gelist never uses the term begot or begetting, because he traces though it should not be admitted, that he has entirely cleared up this genealogy by pututive, and not by natural sons.' away the obscurities of the subject, yet by his criticisms, This is the substance of Africanus's account, which he says and even his conjectures, he has cast much light upon it ge- he received from the relatives of our Lord, who, because of nerally, and certainly has lessened the difficulties which some their consanguinity to him, were called domotUVOL. Dr. Barof his predecessors in the discussion, had either left as they rett notices the difficulties of this hypothesis (pp. 18, 19.) found them, or endeavoured to account for in a manner that and gives it up on the following principle, among others, could yield little satisfaction to the intelligent inquirer. As' which I think decisive ;--that it refers wholly to the descent the subject is important, and Dr. Barrett's work is not likely of Joseph from David, without attempting to prove that the to come into the hands of many Readers, and is written in a son of Mary was the son of David. language which but few can understand, I shall lay before them Dr. B. then states his own hypothesis, viz. that Matthew the substance of his elaborate dissertation; abstract his principal relates the genealogy of Joseph, and Luke that of Mary. arguments and illustrations; transcribe his various corrected ta- Hence appears sufficient reason, that after Matthew had bles; and freely intersperse such observations and explanations given his genealogical table, another should be added by Luke, as the different branches of his reasoning may suggest. fully to prove that Christ, according to the flesh, derived

The opinion of Africanus in his Epistle to Aristides, (pre- his descent from David, not only by his supposed father Joserved by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 1. i. c. 7.) which was received seph, but also by his real mother Mary. The writers who by the Church for many centuries as the only legitimate agree in this opinion, Dr. B. divides into two classes. 1. mode of reconciling the Evangelists St. Matthew and St. Luke, Those who affirm that the families of Solomon and Nathan is the following;

coalesced in Salathiel and Zerubbabel, after which they be• The names of kindred among the Jews, were reckoned came divaricated, till they were at last re-united in the marin two ways. 1. According to nature, as in the case of na- i riage of Joseph and Mary. 2. Those wlio assert, that Satural generation. 2. According to law, as when a man died lathiel and Zerubbabel were distinct individuals, and deny childless, his brother was obliged to take his wife, and the that any coalition took place between the families previously issue of that marriage was accounted to the deceased brother. I to the marriage of Joseph and Mary. Dr. B. rejects this In this genealogy, some succeeded their fathers as natural latter opinion, because it appears to contradict the divine sons, but others succeeded who bore their names only. promise, 2 Sam. vii. 12—16. for according to this hypothesis Thus, neither of the gospels is false; the one reckoning the it would be evident, that Mary, and consequently Christ, pedigree by the natural, the other by the legal line. The did not descend from David by Solomon. He therefore prorace both of Solomon and Nathan is so interwoven by those poses to support the other hypothesis, and to clear away, its second marriages, which raised up issue in the name of a difficulties. deceased brother, that some appear to have two fathers- As Irenæus, Africanus, and Ambrosius assert, that Luke · him, whose natural issue they were, though they did not has some names interpolated; to detect this error, Dr. B. die bear his name; and him, to whom, having died childless, the vides the genealogy into 4 classes. 1. From God to Abraham. children of his wife and brother were accounted for a seed, 2. From Abraham to David. 3. From David to Salathiel. assuming his name. If we reckon the generations according 4. From Salathiel to Christ. From Abraham to Christ, Ambroto Matthew, from David by Solomon, Mattban will be found sius reckons fifty generations, i. e. fifty-one names; Africanus the third from the end, who begat Jacob, the father of Jo- reckons from Abraham to Joseph, fifty persons, i.e. to Christ, seph; but if we reckon according to Luke, from Nathan fifty-one names : but the present text contains fifty-six names, the son of David, then the third person from the end will Hence it is probable, five names are interpolated, unless we be Melchi, whose son was Heli, the father of Joseph; for suppose the name of Abraham to be excluded, and then..

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