« הקודםהמשך »
He rides into Jerusalem.
The fruitless fig-tree cursed.
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6 And they said unto them even as 11 And Jesus entered into Jerusa- A.M.4033, An. Olymp. Jesus had commanded: and they let lem, and into the temple : and when An. Olymp.
he had looked round about upon all 7 And they brought the colt to Jesus, and things, and now the eventide was come, he cast their, garments on him; and he sat upon went out unto Bethany with the twelve. him.
12 And on the morrow, when they were 8. • And many spread their garments in the come from Bethany, he was hungry: way: and others cut down branches off the 13 'And seeing a fig-tree afar off having trees, and strawed them in the way.
leaves, he came, if haply he might find any 9 And they that went before, and they that thing thereon: and when he came to it, he followed, cried, saying, "Hosanna! Blessed is found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs he that cometh in the name of the Lord : was not yet.
10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father Da- 14 And Jesus answered and said unto it, No vid, that cometh in the name of the Lord : man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And *Hosanna in the highest !
his disciples heard it.
a Matt. 21. 8. Ps. 118. 26.-Ps. 148. 1.
d Matt, 21. 12.- Matt. 21. 18. Matt. 21. 19.
verse should be understood as the 'promise of returning him. to thy grate in FULL Age, like as a shock of corn cometh in Is not the proper translation the following? And if any one his season ; xata xangor, in the time in which it should be say to you, why do ye this ? Suy; The Lord hath need of him, I reaped. and will speedily send time back hither--και ευθεως αυτον αποτελλει
When our Lord saw this fig-tree by the way-side, apparently wèt. Some eminent critics take the same view of the passage. flourishing, he went to it to gather some of the figs being
Verse 6. And they let them go.] Having a full assurance on the way-side, it was not private, but public property; and that the beast should be safely and speedily restored.
any traveller had an equal right to its fruit. As it was not Verse 10. In the name of the Lord] Omitted by BCDLU. as yet the time for gathering-in the fruits, and yet about the some others, and several Versions. Griesbach leaves it out. time when they were ready to be gathered, our Lord with Hosanna in the highest !] See on Matt. xxi. 9.
propriety expected to find some. But as this happened about Verse 11. When he had looked round about upon all things] five days before that pass-over, on which Christ suffered, and He examined every thing—to see if the matters pertaining 10 the pass-over that year fell on the beginning of April, it has the divine worship were properly conducted—to see that no- been asked, “ how could our Lord expect to find ripe figs in thing was wanting-nothing superfluous.
the end of March ?" Answer, Because, figs were ripe in And now the eventide was come] The time in which he Judea as early as the pass-over. Besides, the fig-tree puts usually left Jerusalem, to go to Bethany.
forth its fruit first, and afterwards its leaves. Indeed this tree Verse 13. For the time of figs was not yet.] Rather, For it in the climate which is proper for it, has fruit on it all the was not the season of gathering figs yet. This I am fully per- year round, as I have often seen. All the difficulty in the Suaded is the true sense of this passage, ου γαρ ην καιρος συκων.
text may be easily removed by considering that the climate For a proof that wasgos here signifies the time of gathering the of Judea is widely different from that of Great Britain. The figs, see the LXX. in Psal. i. 3. He bringeth forth his fruit, summer begins there in March, and the harvest at the pass19 xeigu avtov, in his season ; i. e. in the time in which fruit over, as all travellers into those countries testify: therefore should be ripe, and fit for gathering. See also Mark xii. 2. as our Lord met with this tree five days before the pass-over, And at the season, tw xoesqw, the time of gathering the fruits | it is evident, Ist. That it was the time of ripe figs; and 2dly. of the vineyard. Matt. xxi. 34. When the time of the fruit That it was not the time of gathering them, because this did drew near ; ó raigos twv xagaw, the time in which the fruits not begin till the puss-over, and the transaction here mention were to be gathered, for it was then that the Lord of the vine- || ed, took place five days before. yard sent his servants to receire the fruits; i. e. so much of For farther satisfaction on this point, let'us suppose, I. them as the holder of the vineyard was to pay to the owner | That this tree was intended to point out the state of the Jewish by way of rent; for in those times rent was paid in kind. people. 1. They made a profession of the true religion. 2.
To the above may be added Job v. 26. Thou shalt come. They considered themselves the peculiar people of God, and He purifies the temple.
The importance of faith in God.
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15 [ And they come to Jerusalem: 20 | . And in the morning, as they A. M. 46. Ail. Olyrup. and Jesus went into the temple, and passed by, they saw the fig-tree dried Am. Olymp.
began to cast out them that sold and up from the roots. bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables 21 And Peter calling to remembrance, saith of the money-changers, and the seats of them unto him, Master, behold, the fig-tree which that sold doves;
thou cursedst is withered away. 16 And would not suffer that any man should 22 And Jesus answering saith unto them, carry any vessel through the temple.
