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14 * Afterward he appeared unto | be saved ; ' but he that believeth not, A.M.108. A. D. 29. An. Olymp. the eleven as they sat at meat, and shall be damned. CCII. 1.

upbraided them with their unbelief 17 And these signs shall follow them and hardness of heart, because they believed that believe : ' In my name shall they cast out not them which had seen him after he was devils; they shall speak with new tongues ; risen.

18 . They shall take up serpents; and if they 15 °And he said unto them, Go ye into all the drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them ; world, and preach the gospel to every creature. " they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall 16 € He that believeth, and is baptized, shall recover.

- Luke 24. 36. John 20. 19. 1 Cor. 15. 5.—- Or, together. — Matt. 28, 19. John 15. 16._ Col. 1. 93.—_e Jolin 3. 18, 36. Acts 2. 33. & 16.30, S1, S2. Rom. 10. 9. 1 Pet. 3. 21.

self how doubtful Peter was, and how he fluctuated within this is the proper import of the original word mapaxolov Anges, himself after his threefold denial, and how he gasped to see from taça with, and axoloubes I follow. In the Lord again, if he were risen ; and to cast himself a hum- Them that beliete] The believers, as we express it; i. e. the ble suppliunt at his feet. When therefore he heard these Apostles, and all those, who in those primitive times were enthings from the women, (and he had heard it indeed from dued with miraculous powers, for the confirmation of the Christ himself, while he was yet alive, that when he arose he doctrines they preached.fr would go before them into Galilee) and when the rest were In my name] That is, by the authority and influence of the very little moved with the report of his resurrection, nor as Almighty. Jesus. yet stirred from that place, he will try a journey into Galilee, Cust out derils] Whose kingdom Jesus Christ was maniand Alpheus with him : which, when it was well known to fested to destroy. the rest, and they saw him return so soon and so unexpectedly Speak with new tongues] This was most literally fulfilled -Certainly, say they, the Lord is risen and hath appeared to on the day of Pentecost, Acts ii. 4–12. Peter, otherwise he had not so soon come back again. And Verse 18. Take up serpents] Several MSS. add ex tons Xegoriv, yet, when he and Cleophas open the whole matter, they do in their hands--shall be enabled to give, when such a proof not yet believe even them."

may be serviceable to the cause of truth, this evidence of their Verse 14. And upbraided them with their unbelief] Never being continually under the power and protection of God, and were there a people so difficult to be persuaded of the truth that all nature is subject to him. This also was literally fulof spiritual things, than the disciples. It may be justly as- | filled in the case of Paul, Acts xxviii. 5. serted, that people of so sceptical a turn of mind, would If they drink any dendly thing] orvosuusy, (pagpacxov) being never credit any thing till they had the fullest evidence of its understood-if they should through mistake, or accident, drink truth. The unbelief of the disciples is a strong proof of the any poisonous matter, their constant preserver will take care truth of the gospel of God. See the addition at the end. that it shall not injure them. See a similar promise, Isai. Verse 15. Go ye into all the world) See on Matt. xxviii. 19. xliii. 2.

And preach the gospel to every creature.] Proclaim the glad- They shall lay hands on the sick] And I will convey a healtidings of Christ crucified, and raised from the dead to all ing power by their hands, so that the sick shall recover, and the creation, Taon TM XT1C0—to the Gentile world; for in this men shall see that these are sent and acknowledged by the sense na berioth, is often understood among the Rabbins; Most High. Several instances of this kind are found in the because he, through the grace of God, kath tasted death for Acts of the Apostles. Every man, Heb. ii. 9. And on the rejection of the gospel That the Apostles of our Lord should not lose their lives by by the Jews, it was sent to the whole Gentile world.

poison, is most fully asserted in this verse, and there is neither Verse 16. He that believeth] He that credits this gospel as record nor tradition to disprove this. But it is worthy of rea revelation from God: and is baptized—takes upon him the mark, that Mohammed, who stiled himself The Apostle OF gprofession of it, obliging himself to walk according to its pre- God, lost his life by poison : and had he been a true Apostle cepts: he shall be saveil-redeemed from sin here, and brought of God, he could not have fallen by it. Al Kodai, Abul Feda, at last to the enjoyment of my eternal glory. But he that be- and Al Janabi, give the following account. lieveth not, shall be damned-because he rejects the only pro- When Mohammed, in the seventh year of the Hejra, "vision, that could be eftectual to his soul's salvation.

