« הקודםהמשך »
A. D. 9. An. Olymp.
Judas repents of liis treason, and Sr. MATTHEW. brings back the money and hangs himself.
WHEN the morning was come, when he saw that he was condemned, 4, , 453
* all the chief priests and elders repented himself, and brought again Ar. Olymp
of the people took counsel against the thirty pieces of silver to the chief Jesus to put him to death :
priests and elders, 2 And when they had bound him, they led 4 Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayhim away, and "delivered him to Pontius Pilate ed the innocent blood. And they said, What the governor.
is that to us? see thou to that. 39 «Then Judas, which had betrayed him, 5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in
a Ps. 2. 2. Mark 15. 1. Luke 92. CO. & 23. 1. John 18. 28.
Ch. 20. 19. Acts 3. 13.--ch, 26. 14, 15.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXVII.
with remorse, came and acknowledged his crime, and soVerze 1. When the morning was come] As soon as it was lemnly declared the imocence of his Master, threw back the light--took counsel against Jesus. They had begun this coun- money which they gave him to induce him to do this villainous el the preceding evening, see chap. xxvi. 59. But as it was act;—and to establish the evidence wliich he now gave against contrary to all forms of law to proceed against a person's life them and himself, in behalf of the innocence of Christ, hanged by night, they seem to have separated for a few hours, and himself, or died through excessive grief and contrition. Thus then, at the break of day, came together again, pretending the character of Christ was rescued from all reproach ; infito conduct the business according to the forms of law. delity deprived of the power to cry“ imposture!" and the
To put him to death] They had already determined his Jewish rulers overwhelmed with eternal infamy. If it should death, and pronounced the sentence of death on him. Chap. | ever be said, “ One who knew him best delivered him up as xxvi. 66. And now they'asseinble under the pretence of re- an impostor"—to this it may be immediately answered, “ 'The considering the evidence, and deliberating on it, to give the same person, struck with remorse, came and declared his own greater appearance of justice to their conduct. They wished guilt, and Christ's ionocence; accused and convicted the Jewish to make it appear, that “ they had taken ample time to con- rulers, in the open council, of having hired hiin to do this sider of it, and from the fullest conviction, by the most satis- iniquitous action, threw them back the bribe they had given factory and conclusive evidence, they had now delivered him him, and then hanged himself through distress and despair; into the hands of the Romans, to meet that death to which concluding his iniquity in this business, was too great to be they had adjudged him."
forgiven. Let him who chuses, after this plenary evidence to Verse 2. They--delivered him to Pontius Pilate] The San- the innocence of Christ, to continue the objection, and cry hedrin had the power of life and death in their own hands in out imposture! take heed that he go not and do LIKEWISE. every thing that concerned religion ; but as they had not evi- Caiaphas, Pilate, and Judas have done so already, and I have dence to put Christ to death, because of fulse doctrine, they known several who have called Christ an impostor, who have wished to give countenance to their conduct by bringing in cut their own throats, shot, drowned, or hanged themselres. the civil power, and therefore they delivered him up to Pilate | God is a jealous God, and highly resents every thing that is as one who aspired to regal dignities, and whom he must put done and said against that eternal truth that came to man to death, if he professed to be Cæsar's friend. Pontius Pilate through Jesus Christ, by the Holy Spirit. Indeed there is governed Judea ten years under the emperor Tiberius, but one class of Deists, viz. those who are vicious in their lives, having exercised great cruelties against the Samaritans, they and virulent in their opposition to Christianity, who generally complained of him to the emperor, in consequence of which bring themselves to an untimely end. he was deposed, and sent in exile to Vienna, in Dauphiny, Verse 4. Innocent blood.) Adjace obwo, a hebraism for an inwhere he killed himself two years after.
But instead of a wov, innocent, two ancient MSS. Verse 3. Judas—when he sur that he was condemned, re- Syriac, Vulgate, Sahidic, Armenian, and all the Itala; Origen, pented] There is much of the wisdom and goodness of God Cyprian, Lucifer, Ambrose, Leo, read ovxc10v, righteous, or just. to be seen in this part of Judas's conduct. Had our Lord been What is that to us?] What is it?-A great deal. You should condemned to death on the evidence of one of his own disci- ! immediately go and reverse the sentence you have proples, it would have furnished infidels with a strong argument nounced, and liberate the innocent person. But this would against Christ, and the Christian religion. “ One of his own have been justice, and that would have been a stranger at their disciples knowing the whole imposture, declared it to the tribunal. Jewish rulers, in consequence of which he was put to death Verse 5. In the temple] Næos signifies, properly, the temple as an impostor and deceiver.” But the traitor being stung itself, iuto which none but thje priests were permitted to enter;
A. D. 29.
A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII: 1.
