« הקודםהמשך »
The transfiguration, and our Lord's
discourse thereon to his disciples.
A. D. 28.
A. D. 28. An. Olymp.
CHAPTER IX. The transfiguration of Christ, and the discourse occasioned by it, 1–13. He casts out a dumb spirit which his disciples could not, 14-29. He foretells his death, 30—32. The disciples dispute about supremacy, and Christ corrects them, 33–37. Of the person who cast out damons in Christ's name, but did not follow him, 38—40. Every kind office done to the disciples of Christ shall be rewarded by him, and all injuries done to them shall be punished, 41, 42. The necessity of mortification and self-denial, 43—48. Of the salting of sacrifices, 49, und the necessity of having union among the disciples of Christ, 50.
ND he said unto them, “Verily | ing, This is my beloved Son : hear A. M.4032.
An. Olymp: some of them that stand here, which 8 And suddenly, when they had shall not taste of death, till they have seen the looked round about, they saw. no man any kingdom of God come with power.
more, save Jesus only with themselves. 2 [ And after six days Jesus taketh with him 9° And as they came down from the mounPeter, and James, and John, and leadeth them tain, he charged them that they should tell no up into a high mountain apart by themselves : man what things they had seen, till the Son of and he was transfigured before them.
man were risen from the dead. 3 And his raiment became shining, exceeding 10 And they kept that saying with themselves, white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can questioning one with another, what the rising white them.
from the dead should mean. 4 And there appeared unto them Elias with 11 | And they asked him, saying, Why say Moses : and they were talking with Jesus.
the scribes that Elias must first come? 5 And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Mas- 12 And he answered and told them, Elias ter, it is good for us to be here: and let us make verily cometh first, and restoreth all things”; three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for and how it is written of the Son of man, that Moses, and one for Elias.
he must suffer many things, and be set at 6 For he wist not what to say; for they were nought. sore afraid.
13 But I say unto you, That i Elias is indeed 7 And there was a cloud that overshadowed come, and they have done unto him whatsothem: and a voice came out of the cloud, say- ever they listed, as it is written of him.
* Matt. 16. 28. Luke 9. 2.- Matt. 24. 30. & 95. 31. Luke 22. 18.
Matt. 17. 1. Luke 9. 28. Dan. 7. 9. Matt. 28. 3. Matt, 17. 9.
Mal. 4. 5. Matt. 17. 10.--. P's. 22. 6. Isai. 53, 2, &c. Dan. 9. 26.
h Luke 23. 11. Phil, 2. 7. VIDIatt. 11. 14. & 17. 12. Luke 1. 17.
NOTES ON CHAP. IX.
Was transfigured) Four good MSS. and Origen add here, Verse 1. There be some] This verse properly belongs to AND WHILE THEY WERE PRAYING he was transfigured ; but this the preceding chapter, and to the preceding discourse. It appears to be added from Luke ix. 29. is in this connexion in Matt. xvi. 27, 28. See the notes Verse 10. And they kept that suying] This verse is wanting there.
in two MSS. and one of the Itala. Verse 2. And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, &c.] What the rising from the dead should mean.] "Orav ex vixparv For a full account of the nature and design of the transfigura- avasi, when he should arise from the dead, is the reading of D. tion, see on Matt. xvii. 1, &c.
six others, Syriac, all the Persic, Vulgate, all the Itala, and JeA high mountain] I have conjectured, Matt. xvii. 1. that Griesbach
approves of it. this was one of the mountains of Galilee, some say Hermon, There is nothing that answers to this verse either in Mata some Tabor ; but Dr. Lightfoot thinks a mountain near Cæsa- | thew or Luke. Tea Philippi to be more likely.
Verse 12. And how it is written] Rather, as also it is written,
He cures a man possessed with a spirit
which rendered him deaf and dumb.
A. M. 4052.
14 [ And when he came to his when he saw him, straightway the AM, 4082. An. Olymp. disciples, he saw a great multitude spirit tare him ; and he fell on the An. Olymap.
about them, and the scribes question- ground and wallowed, foaming. ing with them.