A.D. 628. had taken the city of Khecbar, from the Aral) Verse 17. These signs shall follow] Or rather, accompany; Jews, he took up his lodgings at the house of Hareth, the

ху

Clarist ascends to heaven. The

Sr. MARK.

disciples preach and work miracles.

A.M. 4033.
A, D. 99.

19 So then, after the Lord'had 20 And they went forth, and preach- A, M.4033. An Olymp. spoken unto them, he was received ed every where, the Lord working with An. Olymp

up into heaven, and sat on the right them, and confirming the word with hand of God.

signs following. Amen.

CCII. 1.

* Acts 1. ",3

_ Luke 24. 51.- Ps. 110. 1. Acts 7. 35.

d Acts 5. 12. & 14. 3. 1 Cor. 2. 4, 5. Hebr. & 4.

Tather of Marhab the Jewish general; who had been slain at their min:ls, convincing them of the truth, and establishing the taking of the city by Alee, the son-in-law of Mohammed. them in it. External, conveying their word to the souls that Zeeneb the daughter of Hareth, who was appointed to dress heard it, by the denonstration of the Holy Ghost; convincing the prophet's dinner, to avenge the fall of her people, and the them of sin, righteousness, and judgment; justifying them death of her brother, put poison in a roasted lamb which was by his blood, and sanctifying them by his spirit. Though provided for the occasion. Bashar, one of his companions, miraculous powers are not now requisite, because the truth falling on too hastily, fell dead on the spot. Mohammed had of the gospel has been sufficiently coufirmed ; yet this coonly chewed one mouthful, but had not swallowed it: though operation of God is indispensably necessary, without which on perceiving that it was poisoned, he immediately spat it no man can be a successful preacher; and without which no out, yet he had swallowed a sufficiency of the juice to lay soul can be saved. the foundation of his death ; though this did not take place With signs following.] Etaxonougouitw onuitwy, the accomtill about three years after: but that it was the cause of his | panying signs : viz. those mentioned in the 17th and 18th death then, his dying words related by Al Janabi, and others, verses, and those others just now spoken of, which still consufficiently testify. When the mother of Bashar came to tinue to be produced by the energy of God, accompanying the see bim in his dying agonies, he thus addressed her: “O mo- | faithful i reaching of bis unadulterated word. ther of Bishar, I now feel the veins of my heart bursting Amen.] This is added here by many MSS. and Versions ; through the poison of that morsel, which I ate with thy son but is supposed not to have made a part of the text originat Kheebar.

ally. Griesbach, Bengel and others, leave it out. Abul Feda, Eynol Athir, and Ehn Phares say, that the prophet acknowledged on his death-bed, that the poison which St. Jerom mentions certain Greek copies, which have the he had taken at Kheebar, had tormented him from that time following remarkable addition to ver. 14. after these words until then, notwithstanding blisters were applied to his should- and reprouched them for their unbelief und kardness of heart, ers, and every thing done in the beginning to prevent its because they did not believe those who had seen him after he was effects. Al Kodai, and Al Junabi relate, that when Zeenal | raised up: Et illi satisfaciebant dicentes : seculum istud iniwas questioned why she did this, she answered to this effect : quitatis et incredulitatis subsiuntia est, quæ non sinit per im" I said in my heart, If he be a king, we shall hereby | mundos spiritus teram Dei apprehendi virtutem. Idcirco, jam be freed from his tyrunny ; and if he be a prophet, he will nunc revela justitiam tuam. And they confessed the charge, easily perceive it, and consequently receive no injury." To saying: This age is the substance of iniquity and unbeliet, support his credit, he pretended that the lamb spoke to which, through the influence of impure spirits, dues not perhim, and said that it was infected with poison! See El- mit the true influence of God to be apprehended. Therefore, makin, p. 8. It was therefore policy in him not to put even now reveal thy righteousness.” Zeenab to death. It has pleased God that this fact should There are various subscriptions to this book in the MSS. and be acknowledged by the dying breath of this scourge of Versions; the principal are the following. The holy Gospel the earth; and that several of even the most partial Mo- | according to Mark is endedwritten by himin Egypt-in hammedan historians, should relate it! And thus attested, Rome—in the Latin tongue - directed by Peter--the 10tk--12th it stands for the complete and everlasting refutation of his year after the ascension of Christm-preached in Alexandria, and pretensions to the prophetic spirit and mission. Vide Speci- | all its coasts.” Dr. Lardner supposes this Gospel to liave men Hist. Arabum, a Pocockio, p. 189, 190. Le Coran tra- been composed A. D. 64 or 65, and published before the end duit par SAVARY, vol. i. p. 135, and 212. See also The Life of the last mentioned year. See the Preface. of Mohammed by PRIDEAUX, 93, 101.