The potter's field is bought,
a burial-place for strangers. A. M. 4085. the temple, "and departed, and went 8 Wherefore that field was called A. M, 1033. An. Olymp. and hanged himself.
• The field of blood unto this day. 6 And the chief priests took the 9 Then was fulfilled that which was silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to spoken by Jeremny the prophet, saying, 'And put them into the treasury, because it is the they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price price of blood.
of him that was valued, whom they of the 7 And they took they took counsel, and
counsel, and bought children of Israel did value; with them the potter's field to bury strangers
10 And gave them for the potter's field, as the in.
Lord appointed me.
* 9 Sam. 17. 93. Acts 1. 18.
6 Acts 1. 19.- Zech. 11. 19, 13.
d Or, whom they bought of the children of Isracl.
therefore so ta vow must signify, near the temple, by the temple innocent, and a conformity to the world, give them no door, where the boxes stood to receive the free-will offerings manner of trouble or disturbance." See Quesnel. of the people, for the support and repairs of the sacred edi
Verse 7. To bury strangers in.] Tous šsvors, the strangers, fice. See this amply proved by Kypke.
probably meaning, as some learned men conjecture, the Hanged himself ] Or was strangled-crnyčxto. Some emi- Jewish strangers who might have come to Jerusalem, either to nent critics believe that he was only suffocated by excessive worship, or on some other business, and died there during grief, and thus they think the account here given, will agree their stay. See here, the very money for which the blessed with that in Acts i. 18. Mr. Hukefield supports this meaning Jesus was sold, becomes subservient to the purpose of
mercy of the word with great learning and ingenuity. I have my and kindness! The bodies of strangers have a place of rest in doubts-the old method of reconciling the two accounts ap- the field, purchased by the price at which his life was valued, pears to me quite plausible, he went and strangled himself, and and the souls of strangers and foreigners have a place of rest the rope breaking, he fell down, and by the violence of the land refuge in his blood which was shed as a ransom price fall his body was bursted, and his bowels gushed out. I have for the salvation of the whole world. thought proper, on a matter of such difficulty, to use the Verse 8. The field of blood] In vain do the wicked attempt word strangled, as possessing a middle meaning between to conceal themselves; God makes them instrumental in dischoking, or suffocation by excessive grief, and hanging, as an covering their own wickedness. Judas by returning the act of suicide. See the note on chap. x. ver. 4. Dr. Lightfoot: money, and the priests by laying it out, raise to themselves is of opinion, that the Devil caught him up into the air, stran- an eternal monument, the one of his treachery, the others of gled bim, and threw him down on the ground with violence, their perfidiousness, and both of the innocence of Jesus so that his body was burst, and his guts shed out! This was an Christ. As long as the Jewish polity continued, it might be ancient tradition.
said, this is the field that was bought from the potter with the Verse 6. Tlie treasury] KogBoosthe place whither the money which Judas got from the high priests for betraying people brought their free-will offerings for the service of the his Master; which he, in deep compunction of spirit, brouglit temple, so called from the Hebrew 129p korban, AN OFFERING, back to them, and they bought this ground for a burial place from karab, he drew nigh, because the person who brought for strangers : for as it was the price of the blood of an innothe gift came nigh to that place where God manifested his cent man, they did nol think proper to let it rest in the trea. glory between the cherubim, over the mercy-seat in the most sury of the temple where the traitor had thrown it, who afa holy place. It is from this idea that the phrase to draw nighterwards, in despair, went and hanged himself.” What a to God, is taken, which is so frequently used in the Sacred standing proof must this have been of the innocence of Christ,
and of their perfidy! Because it is the price of blood.] “ What hypocrites! As Verse 9. Jeremy the prophet] The words quoted here are one justly exclaims, to adjudge an innocent man to death, not found in the prophet Jeremiuh, but in Zech. xi. 13. But St. and break the eternal laws of justice and mercy without | Jerom says, that a Hebrew of the sect of the Nazarenes shewed scruple, and to be, at the same time, so very nice in their at- bim this prophecy in a Hebrew apocryphal copy of Jeremiah; tention to a ceremoniul direction of the law of Moses ! Thus but probably they were inserted there, only to countenance it is that the Devil often deludes many, even among the the quotation here. priests, by a false and superstitious tenderness of conscience One of Colbert’s, a MS. of the eleventh century, has ja things indifferent, while calumny, envy, oppression of the Zomagiov Zechariah, so has the later Syriac in the margin, and
Christ is examined. Pilate's
wife is warned in a dream.