Have faith in God. 17 And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not 23 For i verily I say unto you, That whosowritten, My house shall be called of all na-ever shall say unto this mountain, Be thou retions, the house of prayer ? but "ye have made moved, and be thou cast into the sea ; and shall it a den of thieves.
not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that :: 18 And the scribes and chief priests heard it, those things which he saith shall come to pass ; and sought how they might destroy him : for he shall have whatsoever he saith. they feared him, because * all the people was as- 24 Therefore I say unto you,
What things tonished at his doctrine.
soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye 19 And when even was come, he went out of receive them, and ye shall have them.
25 And when ye stand praying, 'forgive
* Matt. 21. 12. Luke 19. 45. John 2. 14. Isai. 56. 7. Or, a house of prayer for all nations ?- _Jer. 7. 11.- Matt. 21. 45, 46. Luke 19. 47.- Matt. 7. 28. ch. 1. 22. Luke * 32.
& Matt. 21. 19. - Or, Have the faith of God.- i Matt. 17. 20. & 21. 21. Luke 17. 6. k Matt. 7. 7. Lake 11.9. Jolin 14. 13. & 15. 7. & 16. 21. James 1. 5, 6.- Matt. 6. 14. Col. 3. 18.
despised and reprobuted all others. 3. They were only hypo- Verse 15. And they come] Several MSS. and Versions have crites, having nothing of religion but the profession, leaves, izhov, again. This was the next day after our Lord's triand no fruit.
umphant entry into Jerusalem, for on the evening of that day II. That our Lord's conduct towards this tree is to be con- he went to Bethany and lodged there, ver. 11. and Matt. xxi. sidered as emblematical of the treatment, and final perdition 17. and returned the next morning to Jerusalem. which was to come upon this hypocritical and ungodly na- Verse 16. Should carry any vessel] Among the Jews the word tion. I. It was a proper time for them to have borne fruit : il sing keli, dessel, had a vast latitude of meaning, it signified Jerus had been preaching the doctrine of repentance and sal. arms, Jer. xxi. 4. Ezek. ix. 1. clothes, Deut. xxii. 5. and invation among them for more than three years; the choicest struments of music, Psal. Ixxi. 22. It is likely that the Evaninfluences of heaven had descended upon them, and every gelist uses the Greek word chivos in the same sense, and by it thing was done in this vineyard that ought to be done, in points out any of the things which were bought and sold in order to make it fruitful. 2. The time was now at hand in the temple. which God would require fruit, good fruit, and if it did not Verse 17. And he taught--them] See on Matt. xxi. 12. produce such, the tree should be hewn down by the Roman Verse 19. He went out of the city.) To go to Bethany. axe. Therefore, 1. The tree is properly the Jewish nation. Verse 22. Hnoe faith in God.) EX!T! TIS) Otou is a mere he2. Christ's curse, the sentence of destruction, which liad now braisın : have the faith of God; i. e. have strong faith, or the gone out against it; and 3. its withering away, the final and strongest faith, for thus the Hebrews expressed the superlative total ruin of the Jewish state by the Romans. His oursing the degree; so the mountains of God mean exceeding greut mountiz-tree was not occasioned by any resentment at being disap- tains, the-hail of God exceeding great hail, &c. pointed at not finding fruit on it, but to point out unto his dis- Verse 25. When ye stand praying] This expression may ciples, the wrath which was coming upon a people who had
mean no more than, When ye are disposed, or kue a mind to now nearly filled up the measure of their iniquity.
pray, i. e. whenever ye perform that duty. And it is thus A fruitless soul that has had much cultivation bestowed on used and explained in the Koran, Surat. V. ver. 7. See on it, may expect to be dealt with as God did with this unright. Matt. xxi. 20—22. But, the Pharisees loved to pray standeous nation. See on Matti xxi. 19, &c.
ing, that they might be seen of mer.
The chief priests, fc. question
our Lord concerning his authority.
4, M., 1033 if ye have ought against any: that your fi me, and I will tell you by what au- 4.1.1983. Au. Olymp. Father also which is in heaven may thority I do these things. forgive you your trespasses.
30 The baptism of John, was it from 26 But ? if ye do not forgive, neither will your beaven, or of men? answer me. Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses. 31 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, 27 And they come again to Jerusalem : If we shall say, from heaven; he will say, Why and as he was walking in the temple, there then did ye not believe him ? come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, 32 But if we shall say, Of men ; they feared and the elders,
the people: for “ all men counted John, that he 28 And say unto him, By what authority doest was a prophet indeed. thou these things ? and who gave thee this au- 33 And they answered and said unto Jesus, thority to do these things?
We cannot tell. And Jesus answering saith 29 And Jesus answered and said unto them, unto them, Neither do I tell you by what auI will also ask of you one question, and answer thority I do these things.
