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He teaches by parables.

CHAP. IV.

The parable of the sower.

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to sow:

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by the sea side: and there was and brought forth, some thirty, and An. mp.

gathered unto him a great multitude, some sixty, and some an hundred. so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the 9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea to hear, let him 'hear. on the land.

10 I And when he was alone, they that were 2 And he taught them many things by pa- about him with the twelve, asked of him the parables, and said unto them in his doctrine, rable. 3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is

given to know the mystery of the kingdom of 4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell God: but unto them that are without, all by the way side, and the fowls of the air came these things are done in parables : and devoured it up.

12 'That seeing they may see, and not per5 And some fell on stony ground, where it ceive; and hearing they may hear, and not unhad not much earth ; and immediately it sprang derstand; lest at any time they should be conup, because it had no depth of earth :

verted, and their sins should be forgiven them. 6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; 13 And he said unto them, Know ye not this and because it had no root, it withered away. parable? and how then will

ye 7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns rables ? grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 14 [ & The sower soweth the word. 8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield 15 And these are they by the way side, where

know all pa.

* Matt. 13. 1. Luke 8 1. bch. 12. 38.- Joln 15. 5. Col. 1. 6.

d Mall. 13. 10. Luke 8.9, &c.

c 1 Cor. 5. 12. Col. 4. 5. 1 Thess. 4. 12. 1 Tim. 3.7.- _f Isai. 6. 9. Matt. 13. 14. Luke 8. 10. John 12. 40. Acts 28. 26. Rom. 11. 8.-Matt. 13, 19.

NOTES ON CHAP. IV.

in the sense ; for without it, the passage may be read thụsVerse 2. He taught them many things by parables] See every To you the mystery of the kingdom of God is given ; but all. part of this parable of the sower explained on Matt. xiii. i these things are transacted in parables to those without. Gries1, &c.

bach leaves it doubtful. And Professor White says, probabiliter Verse 4. The fowls] Fou ougarou, of the air, is the common delendum. I should be inclined to omit it, were it not found in readmg; but it should be omitted, on the authority of nine the parallel passages in Matthew and Luke, in neither of whom. uncial MSS. upwarels of one hundred others, and almost all it is omitted by any MS. or Version. See the Dissertation on the Versions. Bengel and Griesbach have left it out of the text. parabolical writing at the end of Matt chap. xiii. It seems to have been inserted in Mark, from Luke viii 5. Verse 13. Know ye not this parable ?] The scope and de-

Verse 9. And he said He that hath ears to henr, let him | sign of which is so very obvious. hear.] The Codex Bezæ, later Syriac in the margin, and seven How then will ye know all parables ?] Of which mode of copies of the Italo, add, xx ó cuViw ouviftw, and whoso under- ! teaching ye should be perfect masters, in order that ye may standcth, lot hin understanil.

be able successfully to teach others. This verse is not found Verse 10. They that were about him] None of the other in any of the other Evangelists. Evangelists intimate that there were any besides the twelve Verse 15. These are they] Probably our Lord here refers with him: but it appears there were several others present; to the people to whom he had just now preached, and who, it and though they were not stiled Disciples, yet they appear is likely, did not profit by the word spoken. to have seriously attended to his public and private instruc

Where the word is sown] Instead of this clause, four copies tions.

of the Itala read the place thius--- They who are sown by the Verse 11. Unto you it is given to know] Tywvas, to know, is way side, are they who receive the word NEGLIGENTLY. omitted by ABKL. ten others, the Coptic, and one of the There are thousands of this stamp in the Christian world. L'ala. The cmission of this word makes a material alteration Reader, art thou one of them?

Parable of the souer explained.

St. MARK.

Parable of the springing seed.

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. An. Olymp. heard, Satan cometh immediately, and a candle brought to be put under a An. Op.

CCT 3. taketh away the word that was sown in bushel, or under a bed? and not to their hearts.

be set on a candlestick? 16 And these are they likewise which are sown 22 " For there is nothing hid, which shall not on stony ground; who, when they have heard be manifested ; neither was any thing kept se. the word, immediately receive it with gladness; cret, but that it should come abroad.