The Gospel according to Mark, if not an abridgement of Verse 19. After the Lord had spoken] These things, and the Gospel according to Matthew, contains a neat, perspicuconversed with them for forty days, he was taken up into heu- ous abridgement of the history of our Lord: and taken in ven, there to appear in the presence of God for us.

this point of view, is very satisfactory; and is the most proVerse 20. The Lord working with them] This co-opera- || per of all the four gospels, to be put into the hands of young tion was twofold, internal and externul, Internal, illuminating || persons in order to bring them to an acquaintance with the

Observations on the natiere

CIIAP. XVI.

and importance of baptism.

great facts of Evangelical History. But as a substitute for the his own: it is very plain, simple, and unadornel; and sometimes Gospel by Matthew, it should never be used. It is very likely appears to approach to a degree of rusticity or inelegance. that it was written originally for the use of the Gentiles, and Whoever reads the original, must be struck with the very probably for those of Rome. Of this, there seem to be se-frequent, and often pleonastic occurrence of eybows immediveral evidences in the work itself. Of the other Gospels it is lately, and any again, and such like; but these detract nonot only a grand corroborating evidence, but contains many thing from the accuracy and fidelity of the work. The Hevaluable hints for completing the history of our Lord, which braisms which abound in it, may be naturally expected from have been omitted by the others; and thus in the mouths of a native of Palestine, writing in Greek. The Latinisms which Pour witnesses, all these glorious and interesting facts are es-frequently occur, are accounted for on the ground of this tablished.

Gospel being written for the Gentiles; and particularly for One thing may be observed, that this Gospel bas suffered the Roman people: this, it must be confessed, is only theory, more by the carelessness and inaccuracy of transcribers, than but it is a theory which stands supported by many arguany of the others: and hence the rarious readings in the MSS. ments, and highly presumptive facts. However this may be are much more numerous in proportion, than in the other the Gospel according to Mark, is a very important portion of Evangelists. Every thing of this description, which I judged divine revelation, which God has preserved by a chain of proto be of real importance, I have carefully noted.

vidences, from the time of its promulgation until now: and for Though the ratter of St. Mark's work came from the inspi- || which, no-truly pious reader will hesitate to render dae praise ration of the Holy Spirit, yet the language seems to be entirely to that God, whose work is ever perfect. Amen.

SOME OBSERVATIONS

ON THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF

BAPTISM.