21 And he asked his father, How long is it 15 And straightway all the people, when they | ago since this came unto him? And he said, Of beheld him, were greatly amazed, and running a child. to him saluted him.
22 And oft-times it hath cast him into the fire, 16 And he asked the scribes, What question and into the waters, to destroy him : but if thou ye with them?
canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and 17 And one of the multitude answered and help us. said, Master, I have brought unto thee my son, 23 Jesus said unto him, 'If thou canst which hath a dumb spirit;
believe, all things are possible to him that 18 And wheresoever he taketh him, he a tear- believeth. eth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with 24 And straightway the father of the child his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe; disciples that they should cast him out; and help thou mine unbelief. they could not
25 When Jesus saw that the people came 19 He answereth him, and saith, faith- running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, less generation, how long shall I be with you? saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no
more into him. 20 And they brought him unto him: and 26 And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and
* Matt. 17. 14. Luke 9. 37.--. Or, among yourselves! Matt. 17. 14.
Luke 9.38. La Or, dusheth him.
• Ch. 1. 26. Luke 9. 12.-Matt. 17, 20. ch. 11. 23. Luke 17. 6.
Jolin 11. 40.
Instead of xan rus, and how it is written, I read zafws, As Verse 23. If thou canst BELIEVE] This was an answer to Also it is written of the Son of man, &c. This reading is the enquiry above. I can furnish a sufficiency of power, if supported by AKM. seventeen others, the latter Syriac in the thou canst but bring faith to receive it. Why are not our souls margin, Slavonie, and Armenian. Some think the propriety completely healed? Why is not every Dæmon cast out? Why of adopting this reading is self-evident.
are not pride, self-will, love of the world, lust, anger, peevish:Verse 16. Were greatly amazed] Probably, because he came ness, with all the other bad tempers and dispositions which 50 unexpectedly; but the cause of this amazement is not very | constitute the mind of Satan, entirely destroyed ? Alas! it is evident.
because we do not believe ; Jesus is able; more, Jesus is wilVerse 19. A dumb spirit] That is, a Dæmon who afflicted | ling; but we are not willing to give up our idols, we give not those in whom it dwelt, with an incapacity of speaking. The credence to his word; therefore hath sin a being in us, and Spirit itself could not be either deuf or dumb. These are ac- || dominion over us. cidents that belong only to organized animate bodies.
Verse 24. Lord, I believe The word Lord is omitted by See this case explained, Matt. xvii. 14, &c.
ABCDL. both the Syriac, both the Arahic, latter Persic, ÆthiVerse 18. Pineth away] By these continual torments ; so opic, Gothic, and three copies of the Itala. Griesbach leaves he was not only deaf and dumb, but sorely tortured besides. it out; the omission, I think, is proper, because it is evident
Verse 20. When he saw kim--the spirit tare him; and he fell the man did not know our Lord, and therefore could not be on the ground, &c.] When this Dæmon saw Jesus, he had expected to accost him with a title expressive of that authority, great rage, knowing that his time was short; and hence the which he doubted whether he possessed, unless we grant that extraordinary convulsions mentioned above.
he used the word augue, after the Roman custom, for sir. Verse 22. If thou canst do any thing] I have already tried Help thou mine unbelief. That is, assist me against it thy disciples, and find they can do nothing in this case; but if | Give me a power to believe. thou hast any power, in mercy use it in our behalf.
Verse 25. I charge thee] Considerable emphasis should be
He foretells his sufferings. His
disciples contend about precedency.
A. D. 28.
came out of him: and he was as one | 33 f ' And he came to Capernaum: A.D. . Ap. Olymp. dead: insomuch that many said, He and being in the house, he asked them, An. Olymp. is dead.
What was it that ye disputed among 27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted yourselves by the way? him up; and he arose.
34 But they held their peace: for by the way 28 . And when he was come into the house, they had disputed among themselves, who should his disciples asked him privately, Why could be the greatest. not we cast him out?