17 And have no root in themselves, and so 23 ° If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction 24 And he saith unto them, Take heed what or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, im- ye hear: 'with what measure ye mete, it shall be mediately they are offended.

measured to you: and unto you that hear shall 18 And these are they which are sown among more be given. thorns; such as hear the word,

25 : For he that hath, to him shall be given : 19 And the cares of this world, and the de- and he that hath not, from him shall be taken ceitfulness of richies, and the lusts of other things even that which he hath. entering in, choke the word, and it becometh 26 And he said, "So is the kingdom of unfruitful.

God, as if a man should cast seed into the 20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, 27 And should sleep, and rise night and day, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty,'' and the seed should spring and grow up, he and some an hundred.

knoweth not how.

a 1 Tim. 6. 9, 17.- Matt. 5. 15. Luke 8. 16. & 11. 33.- - The word in the original signifieth a less measure, as Matt. 5. 13.

d Matt. 10 96. Luke 12. 9. Matt. 11. 15 ver. 9.- * Matt. 7, 2. Luke 6. 38. -- Matt. 13. 12. & 25. 29. Luke 8. 18. & 19. 2. - Naut. 1S. 94.

Verse 19. The deccitfulness of riches] This is variously ex- Matthew. Whitby supposes it to refer to the good ground pressed in different copies of the Itala : the errors-delights of spoken of before, and paraphrases it thus: “What I have the world--completely alienated (abalienati) by the pleasures said of the seed sown upon good ground, may be illustrated of the world. The lusts of other things—which have not been by this parable. The doctrine of the kingdom received in a included in the anxious cares of the world--and the deceitful- good and honest heart, is like seed sown by a man in his iness of riches. All, all, choke the word !

ground, properly prepared to receive it; for when he hath Verse 21. Is a candle--put under a bushel ?] The design of sown it, he sleeps and wakes day after day, and looking on it, my preaching is to enlighten men; my parables not being he sees it spring and grow up, through the virtue of the designed to hide the truth, but to make it more manifest. earth in which it is sown, though he knows not how it doth

Verse 22. For therė is nothing hid, &c.] Probably our Lord so; and when he finds it ripe, he reaps it, and so receives the means, that all that had hitherto been secret, relative to the benefit of the sown seed. So is it here : the seed sown in the salvation of a lost world, or only obscurely pointed out by good and honest heart brings forth fruit with patience; and types and sacrifices, shall now be uncovered and made plain this fruit daily increaseth, though we know not how the Word by the everlasting Gospel. See on Matt. v. 15. x. 26. and Spirit work that increase; and then Christ the husband

Verse 24. And unto you that hear shall more be giren.] man at the time of the harvest, gathers in this good seed into This clause is wanting in DG. Coptic, and four copies of the the kingdom of heaven." I see no necessity of enquiring how Itala ; and in others where it is extant, it is variously written. Christ may be said to sleep, and rise night and day; Christ Griesbach has left it ont of the text, and supposes it to be a being like to this husbandman only in sowing and reaping the gloss on, I'hosoerer hath, to him shall be giren.

seed. Verse 25. He that hath] See on Matt. xiii. 12.

Verse 27. And should sleep, and rise night and day. That Verse 26. So is the kingdom of God] This parable is men- is, he should sleep by night, and rise by day; for so the words tioned only by Mark, a proof that Mark did not abridge are obviously to be understood.

The parable of the

CHAP. IV.

grain of mustard seed.

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28 For the earth bringeth forth fruit 30 9 And he said, “Whereunto shall An. Olymp. of herself; first the blade, then the we liken the kingdom of God? or with An. Olymp.

ear,

after that the full corn in the ear. what comparison shall we compare it? 29 But when the fruit is brought forth, im- 31 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, mediately " he putteth in the sickle, because the when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the harvest is come.

seeds that be in the earth :

* Or, ripe.- Rev. 14. 15.