On the subject of baptism, several observations have been chiefest prophets had in time past. But yet the first use of made in the course of the preceding notes ; and its great im- baptism was not exhibited at that time. For baptism, very portance to the Christian religion, carefully noted. Dr. Light- many centuries back, had been both known and received in foot has spoken well on the subject ; and I have reserved his most frequent use among the Jewus ; and for the very same observations for this place, and earnestly recommend them to end as it now obtains among Christians, namely, that by it the notice of every unprejudiced reader. On the mode of proselytes might be admitted into the church : and hence it administering baptism, there need be no dispute among Chris- was called oma nisu baprism for proselytism; and was distians : both dipping and sprinkling are legitimate forms; and tinct from 9 bis baptism, or washing from uncleanness. either may be used, as the consciences or religious prejudices See the Babylonian Talmud in Jevamoth. of the parties may direct: but the thing itself, and its great “ Ill the Jews assert, as it were with one mouth, that all the reference, are of the utmost importance. Baptism is a stand nation of Israel were brought into the covenant, amony other ing proof of the divine authenticity of the Christian religion; things, by baptism. Israel (saith Maimonides, the great inand as Dr. Lightfoot well argues, a seal of the truth of the terpreter of the Jewish law) was admitted into the corenant by doctrine of justification by faith, through the blood of the three things, namely, by circumcision, baptism, and sacrifice Covenant.

Circumcision was in Egypt, as it is said, None uncircumeised " It is no unfit or unprofitable question," he observes, shall eat of the pass-over. . Baptism was in the wilderness, before "Whence it came to pass, that there was so great a conflux of the giving of the law, as it is said, Thou shalt sanctify them toa men to John the Baptist, and so ready a reception of his bap- day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments. tism?

“ III. They assert, that infinite number of proselytes in " I. The reason is, because the manifestation of the Mes- the days of David and Solomon, were admitted by baptism. sias was then expected, the weeks of Daniel being now spent The Sanhedrin received not proselytes in the days of David and to the last four years : and therefore the people were stirred Solomon : not in the days of David, lest they should betake up to prepare for his appearing,

themselves to proselytism out of a fear of the kingdom of Is" II. Another reason of it was this. The institution of|rael ; not in the days of Solomon, lest they might do the same baptism for an evangelical sacrament, was first in the hand of by reason of the glory of the kingdom. And yet abundance of the Baptist; who, the word of the Lord coming to him, (Luke proselytes were made in the days of David and Solomon before iä. 11.) went forth, backed with the saine authority, as the | pritute men; and the great Sanhedrin was full of care about

Observations on the nature

ST. MARK.

and importance of baptism.

this business ; for they would not cast them out of the church, most accurate rite of translation that could possibly be, be because they were baptized. MAIMONIDES, Issure Biah, c. 13. might so pass into an Israelite, that being married to an Is

IV. Whensoever any heathen will betake himself, and be raelite woman, he might produce a free and legitimate seed, joined to the covenant of Israel, and place himself under the and an undefiled offspring. Hence servants that were taken wings of the Divine Majesty, and take the yoke of the law upon into a family, were baptized, and servants also that were to kim, voluntary circumcision, baptism, and oblation are required : be made free: not so much because they were defiled with but if it be a woman, baptism and oblation. ibid. That was a heathen uncleanness, as that by that rite 797 555 Soovidbe. common ariom, 513999 1990 No man is a proselyte coming Israelites in all respects, they might be more fit to until he be circumcised and captized. JevamoTH, fol. 46. match with Israelites, and their children be accounted as

“ You see baptism inseparably joined to the circumcision Israelites. And hence the sons of proselytes, in following of proselytes. There was indeed some little distance of time ; generations, were circumcised indeed, but not baptized. for they acere not baptized till the pain of circumcision was