35 And he sat down, and called the twelve, 29 And he said unto them, This kind can and saith unto them, "If any man desire to be come forth by nothing, but by prayer and first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of fasting.
all. 30 s And they departed thence, and passed 36 And he took a child, and set him in the through Galilee; and he would not that any midst of them: and when he had taken him in man should know it.
his arms, he said unto them, 31 For he taught his disciples, and said unto 37 Whosoever shall receive one of such childthem, The Son of man is delivered into the ren in my name, receiveth me: and ' whosoever hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after shall receive me, receiveth not me, but him that that he is killed, he shall rise the third day. sent me.
32 But they understood not that saying, and 38 | 8 And John answered him, saying, Maswere afraid to ask him.
ter, we saw one casting out devils in thy name,
* Matt. 17. 19.
Matt. 17. 92. Lnke 9. 44.
& 122. 24.
Matt. 18. 1. Luke 9. 46.
d Matt. 20.26, 27. ch. 10. 43. Matt. 18. 2. ch. 10. 16. Matt. 10. 40.
Luke 9. 48.-- Numb. 11. 28. Luke 9. 49.
laid on the pronoun ;-thou didst resist the command of my that of Aldus. Mill approves of the omission. It does not disciples, now I command thee to come out. If this had been appear likely, from Matthew's account, that three of the only a natural disease, for instance the epilepsy, as some have disciples, Peter, James, and John, could be ignorant of the argued, could our Lord have addressed it, with any propriety, reasons of Christ's death and resurrection, after the transfiguras he has done here; Thou deaf and dumb spirit, come out of ation : on the contrary, from the circumstances there related, him, and enter no more into him! Is the doctrine of dæmoni- it is very probable, that from that time they must have had acal influence false? If so, Jesus took the most direct method at least a general understanding of this important subject; to perpetuate the belief of that falsity, by accommodating but the other nine might have been ignorant of this matter, himself so completely to the deceived vulgar. But this was who were not present at the transfiguration; and probably it impossible, therefore the doctrine of dæmoniacal influence is is of these that the Evangelist speaks here. See the observaa true doctrine, otherwise Christ would never have given it the tions on the transfiguration, Matt. xvii. 9, &c. and xviii. 1. least countenance or support.
Verse 33. And being in the house] That is, Peter's house, Verse 29. Prayer and fasting.] See on Matt. xvii. 21. where he ordinarily lodged. This has been often observed
This dæmon may be considered as an emblem of deeply before. rooted vices, and inveterate habits, over which the conquest is Verse 34. Who should be the greatest.] See on Matt. xviii. not generally obtained, but through extraordinary humilia || 145. .
Verse 38. We suw one casting out devils in thy name] It This case is related by both Matthew and Luke, but it is can scarcely be supposed, that a man, who knew nothing of greatly amplified in Mark's account, and many new circum- | Christ, or who was only a common erorcist, could be able to stances related. Another proof that Mark did not abridge work a miracle in Christ's name: we may therefore safely Matthew.
imagine, that this was either one of John the Baptist's disa Verse 30. They--passed through Galilee) See on Matt. xvii. ciples, who, at his master's command, had believed in Jesus, 22–27.
or one of the seventy, whom Christ had sent out, Luke x. Verse 32. But they understood not] This whole verse is 1–7. who, after he had fulfilled his commission, had retired wanting in two MSS. in the first edition of Erasmus, and in from accompanying the other disciples; but as be still beld The man who cast out devils in Christ's
name, but did not follow him.
A. D. 28.
A.M. 403. and he followeth not us: and we for- little ones that believe in me, it is 4. M; 4032 An. Olymp. bade him, because he followeth not us. better for him that a milstone were An. Olymp.
39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not : hanged about his neck, and he were * for there is no man which shall do a miracle in cast into the sea. my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. 43 € And if thy hand 'offend thee, cut it off:
40 For he that is not against us, is on our it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than part.
having two hands to go into hell, into the fire 41 'For whosoever shall give you a cup of that never shall be quenched : water to drink in my name, because ye belong 44 5 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not is not quenched. lose his reward.