• Matt. 13. 31. Luke 13. 18. Acts 2. 41. & 4. 4. & 5. 14. & 19. 20.

He knoweth not how.) How a plant grows is a mystery in person dies, and is taken into glory as soon as he is fit for il." Nature, which the wisest philosopher in the universe cannot No, for there may be millions of cases, where, though to die fully explain.

would be gain, yet to live may be far better for the church; Verse 28. Bringeth forth-of herself] Aurouarn. By its and for an increase of the life of Christ to the soul. See Phil. own energy, without either the influence or industry of man. | i. 21, 24. Besides, if we attempt to make the parable speak Similar to this is the expression of the poet :

here, what seems to be implied in the letter : then we may say, Namque aliæ, NULEIS HOMINUM COGEntibus ipsæ with equal propriety, that Christ sleeps and wakes alternately; SPONTE SUA veniunt.

Virg. Geor. I. ii. v. 10. and that his own grace grows, he knows not how, in the heart “ Some (trees) grow of their own accord, without the labour in which he has planted it. Ver. 27. of man." All the endlessly varied herbage of the field is pro

On these two parables we may remark; duced in this way.

1. That a preacher is a person employed by God, and sent The full corn] Tangri oitov, FULL wheat; the perfect, full grown, out to sow the good seed of his kingdom in the souls of men. of ripe carn. Lucian uses xeros Xaçmtos, EMPTY fruit ; for imper- 2. That it is a sin against God to stay in the field, and not soru. fect, or unripe fruit. See Kypke.

3. That it is a sin to pretend to sow, when a man is not furThe kingdom of God, which is generated in the soul by the nished by the keeper of the granary with any more seed. 25.; word of life, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, is first very 4. That it is a high offence against God to change the master's: smalt, there is only a blade, but this is full of promise, for a good seed, to mix it, or to sow bud seed in the place of it. blude shews there is a good seed at bottom; and that the soil in 5. That he is not a seeds-man of God who desires to sow by which it is sown is good also. Then the ear, the strong stalk grows the way side, &c. and not on the proper ground; i. e. he who, up, and the ear is formed at the top; the faith and love of the be- loves to preach only to genteel congregations, to people of sense lieving soul encrease abundantly, it is justified freely through and fashion, and feels it a pain and a cross to labour among the the redemption that is in Christ; it has the cur whiek is shortly poor and the ignorunt. to be filled with the ripe grain, the outlines of the whole image 6. That lie who sows with a simple, upright heart, the seed of God. Then the full corn. The soul is purified from all un- of bis Master, shall (though some may be unfruitful) see the righteousness, and baving escaped the corruption that is in the seed take deep root, and notwithstanding the unfuithfulness and workt, it is made a partaker of the divine nature, and is filled sloth of many of his bearers, he shall doubtless come with rewith all the fulness of God.

joicing, bringing his sheares with him. See Quesuel. Verse 29. He putteth in the sickle) Atarias, he sendeth out the Verse 30. Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God?] sickle, i. e. the reapers, the instrument, by a metonomy, being put | How amiable is this carefulness of Jesus! How instructive to for the persons who use it. This is a common figure. It has been the preachers of his word ? He is not solicitous to seek fine supposed that our Lord intimates here, that as soon as a soul is turns of eloquence to charm the minds of his auditors, nor to made completely holy, it is taken into the kingilom of God. But draw such descriptions and comparisons as may surprise them: certainly the parable does not say so. When the corn is ripe, but studies only to make himself understood; to instruct to adit is reaped for the benefit of him who sowed it: for it can be vantage; to give true ideas of faith and holiness, and to find of little or no use till it be ripe : so when a soul is saved from out such expressions as may render necessary truths easy and wh sin, it is capable of being fully employed in the work of intelligible to the meanest capacities. The very wisdors of the Lord : it is then, and not till then, fully fitted for the God seems to be at a loss to find out expressions low enough master's use. God saves men to the uttermost, that they may for the slow apprehensions of men. How dull and. stupid is kere perfectly love him, and worthily magnify his name. To the creature ! How wise and good the Creator ! And how fooltake them away the moment they are capable of doing this, ish the preacher who uses fine and hard words in his preaching, would be, so far, to deprive the world and the church of the whiel, though admived by the shallow, convey no instruction tuanifestation of the glory of his grace. “ But the text says, || to the multitude. immediately he sendeth out the sickle, and this means that the Verse 31. A grain of mustard seed] See on Matt. xiii. 31, 33.