* Matt. 18. 35.-O Matt. 21, 23. Luke 20. 1.
c Or, thing. —- Matt. 3. 5. & 14. 5. ch. 6. 20.
Verse 26. At the end of this verse, the 7th & 8th verses of part to act, and are ultimately confounded by their own proMatt. vii. Ask and ye shall receive, &c. are added by M. and jects, and ruined by their own operations. On the other hand, sixteen other MSS.
simplicity, and sincerity are not obliged to use a mask, but alThe 26th verse is wanting in BLS. seven others, some ways walk in a plain way. editions, the Coptic, one Itala, and Theophylact.
2. The case of the barren fig-tree which our Lord cursed, Verse 27-33. See on Matt. xxi. 23--27.
has been pitifully misunderstood and misapplied. The whole Verse 32. They feared the people) Or rather, We fear, &c. account of this transaction, as stated above, I believe to be Instead of spoßourto, they feared; the Coder Bezæ, seven others, correct; it is so much in our Lord's usual manner, that the latter Syriac, Arabic, Coptie, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and propriety of it will scarcely be doubted. lle was ever acting all the Itala, read coloursy, or Paßoupila. The common read the part of the philosopher, moralist, and divine, as well as that ing appears to me quite improper.
of the saviour of sinners. In his hand, every providential ocWe fear the people. Eay, if, before antwpays, we shall say, is currence and every object of nature, became a means of in.. omitted by ABCEFGHLS, and more than fifty others. Bengel. struction : the stones of the desart, the lilies of the field, the leaves it out of the text, and puts a note of interrogation after fowls of heaven, the beasts of the forest, fruitful and unfruitEarogamowv; and then the whole passage reads thus: But shall ful trees, with every. ordinary occurrence, were so many Le say, Of mea ? They feared the people, &c. This change grand texts, from which he preached the most illuminating renders the adoption of Co.3oupley, we fear, unnecessary. Seve- and impressive sermons, for the instruction and salvation of mal critics prefer this mode of distinguishing the text. How- his audience. This wisdom and condescension cannot be sufever the critics may be puzzled with the text, the scribes, chief ficiently admired. But shall the example of the fruitless faye priests
, and elders were worse puzzled with our Lord's question. tree, be lost on us as well as on the Jews ? God forbid! Let They must convict themselves or tell a most palpable false- us therefore take heed, lest having been so long unfruitful, hood. They told the lie, and so eseaped for the present. God should say, Let no fruit appear on thee hereafter for ever!
1. Envy, malice, and double-dealing have always a difficult. and in consequence of this, we wither and die away!
CHAPTER XII.. The parable of the vineyard let out to wicked husbandmen, 1--12. The Pharisees and Herodians question line about paying tribute to Cæsar, 13-17. The Sadducees question him about the resurrection, 18—27. A scribe questions him concerning the chief commandment of the law, 28--34. Christ asks the scribes why the Messiah is called David's son, 35-a37. He warns his disciples against the scribes, 38-40. Of the widow that cast treo miles into the treasury, 41.-44,
Parable of the wicked husbandmen.
The Herodians strive to ensnare him.
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ND he began to speak unto|| 8 And they took him, and killed him, A. M, 83. them by parables. A certain man and cast him out of the vineyard.
An. Olymp. planted a vineyard, and set a hedge 9 What shall therefore the lord of the about it, and digged a place for the wine-fat, vineyard do? he will come and destroy the and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto and went into a far country.
others. 2 And at the season, he sent to the hus 10 And have ye not read this scripture; The bandmen a servant, that he might receive stone which the builders rejected is become the from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vine head of the corner : yard.
11 This was the Lord's doing, and it is mar3 And they caught him, and beat him, and vellous in our eyes ? sent him away empty.
12 And they sought to lay hold on him, but 4 And again he sent unto them another ser- feared the people : for they knew that he had vant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded spoken the parable against them: and they left him in the head, and sent him away shamefully him, and went their way. . handled.
13 | 4 And they send unto him certain of the 5 And again he sent another; and him they || Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in killed, and many others; beating some, and his words. killing some.
14 And when they were come, they say unto 6 Having yet therefore one son, his well-be- | him, Master, we know that thou art true, and loved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, carest for no man : for thou regardest not the They will reverence my son.
person of men, but teachest the way of God 7 But those husbandmen said among them in truth : Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, selves, This is the heir ; come, let us kill him, or not? and the inheritance shall be our's.
15 Shall we give, or shall we not give ? But
a Matt. 21. 33. Luke 22. 9. Ps. 118. 22. -Matt. 21. 45, 46.
Ch. 11. 18. John 7. 25, 30, 44.—Matt. 22. 15. Luke 20. 20.