45 And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is 42 - And whosoever shall offend one of these better for thee to enter halt into life, than having
* 1 Cor. 12. 3.See Matt. 12. 30. Matt. 10. 42.
Luke 17. 1.
Matt. 18. 6.
• Deut. 13. 6. Matt. 5. 29. & 18. 8.-Or, cause thee to offend: and so ver.
45, 47,-8 Isai. 66. 24. Judah 16. 17.
fast his faith in Christ, and walked in good conscience, the transcribe. “ The Spirit rested upon Eldad and Medad, and influence of his Master still continued with bim, so that he they prophesied in the camp. And there rau a young man, could cast out dæmons as well as the other disciples.
and told Moses, and said, Eldad and Medad do prophesy in He followeth not us] This first clause is omitted by the camp. And Joshua-the servant of Moses said, My BCL. tluree others, Syriac, Armenian, Persic, Coptic, and lord Moses, forbid them. And Moses said unto him, Enviest one of the Itala. Some of the MSS. and Versions leave out Thou for my sake? Would God, that all the Lord's people the first, some the second clause : only one of them is ne
were prophets, and that the Lord would put his Spirit upon cessary. Griesbach leaves out the first.
them.” The Reader will easily observe, that Joshua and We forbade him} I do not see that we have any right to attri- John were of the same bigotted spirit; and that Jesus and bute any other motive to John than that which he himself owns Moses acted from the spirit of candour and benevolence. See --because he followed not us–because he did not attach himself the notes on Numb. xi. 25–29. constantly to thee, as we do, we thought he could not be in a Verse 41. A cup of water to drink] See the notes on Matt. proper spirit.
X. 42. xviii. 6-8. Verse 39. Forbid him n't] If you meet him again, let him Verse 43. The fire that never shall be quenched] That is, the go on quietly in the work, in which God owns him. If he inextinguishable fire. This clause is wanting in L. three others, were not of God, the dæmons would not be subject to him, the Syriac, and latter Persic. Some eminent critics suppose and his work could not prosper. A spirit of bigotry has little it to be a spurious reading ; but the authorities which are countenance from these passages. There are some who are for it, are by no means counterbalanced by those which are so outrageously wedded to their own creed, and religious against it. The samne clause, in ver. 45. is omitted in BCI.. system, that they would rather let sinners perish, than suffer seven others, Syriac, latter Persic, Coptic, and one Itala. Eterthose who differ from them to become the instruments of nal fire is the expression of Matthew. their salvation. Even the good that is done, they either deny Verse 44. Where their worm dieth not] The bitter reflection, or suspect, because the person does not follow them. This " I might have uvoided sin, but I did not ; I might have been also is vanity and an evil disease.
saved, but I would not,” must be equal to ten thousand torVerse 40. He that is not against us, is on our part.] Or mentors. What intolerable anguish must this produce in a rather, Whosoever is not aguinst you, is for you. Instead of damned soul ! news, us, I would read wywy, you, on the authority of ADS Their worm. It seems every one has his worm, his peculiar HV. upwards of forty others, Syriac, Armenian, Persic, remorse for the evils he did, and for the grace he rejected; Coptic, Æthiopic, Gothic, Slavonic, Vulgate, Itala, Victor, and while the fire, the state of excruciating torment, is common to Opt. This reading is more consistent with the context-He all. Reader ! may the living God save thee from this worni, followed not us-well, he is not against you; and he who is and from this fire ! Amen. not against you in such a work, may be fairly presumed to be The fire is not quenched.] The state of punishment is con
timual; there is no respite, alleriation, nor end ! There is a parallel case to this mentioned in Numb. xi. Verse 43-48. Thy hand-foot-eye-cuuse thee to offerd] 26-29, which, for the elucidation of this passage, I will See the notes on Matt. ¥. 29, 30.
on your side,
The awful nature of the
punishment of the damned.
A. D. 28.
two feet to be cast into hell, into the 48 Where their worm dieth not, and A. M. 4032. An. Olymp. fire that never shall be quenched : the fire is not quenched.