They were circumcised that they mighi take upon themkeuled, because water might be injurious to the wound : but selves the obligations of the law, but they needed not bapcertainly baptism ever followed. We acknowledge indeed, tism, because they were already Israelites. that circumeision was plainly of divine institution; but by “ II. The baptism of proselytes was the bringing over of whom baptism, which was inseparable from it, was instituted, Gentiles into the Jewish religion; the baptism of John, was is doubtful. And yet it is worthy of observation, our Saviour the bringing over of Jews into another religion : and hence rejected circumcision, and retained the appendix baptismi; it is the more to be wondered at, that the people so readily and when all the Gentiles were now to be introduced into the flocked to him, when he introduced a baptism so different true religion, he preferred this proselytical introductory, (par- from the known proselytical baptism. The reason of which den the expression) unto the sacrament of entrance into the is to be fetched from hence, that at the coming of the Mes. gospel. One might observe the same almost in the Eucharist. sias, they thought, not without cause, that the state of things The lamb in the passover was of divine institution, and so in- i was plainly to be changed; and that from the oracles of the deed was the bread: but whence was the wine? But yet re- prophets, who with one inouth described the times of the jecting the lamb, Christ instituted the sacrament in the bread Messias for a new world. and wine. Secondly, Observing from these things which have “ III. The baptism of proselytes, was an obligation to perbeen spoken, how very known and frequent the use of baptism form the law; that of John, was an obligation to repentance: was among the Jews, the reason appears very easy, why the for although proselytical baptism admitted of some ends, and Sanhedrin by their messengers enquired not of John concern- circumcision of others, yet a traditional and erroneous doeing the reason of baptism, but concerning the authority of trine at that time, had joined this to both, that the proselyte the baptizer ; not what baptism meant, but whence he had a covenanted in both, and obliged himself to perform the law; licence so to baptize : John i. 25. Thirdly, Hence also the to which that of the Apostle relates; Gal. v. 3. I testify again reason appears, why the New Testament does not prescribe to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the by some more accurate rule, who the persons are to be bap- whole law. But the baptism of John was a baptism of retized.

pentance, Mark i. 4. which being undertaken, they who were " It appears clear enough by what has been already said, baptized, professed to renounce their own legal righteousin what sense this is to be taken in the New Testament, ness, and on the contrary, acknowledged themselves to be which we sometimes meet with, namely, that the master of obliged to repentance and faith in the Messias to come. the family was baptized with his whole family, Acts xvi. 15,

IV. That the baptism of John was by plunging the 33, &c. Nor is it of any strength what some contend for, body, (after the same manner as the washing unclean per" that it cannot be proved there were infants in those fami- sons, and the baptism of proselytes, was) seems to appear lies :" for the enquiry is not so proper, whether there were from those things which are related of him; namely that he infants in those families, as it concluded truly and deservedly, baptized in Jordan, that he baptized in Enon, because there that if there were, they had all been to be baptized. Nor do was much water there; and that Christ being baptized came I believe this people that flocked to John's baptism, were so up out of the water: to which that seems to be parallel, Acts forgetful of the manner and custom of the nation, that they viii. 38. Philip and the eunuch went down into the water, &c. brought not their little children also with them to be baptized. Some complain that this rite is not relained in the Christian

" I. If you compare the washing of polluted persons pre- church, as though it something derogated from the truth of scribed by the law, with the baptism of proselytes, both that baptism; or as though it were to be called an innovation, and this implies uncleanness, however something different; when the sprinkling of water is used instead of plunging. that implies legal uncleanness, this heathen, but both pol- 1. That the notion of washing in John's baptism differs luting. But a proselyte was baptized not only into the wash- from ours, in that he baptized none who were not brought ing away of that Gentile pollution, nor only thereby to be over from one religion, and that an irreligious one too, into transplanted into the religion of the Jews; but that, by the another, and that a true one. But there is no place for this Observations on the nature

CHAP. XVI.

and importance of baptism.

among us, who are born Christians; the condition therefore it might be known that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messias, being varied, the rite is not only lawfully, but deservedly in the name of whom, suddenly to come, Jolin had bapvaried also. Our baptism argues defilement indeed, and un- tized. That of St. Peter is plain), Acts ii. 38. Be baptized channess; and demonstrates this doctrinally, that we being every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ : and that Acts polluted, have need of washing; but this is to be understood viii. 16. They were baptized in the name of Jesus. of our natural and sinful stain, to be washed away by the “ But the Apostles baptized the Gentiles according to the blood of Christ and the grace of God : with which stain in- precept of our Lord, in the name of the Father, and of the deed they were defiled, who were baptized by Johu. But Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Matt. xxviii. 19. For since it to denote this washing by a sacramental sign, the sprinkling was very much controverted among the Jews, about the true of water is as sufficient, as the dipping into water, when in Messius, it was not without cause, yea nor without necessity, truth this argues washing and purification, as well as that. that they baptized in the name of Jesus; that by that seal