A. D. 29.
11 ( And Jesus stood before the go-to release unto the people a prisoner, A.M, 105. An. Olymp. vernor : "and the governor asked him, whom they would.
An. Olymp. saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? 16 And they had then a notable priAnd Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest. soner, called Barabbas.
12 And when he was accused of the chief 17 Therefore when they were gathered togepriests and elders, ‘he answered nothing. ther, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that
13 Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest | I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is thou not how many things they witness against called Christ? thee?
18 For he knew that for envy they had deli14 And he answered him to never a word; | vered him. insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly. (19 | When he was set down on the judgment 15 Now at that feast the governor was wont seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou
Ch. 26. 62. John 19. 10. Mark 15. 6. Luke 23. 17. John 18. 39.
* Mark 15. 2. Luke 23. 3. Jolin 18. 33.—John 18. 37. 1 Tim. 6. 13.
cch. 26. 63. John 19. 9.
a copy of the Arabic quoted by Bengel. In a very elegant and mire this because it confounded them; but Pilate, who had correct MS. of the Vulgate, in my possession, written in the no interest to serve by it, was deeply affected. This very sifourteenth century, Zachariam is in the margin, and Jeremiam lence was predicted, Isai. liii. 7. in the text, but the former is written by a later hand. Jeremiah Verse 15. The governor wus wont to release] Whence this is wanting in two MSS. the Syriac, later Persic, two of the custom originated among the Jews is not known,-probably it lala, and in some other Latin copies. It is very likely that was introduced by the Romans themselves, or by Pilate, the original reading was dose TOU FICOGNtou, and the name of no merely to oblige the Jews, by shewing them this public token prophet mentioned. This is the more likely, as Matthew often of respect; but if it originated with him, he must have had omits the name of the prophet in his quotations. See chap. i. || the authority of Augustus; for the Roman laws never gave 22. ii. 5, 15. xiii. 35. xxi. 4. Bengel approves of the omission. | such discretionary power to any governor.
It was an ancient custom among the Jews, says Dr. Light Verse 16. A notable prisoner-Barabbas.] This person had, foot, to divide the Old Testament into three parts, the first a short time before, raised an insurrection in Jerusalem, in beginning with the Law was called the law: the second be- || which it appears, from Mark xv. 7. some lives were lost. In ginning with the Psalms was called the PSALMS: the third be some MSS. and in the Armenian and Syriac Hieros. this man ginning with the prophet in question was called JEREMIAH : has the surname of Jesus. Professor Birch has discovered this thus then the writings of Zechariah, and the other prophets reading in a Vatican MS. written in 949, and numbered 354, being included in that division that began with Jeremiah, all in which is a marginal note which has been attributed to quotations from it would go under the name of this prophet. | Anastasius, Bp. of Antioch, and to Chrysostom, which asserts If this be admitted, it solves the difficulty at once. Dr. Light- that in the most ancient MSS. the passage was as follows: Tova foot quotes Baba Bathra, and Rabbi David Kimchi's preface | θελετε απο των δυω απολυσω υμιν, IN τον βαραββα», η IN τον to the prophet Jeremiah, as his authorities; and insists that alegou evoy XN; Which of the two do ye wish me to release unlo the word Jeremiah is perfectly correct as standing at the head || you, Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ? As Jesus, of that division from which the Evangelist quoted, and which or Joshua was a very common name among the Jews, and as gave its denomination to all the rest.
the name of the father was often joined to that of the son, as Verse 11. Before the governor) My old MS. English Bible | Simon Barjonah, Simon, son of Jonah ; so it is probable it translates ny runs, goeyr, cheet fustyle, Precedent.
was the case here, Jesus Barabba, Jesus, son of Abba, or Art thou the King of the Jews ?] The Jews had undoubtedly | Abbiah. If this name were originally written as above, which delivered him to Pilate as one who was rising up against || I am inclined to believe, the general omission of JESUS in the imperial authority, and assuming the regal office. See the MSS. may be accounted for, from the over zealous scruon ver. 2.
pulosity of Christian copyists, who were unwilling that a Verse 12. He answered nothing.) An answer to such accusa murderer should, in the same verse, be honoured with the tions was not necessary, they sufficiently confuted them name of the Redeemer of the world. See Birch in New Test. selves.