An. Olymp. 46 Where their worm dieth not, and 49 For everyone shall be salted the fire is not quenched.
with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted 47 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it with salt. out: it is better for thee to enter into the king- 50 · Salt is good : but if the salt have lost his dom of God with one eye, than having two eyes saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt to be cast into hell fire :
in yourselves, and have peace one with another.
*Or, cause thee to offend. Lev. 2. 13. Ezek. 43. 24. Matt. 5. 13.
Luke 14. 31.
d Eph. 4. 29. Col. 4. 6.
e Rom. 12. 18. & 14. 19. 2 Cor. 13. 11. Heb. 12. 14.
Verse 49. For every one shall be salted with fire) Every one water, Numb. xxxi. 23. Yc, disciples, are the Lord's sacriof those who shall live and die in sin: but there is great diffi- fice; ye shall go through much tribulation, in order to enter culty in this verse. The Codex Bezæ, and some other MSS. into my kingdom: but ye are salted, ye are influenced by have omitted the first clause; and several MSS. keep the first, the Spirit of God, and are immortal, till your work is done; and omit the last clause—and every sacrifice shall be salted with and should ye be offered up, martyred, this shall be a means salt. There appears to be an allusion to Isai. Ivi. 24. It is ge- of establishing more fully the glad-tidings of the kingdom : nerally supposed that our Lord means, that as salt preserves the and this spirit shall preserve all who believe on me from the flesh with which it is connected, from corruption ; so this ever- corruption of sin, and from eternal perdition. That converts lasting fire, to avę to 20650, this inconsumable fire, will have to God are represented as his offering, see Isai. Ivi. 20. the the property not only of assimilating all things cast into it, to very place which our Lord appears to have here in view. its own nature ; but of making them inconsumable like itself. If this passage be taken according to the common meaning,
Scaliger supposes, that instead of Tas-Tugs, TAOOFugice, every it is awful indeed! Here may be seen the greatness, multisacrifice (of flour,) should be read, “ Every sacrifice (of flour) plicity, and eternity, of the pains of the damned. They suffer shall be salted, and every burnt-offering shall be salted.” without being able to die; they are burned without being This, I fear, is taking the text by storm. Some take the consumed; they are sacrificed withont being sanctified; are whole in a good sense, as referring to the influence of the salled with the fire of hell, as eternal victims of the Divine Spirit of God in the hearts of believers, which shall answer Justice. We must of necessity be sacrificed to God, after one the same end to the soul in preserving it from the contagion way or other, in eternity; and we have now the choice either that is in the world, as salt did in the sacrifices offered to God to of the unquenchable fire of his justice, or of the everlasting preserve them from putrefaction. Old Trapp's note on the frame of his love. place pleases me as much as any I have seen : “ The spirit, Verse 50. If the salt have lost his saltness] See on Matt.v. 13. as salt, must dry up those bad humours in us, which breed Have salt in yourselves] See that ye have at all times the
the never-dying worm; and, as fire, must waste our cor- preserving principle of divine grace in your hearts, and give - ruptions, which else will carry us on to the unquenchable that proof of it which will satisfy your own minds, and con
fire.” Perhaps the whole is an allusion to the purification of vince or silence the world : live in brotherly kindness and vessels
, and especially such metallic vessels as were employed in peace with each other : thus shall all men see that you are free the service of the sanctuary. Probably the following may be from ambition, (see ver. 34.), and that you are my disciples considered as a parallel text : Every thing thut may abide the indeed. That it is possible for the salt to lose its savour, and fire, ye shall make go through the fire, and it shall be clean; yet retain its appearance, in the most perfect manner, see and all thut abideth not the fire, ye shall make go through the proved in the note on Matt. v. 13..
CHAPTER X. The Pharisees question our Lord concerning divorce, 1-12. Little children are brought to him, 13–16. The
who enquired how he might inherit eternal life, 17-22. How difficult it is for a rich man to be saved, 23— 27. What they shall receive who have left all for Christ and his gospel, 28–31. He foretells his death, 324-34. Jumes and John desire places of pre-eminence, 55–41. Christ shews them the necessity of humility, 42-45, Blind. Bartineus healed, 46-52.