" 2. Since dipping was a rite used only in the Jewish na- might be confirmed this most principal truth in the gospel, tion, and proper to it, it were something hard, if all nations and that those that were baptized, might profess it; 'that should be subjected under it; but especially when it is Jesus of Nazareth was the true Messias. But among the Genneither necessary to be esteemed of the essence of baptism, tiles, the controversy was not concerning the true Messias, and is moreover so barsh and dangerous, that in regard of, but concerning the true God. Among them therefore, it was these things, it scarcely gave place to circumcision. We read needful that baptism should be conferred in the name of the that some leavened with Judaism to the highest degree, yet true God, Futher, Son, and Holy Spirit. wished that dipping in purification, might be taken away;

We suppose therefore, that men, women, and children caine because it was accompanied with so much severity. In the to John's baptism, according to the manner of the nation in days of R. Joshua ben Levi, some endeavoured to abolish this the reception of proselytes; namely, that they standing in dipping, for the sake of the women of Galilee ; because by rea- Jordun were taught by John, that they were baptized into the son of the cold, they became barren. Surely it is hard to lay name of the Messias, who was now immediately to come; this yoke upon all nations, which seemed too rough for the and into the profession of the doctrine of the gospel concernJerus themselves, and not to be borne by them, men loo much ing faith and repentance; that they plunged themselves into given to such kind of severer rites. And if it be demanded | the river, and so came out. And that which is said of them, of them, who went about to take away that dipping, Would that they were baptized by him, confessing their sins, is to be you have no purification at all by water? Is it probable that understood according to the tenor of the Baptist's preaching; they would have allowed of the sprinkling of water, which not that they did this man by man, or by some particular is less harsh, and not less agreeable to the thing itself.

confession made to John, or by openly declaring some parti3. The following ages, with good reason, and by divine cular sins; but when the doctrine of John exhorted them to prescript, administered a baptism differing in-a greater matter repentance and faith in the Messias, they renounced and disfrom the baptism of John; and therefore it was less to differ owned the doctrine and opinion of justification by their own in a less matter. The application of water was necessarily works, wherewith they had been beforetime leavened; and acof the essence of baptism; but the application of it in this knowledged and confessed theinselves sinners.” or that manner speaks but a circumstance: the adding also It is worthy of remark, that neither priest nor Levite dipof the word, was of the nature of a sacrament; but the ped the persons who were baptized: the persons stood in changing of the word into this or that form, would you not the water; three persons ordinarily stood to instruct them and call this a circumstance also ? And yet we read the form of witness the fact : when the instruction was ended, the person baptism so changed; that you may observe it to be threefold himself who was to be baptized, put himself under the water, in the history of the New Testament.

and then came out. In the case of a woman, the disciples of the “ Farther, In reference to the form of John's baptism, wise men turned their backs, while she plunged herself, and which thing we have proposed to consider in the second came out of the water; for I suppose the whole Jewish pracplace; it is not at all to be doubted that he baptized in the tice will not afford a single instance, where a priest or any name of the Blessius now ready to come ; that they might be other man put the woman under the water when she was bapthe readier to receive the Messias, when he should manifest tized. From this we learn, that the act of baptism was perhimself. The Apostles baptizing the Jews, baptized them formed by the person kimself; but the instruction relative to. in the name of Jesus ; (because Jesus of Nazareth had now its end, obligation, &c. came from another. been revealed for the Messias) and that they did, when it had They baptized also youNG CHILDREN (for the most part been before commanded them by Cbrist, buprize all nations, with their parents.) They baptize a little proselyte accordin the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Tíoly Ghost. || ing to the judgment of the Sanhedrin ;. that is, as the gloss renSo you must understand that which is spoken John iii

. 23. ders it, If he be deprived of his father, and his mother brings and iv. 2. concerning the disciples of Christ baptizing ; him to be made a proselyte, they baptize him (because none be. namely, that they baptized in the name of Jesus; that thence comes a proselyte without circumcision and baptism) according.

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