Verse 18. For envy) Aia plovov, through malice. Then it Verse 14. Marvelled greatly.] Silence under calunny mani was his business, as an upright judge, to have dispersed this fests the utmost magnanimity. The chief priests did not ad- | mob, and immediately released Jesus.
Barabbas, a murderer, is
preferred to Christ, and released. nothing to do with that just man: for || 23 And the governor said, Why, A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. I have suffered many things this day what evil hath he done? But they An. Olymp. in a dream because of him.)
cried out the more, saying, Let him 20 | “But the chief priests and elders per- be crucified. suaded the multitude that they should ask Ba- 24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail norabbas, and destroy Jesus.
thing, but that rather a tumult was made, he 21 The governor answered and said unto them, ||” took water, and washed his hands before the Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood you? They said, Barabbas.
of this just person : see ye to it. 22 Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do 25 Then answered all the people, and said, then with Jesus which is called Christ? They His blood be on us, and on our children. all say unto him, Let him be crucified.
26 Then released he Barabbas unto them: and
• Mark 15. 11. Luke 23. 18. John 18. 40, Acts 3. 14.
b Deut. 21. 6.- Deut. 19. 10. Josh. 2. 19.
Acts 5. 28.
1 Kings 2. 32. 2 Sam. 1. 16.
Seeing malice is capable of putting even Christ himself to hath he done? He had done none, and they knew he had done death, how careful should we be, not to let the least spark of none; but they are determined on his death. it harbour in our breast. Let it be remembered that malice Verse 24. Pilate-took water, and washed his hands] as often originates from envy as it does from anger.
Thus signifying his innocence. It was a custom among the Verse 19. I have suffered many things in a dream] There | Hebrews, Greeks, and Latins, to wash the hands in token of is no doubt but God had appeared unto this woman, testifying | innocence, and to shew that they were pure from any imthe innocence of Christ, and shewing the evils which should || puted guilt. In case of an undiscovered murder, the elders of pursue Pilate, if this innocent blood should be shed by his that city which was nearest to the place where the dead body authority. See on ver. 2.
was found, were required by the Law, Deut. xxi, 1–10. to Verse 20. Ask Barabbas] Who had raised an insurrection, || wash their hands over the victim which was offered to expiate : and committed murder—and to destroy Jesus, whose voice was the crime, and make thus public protestation of their own never heard in their streets, and who had, during the space of | innocence. David says, I will wash my hands in innocence, so three years and a half, gone about unweariedly from village shall I compass thine altar, Psal. xxvi. 6. As Pilate knew to village, instructing the ignorant, healing the diseased, and Christ was innocent, he should have prevented his death : he raising the dead.
had the armed force at his command, and should have disVerse 21. They said, Barabbas.] What a fickle crowd! A persed this infamous mob. Had he been charged with counlittle before they all hailed him as the Son of David, and ac- ||tenancing a seditious person, he could have easily cleared knowledged him as a gift from God; now they prefer a mur- himself, had the matter been brought before the emperor. derer to him! But this it appears they did at the instigation | He therefore was inexcusable. of the chief priests. We see here how dangerous wicked Verse 25. His blood be on us and on our children.] If this priests are in the church of Christ; when pastors are corrupt, man be innocent, and we put him to death as a guilty person, they are capable of inducing their flock to prefer Barabbas to may the punishment due to such a crime be visited upon us, Jesus, the world to God, and the pleasures of sense to the sal- || and upon our children after us! What a dreadful imprecatation of their souls. The invidious epithet which a certain tion! and how literally fulfilled! The notes on chap. xxiv. statesman gave to the people at large, was, in its utmost lati- || will shew how they fell victims to their own imprecation, tude, applicable to these Jews,—they were a swinisH MUL- || being visited with a series of calamities unexampled in the
history of the world. They were visited with the same kind Verse 22. What shall I do then with Jesus ? ] Shewing of punishment; for the Romans crucified them in such numhereby, that it was his wish to release bim.
bers when Jerusalem was taken, that there was found a de-, Verse 23. What evil hath he done ?] Pilate plainly saw that ficiency of crosses for the condemned, and of places for the there was nothing laid to his charge, for which, consistently crosses.
Their children or descendants have had the same with the Roman laws, he could condemn him.
upon them, and continue to this day' a proof of But they cried out the more] What strange fury and in the innocence of Christ, the truth of his religion, and of the justice! They could not answer Pilate's question, What evil || justice of God.