Our Lord and his disciples

ST. MARK.

overtaken by a storm.

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32 But when it is sown, it groweth || ship. And there were also with him 4.1.1031

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herbs, and shooteth out great branches; 37 And there arose a great storm so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so shadow of it.

that it was now full. 33 · And with many such parables spake he 38 And he was in the hinder part of the ship, the word unto them, as they were able to hear asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say it.

unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish? 34 But without a parable spake he not unto 39 And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and them: and when they were alone, he expounded said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the all things to his disciples.

wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 35 [ And the same day, when the even was 40 And he said unto them, Why are ye so come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over | fearful? how is it that ye have no faith? unto the other side.

41 And they feared exceedingly, and said one 36 And when they had sent away the multi-to another, What manner of man is this, that tude, they took him even as he was in the even the wind and the sea obey him ?

a Matt. 13. 31. John 16. 12.

• Matt. 8. 18, 23. Lule 8. 22.

Verse 33. With many such parables) Tornais, many, is omitted been teaching the people; and they did not wait to provide by L. sixteen others; the Syriac, both the Persic, one Arabic, || any accommodations for the passage. This I believe to be the Coptie, Armenian, Æthiopic, and two of the Itala. Mill ap- meaning of the inspired penman. proves of the omission, and Griesbach leaves it doubtful. 'Tis

Verse 37. A great storm of wind] See on Matt. viii. 24. probably an interpolation: the text reads better without it.

Verse 38. On a pillow] Ilgosxeparator probably means a As they were able to hear] Axover, or to understand, always | little bed, or hanımock, such as are common in small ressels. I suiting his teaching to the capacities of bis hearers. I have have seen several in small packets, or passage boats, not a great always found that preacher most useful, who could adapt bis deal larger than a bolster. plırase to that of the people to whom he preached. Studying Verse 39. Peace, be still.] Be silent ! Be still ! There is undifferent dialects, and forms of speech among the common peo- common majesty and authority in these words. Who but God ple, is a more difficult, and a more useful work than the study could act thus ? Perhaps this salvation of his disciples in the of dead lunguages. The one a man should do, and the other boat might be designed to shew forth that protection and delihe need not leave undone.

verance which Christ will give to his followers, however vio. Verse 34. He erpounded all things to his disciples.] That lently they may be persecuted by earth or hell. At least this they might be capable of instructing others. Outside hearers, is a legitimate use which may be made of this transaction. those who do not come into close fellowship with the true dis Verse 40. Why are ye so fearful ?] Having me with you. ciples of Christ, have seldom more than a superficial know How is it that ye have no faith?] Having already had such ledge of divine things.

proofs of my unlimited power and goodness. · In the fellowship of the saints, where Jesus the teacher is Verse 41. What manner of man is this] They were astonished always to be found, every thing is made plain,--for the secret at such power proceeding from a person who appeared to be of the Lord is with them who fear him.

only like one of themselves. It is often profitable to entertain Verse 35. Let us pruss over unto the oiher side.] Our Lord each other with the succour and support which we receive was now by the Sea of Galilee.

from God in times of temptation and distress; and to adore, Verse 35. Tyey took kim even as he was in the ship.] That with respectful awe, that sovereign power and goodness by is, the disciples; he was now in TW 7200w, in the bout, i. e. his which we have been delivered. own boat which usually waited on him, and out of which it appears he was then teaching the people. There were several Having spoken so largely of the spiritual and practical uses others there which he might have gone in, had this one not been to be made of these transactions, where the parallel places ocin the place. The construction of this verse is exceedingly cur in the preceding Evangelist, I do not think it necessary to difficult, the meaning appears to be this : The disciples sailed repeat those things here, and must refer the Reader to the off with him just as he was in the boat out of which he had || places marked in the margin,

A man possessed with a

CHAP. V.

legion of dæmons, cured.