NOTES ON CHAP. XII.
foot, De Dieu, and others, agree in the sense given abore ; Verse 1. A certain man planted a vineyard] See this parable and this will appear the more probable, if the word asboboire explained, Matt. xxi. 33-41.
CONTES, they cast stones, be omitted, as it is by BDL. the Coptic, Verse 4. At him they cust stones, and wounded him in the Vulgate, and all the Itala. heud] Or rather, as most learned men agree, they made short Verse 7. This is the heir] So they appear to hare acknowwork of it, execamatwoay. We have followed the Vulgate, illum ledged in their consciences, that this was the Messiah, the in capite vulneraverunt, in translating the original, wounded heir of all things. him in the head, in which signification I believe the word is The inheritance shall be our's.) By slaying him we shall found in no Greek writer. Avax Panasoquas signifies to sum up, maintain our authority, and keep possession of our revenues. to comprise, and is used in this sense by St. Paul, Rom. xiii. 9. Verse 9. And will give the vineyard unto others.] The vineFrom the parable we learn, that these people were determined yard must not perish with the husbandmen; it is still capable to hear no reason, to do no justice, and to keep the possession of producing much fruit, if it be properly cultivated. I will and the produce by violence; therefore they fulfilled their give it into the care of new vine-dressers, the Evangelists and purpose in the fullest and speediest manner, which seems to be | Apostles.--And under their ministry, multitudes were brought what the Evangelist intended to express by the word in questo God before the destruction of Jerusalem. tion. Mr. Wakefield translates, they speedily sent him away; Verse 13. And they send unto him] See this, and to rer. others think the meaning is, they shared their heads and 17. largely explained on Matt. xxii. 15–22. made them look ridiculously; this is much to the same pur Verse 15. Shall we give, or shall we not give!'] This is puse, but I prefer, They made short work of it. Dr. Light- il wanting in the Codex Bezæ, and in several Versions
The question about the resurrection.
Which is the greatest commandment.
A. M.4033. he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto 26 And as touching the dead, that A. M. 4933. An Olymp. them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a they rise: have ye not read in the An. Olymp. penny, that I may see it.
book of Moses, how in the bush, God 16 And they brought it. And he saith unto spake unto him, saying, 'I am the God of Abrathem, Whose is this image and superscription? ham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of And they said unto him, Cæsar's.
Jacob ? 17 And Jesus answering said unto them, 27 He is not the God of the dead, but the Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's; and God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err. to God the things that are God's. And they 28 8 And one of the scribes came, and marvelled at him.
having heard them reasoning together, and 18 "Then come unto him the Sadducees, perceiving that he had answered them well, which say there is no resurrection ; and they asked him, Which is the first commandment asked him, saying,
of all ? 19 Master, «Moses wrote unto us, If a man's 29 And Jesus answered him, The first of all brother die, and leave his wife behind him, the commandments is, "Hear, O Israel; The and leave no children, that his brother should Lord our God is one Lord : take his wife, and raise up seed unto his bro 30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with ther.
all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all 20 Now there were seven brethren : and the thy mind, and with all thy strength : this is the first took a wife, and dying left no seed. first commandment. 21 And the second took her, and died, neither 31 And
And the second is like, namely this, left he any seed: and the third likewise. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
22 And the seven had her, and left no seed : . There is none other commandment greater last of all the woman died also.
than these. 23 In the resurrection therefore, when they 32 And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for thou hast said the truth : for there is one God; the seven had her to wife.
and there is none other but he: 24 And Jesus answering said unto them, Do 33 And to love him with all the heart, and ye not therefore err, because ye know not the with all the understanding, and with all the scriptures, neither the power of God?
soul, and with all the strength, and to love his 25 For when they shall rise from the dead, neighbour as himself, 'is more than all whole they neither marry, nor are given in mar- burnt offerings and sacrifices. riage ; but are as the angels which are in 34 And when Jesus saw that he answered disheaven.
creetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far
Valuing of our money sevenpence halfpenny, as Matt. 18. 28.- Matt. 22. 3. Luke 20. 27.- Acts 23. 8. Deut. 25. 5. 1 Cor. 15. 42, 49, 52, Exod. 3. 6.
& Matt. 92. 35. — Dent. 6. 4. Luke 10, 97. Lev. 19. 18. Matt. 22. 59. Rom. 13. 9. Gal. 5. 14. Jam. 2. 8. Dent. 4. 39. Isai. 45. 6, 14. & 46. 9.1 Sam. 15. 22, Hos. 6. 6. Mic. 6. 6, 7, 8.
Verse 18. See this question concerning the resurrection, ex one Persie, Coptic, Armenian, Gothic, Saxon, Vulgate, Itala, plained in detail on Mait. xxii. 23–32.
and Origen. Griesbach has omitted it.
Verse 27. But the God of the living] Oos God is left out by | &c.