A. D. 29.
Jesus is scourged, mocked,
and variously insulted. A.M. 4433. when a he had scourged Jesus, he 28 And they stripped him, and “put An. Olymp. delivered him to be crucified.
on him a scarlet robe. 27 ( Then the soldiers of the go- 29. And when they had platted a vernor took Jesus into the common hall, and crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and gathered unto him the whole band of soidiers. a reed in his right hand : and they bowed the
A. D. 2. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
Verse 26. Scourged Jesus] This is allowed to have been a and Bishop Pearce and Michaelis are of this opinion. Mark, very severe punishment of itself among the Romans, the flesh chap. xv. 17. and John, chap. xix. 5. term it sovor an ayduvor, being generally cut by the whips used for this purpose ; so the which may very well be translated an acanthine crown, or poet--
wreath formed out of the branches of the herb acanthus, or Horribili sEcTere Nagello.
bear's-foot. This, however, is a prickly plant, though no“ To be cut by the horrible whip.”—Hor. Sat. I. 3. 119. thing like thorns, in the common meaning of that word. And sometimes, it seems, they were whipped to death. See Many Christians have gone astray in magnifying the sufferings the same poet, Sat. I. 2. 41.
of Christ from this circumstance ; and painters, the worst of Ille FLAGELLIS
all commentators, frequently represent Christ with a crown AD MORTEM Cesus.
of long thorns, which one standing by is striking into his See also Horat. Epod. od. iv. v. 1).
head with a stick. These representations engender ideas both It has been thought that Pilate might have spared this false and absurd. additional cruelty of whipping; but it appears that it was a There is a passage produced from Philo by Dr. Lardner, common custom to scourge those criminals which were to be | which casts much light on these indignities offered to our crucified; (see Josephus De Bello, lib. ii. c. 25.) and lenity blessed Lori. in Christ's case is not to be allowed: he must take all the Caligula, the successor of Tiberius, gave Agrippa the misery in full tale.
tetrarchy of his uncle Phillip, with the right of wearing a Delivered bim to be crucified.] Tacitus, the Roman historian, diadem or crown. When he came to Alexandria, on his way mentions the death of Christ in very remarkable terms: to his tetrarchate, the inhabitants of that place, filled with
Nero-- quæsitissimis panis affocit, quos--- rulgus CHRISTY- envy at the thoughts of a few having the title of king, shewed anos appellabat. Auctor nominis ejus Christus, qui Tiberio their indignation in the following way. They brought one imperitante, per Procuratorem Pontium Pilatum supplicio affec- Carabas (a sort of an ideot) into the theatre; and having tus erat. -“ Nero put those who commonly went by the placed him on a lofty seat, that he might be seen by all, they name of Christians to the most exquisite tortures. The author put a diadem upon his head, made of the herb Byblos, (the of this name was Christ, who was eapitally punished in the ancient papyrus, or paper fag;) his body they covered with reign of Tiberius, by Pontius Pilate the PROCURATOR." a mat or carpet, instead of a royal cloke. · One seeing a piece
Verse 27. The common hall] Or, prætorium. Called so from of reed, marugou, (the stem, probably,, of the aforesaid herb) the prætor, a principal magistrate among the Romans, whose lying on the ground, picked it up, and put it in his hand in business it was to administer justice in the absence of the place of a sceptre. Having thus given him a mock royal consul. This place might be termed in English the court- dress, several young fellows, with poles on their shoulders, house, or common hall.
came and stood on each side of him as his guards. Then Verse 28. Stripped him] Took off his mantle, or upper tliere came people, some to pay their homage to him, some garnent.
to ask justice, and some to consult him on affairs of state; A scarlet robe.] Or, according to Mark and John, a purple and the crowd that stood round about, made a confused noise, robe, such as emperors and kings wore.
crying Mario, that being, as they say, the Syriac word for Verse 29. A crown of thorns) £7€¢¢70ož ece249 ww. It does LORD; therehy shewing, that they intended to ridicule not appear that this crown was intended to be an instrument | Agrippa, who was a Syrian.” See Philo, Flacc. p. 970. and of punisiuuent or torture to his head, but rather, to render Dr. Lardner, Works, Vol. I. p. 159. him ridiculous; for which cause also they put a reed in his There is the most remarkable coincidence between this achand, by way of sceptre, and bowed their knees, pretending count and that given by the Evangelists; and the conjecture to do him homage. The crown was not probably of thorns, concerning the acanthus, will probably find no inconsiderable in our sense of the word: there are eminently learned men, support from the byblos and papyrus of Philo. This plant, who think that the crown was formed of the herb Acanthus; | Pliny says, grows to ten cubits long in the stem; and the