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CHAPTER V. The man possessed with a legion of demons cured, 1–20. He raises Jairus's daughter to life, and cures the woman

who had an issue of blood, 21--43.

5 And always, and day, he was An. Olymp.

other side of the sea, into the in the mountains, and in the tombs, An. Olynp. country of the Gadarenes.

crying, and cutting himself with stones. 2 And when he was come out of the ship, 6 But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and immediately there met him out of the tombs a worshipped him, man with an unclean spirit,

7 And cried with a loud voice, and said, 3 Who had his dwelling among the tombs ; || What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son and no man could bind him, no, not with of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, chains :

that thou torment me not. 4 Because that he had been often bound 8 For he said unto him, Come out of the man, with fetters and chains, and the chains had thou unclean spirit. been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters 9 And he asked him, What is thy name? And broken in pieces : neither could any man tamehe answered, saying, “My name is Legion: for him.

we are many.

* Matt. 8. 28. Luke 8. 26.

Acts 16. 17. Matt. 8. 29.

- Luke 8. 30.

.

NOTES ON CHAP. V.

reason! And do you think that any man who conscientiously Verse 1. The Gadarenes.] Some of the MSS. have Gerga- | believes his Bible will give any credit to you? Men sent from senes, and some of them Gerasenes. Griesbach seems to prefer God to bear witness to the truth, tell us there were dæmonincs the latter. See the note on Matt. viii. 28.

in their lime; you say "no, they were only diseases.” Whom The Gadarenes were included within the limits of the Ger- shall we credit? The men sent from God, or you? gasenes. Dr. Lightfoot supposes that of the two dæmoniacs Verse 5. Crying, and cutting himself with stones.] In this mentioned here, one was of Gadara, and consequently a hea- person's case we see a specimen of what Satan could do in all then, the other was a Gergesenian, and consequently a Jew; the wicked, if God should permit him : but even the Devil himand he thinks that Mark and Luke mention the Gadarene de- self has his chain; and he who often binds others, is always moniac, because his case was a singular one, being the only bound himself. heathen cured by our Lord, except the daughter of the Syro- Verse 6. Worshipped him] Dil him homage ; compelled pbænician woman.

thereto by the power of God. How humiliating to Satan, thus Verse 2. A man with an unclean spirit] There are two men- to be obliged to acknowledge the superiority of Christ! tioned by Matthew, who are lermed dæmoniucs. See on chap. Verse 7. What have I to do with thee] Or, IVhat is it to thee i. 23.

and me, or why dost thou trouble thyself with me ? See on chap. i. Verse 3. Who had his dwelling among the tombs] See Matt. 24. and Matt. viii. 29. where the idion and meaning are exviii. 28.

plained. Verse 4. With fetters and chains] His strength, it appears, Jesus] This is omitted by four MSS. and by several in Luke was supernatural, no kind of chains being strong enough to viii

. 28. and by many of the first authority in Matt. viii. 29. confine him. With several, this man would have passed for See the note on this latter place. an outrageous madıran ; and diabolic influencé be entirely left Verse 9. Legion: for we are many. ] Could a disense have out of the question; but it is the prerogative of the inspired spoken so ? " No, there was no Devil in the case; the man penman only, to enter into the nature and causes of things, and spoke according to the prejudice of his countrymen.” And do how strange is it, that because men cannot see as far as the you think that the spirit of God could employ himself in respirit of God does, therefore they deny his testimony. “Theretailing such ridiculous and nonsensical prejudices? “ But the was no Devil, there can be none :” why? " Because we have Evangelist gives these as this mudman's words, and it was neces. never seen one, and we think the doctrine absurd.” Excellent | sary, that as a faithful historian, he should mention these cir.

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