« הקודםהמשך »
He is betrayed by Judas,
and apprehended by the mob;
47 | And * while he yet spake, 1o, 50 And Jesus said unto him, “Friend, 4. M. 4035. Judas, one of the twelve, came, and wherefore art thou come? Then came An. Qiymp.
with him a great multitude with they, and laid hands on Jesus, and swords and staves, from the chief priests and took him. elders of the people.
51 | And, behold, done of them which were 48 Now he that betrayed him gave them a with Jesus, stretched out his hand, and drew sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that his sword, and struck a servant of the high same is he: hold him fast.
priest's, and smote off his ear. 49 And forth with he came to Jesus, and said, 52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again Hail, Master; and kissed him.
thy sword into his place: ‘for all they that
a Mark 14. 43. Luke 12. 7. John 18. 3. Aets 1. 61.2 Sam. 20.9.
Ps. 41. 9. & 55. 13. — Jolin 18. 10.-Gen. 9. 6. Rev. 13. 10.
safety: but I go willingly to meet that death which their ma is the human heart not capable of, when abandoned by God, lice designs me; and through it, provide for tlie life of the land influenced by Satan, and the love of money! world.
Laid hands on Jesus] But not before they had felt that Verse 47. Judus, one of the twelve] More deeply to mark proof of his sovereign power by which they had all been his lase ingratitude and desperate wickedness—He was one struck down to the earth, John xviii. 6. It is strange that of the 'TWELVEand he is a TRAITOR, and one of the vilest too after this, they should dare to approach him: but the scripthat ever disgraced human nature.
tures must be fulfilled. A great multitude with swords and staves] They did not Verse 51. One of them which were with Jesus] This was come as officers of justice, but as a desperate mob. Justice Peter-struck u servunt of the high priest's, the servant's name had nothing to do in this business. He who a little before was Malehus, John xviii. 10. and snote off his ear. In Luke had been one of the leaders of the flock of Christ, is now be- | xxii. 51. it is said, Jesus touched and healed it—Here was come the leader of rusfans and murderers! What a terrible | another miracle, and striking proof of the divinity of Christ. fall!
Peter did not cut the ear, merely, he cut it off, a0812.1. Now Verse 48. Gave them a sign] How coolly deliberate is this to heal it, Jesus must either take up the car and put it on dire apostate! the man whom I shall kiss—how deeply hypo- || again, or else create a new one-either of these was a miracle, critical !--that is he, hold him fust, seize him-how diaboli- which nothing less than unlimited power could produce. See cally malicious!
the note on John xviii. 10. Verse 49. Hail, Master] A usual compliment among the Verse 52. Put up again thy stoord into his place] Neither Jews. Judas pretends to wish our Lord continued health | Christ nor his religion is to be defended by the secular arm. while he is meditating his destruction! How many compli- God is sufficiently able to support his ark, Uzzah need not ments of this kind are there in the world! Judas had a pat- || stretch out his hand on the occasion. Even the shadow of tern in Joub, who while he pretends to enquire tenderly for public justice is not to be resisted by a private person, when the health of Amasu, thrust bim through with his sword: but coming from those in public authority. The cause of a
ple here vastly outdoes his Master, and through a Christian is the cause of God: sufferings belong to one, and motive, if possible, still more base. Let all those who use vengeance to the other. Let the cause therefore rest in his unmeaning or insidious compliments, rank for ever with Joab hands, who will do it ample justice. and Judas.
Shall perish with the sword.] Instead of amoROUYTO shall And kissed him.] And tenderly kissed him—this is the pro- perish, many excellent MSS. Versions, and lathers, have aroper meaning of the original word x«TEPUanges, he kissed him bavourtas shall die. The general meaning of this verse is, again and again—still pretending the most affectionate at they who contend in battle, are likely on both sides to betachment to him, though our Lord had before unmasked come the sacrifices of their mutual animosities. But it is him.
probably a prophetic declaration of the Jewish and Roman Verse 50. Jesus said--Friend] Rather companion, Etange,
states. The Jews put our Lord to death under the sanction (not friend) wherefore, rather, against whom (&o the read- of the Romans—both took the sword against Christ, and both ing of all the best MSS.) art thou come? How must these | perished by it. The Jews by the sword of the Romans, and words have cut his very soul, if he had bad any sensibility the Romans by that of the Goths, Vandals, &c. The event left! Surely thou who hast so long been my companion, art has verified the prediction--the Jewish government has been not come against me, thy Lord, Teacher, and Friend! What || destroyed upwards of 1700 years, and the Roman upwards
ad led away to
the house of Caiaphas.
4.1.1933 take the sword, shall perish with the tures of the prophets might be fulfill. ..... An. Olymp. sword.
ed. Then all the disciples forsook An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
53 Thinkest thou that I cannot now him, and fled. pray to my Father, and he shall presently give 57 [ And they that had laid hold on Je.
more than twelve legions of angels ? sus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, 54 But how then shall the scriptures be ful where the scribes and the elders were assemfilled, that thus it must be ?
bled. 55 In that same hour said Jesus to the mul- 58 But Peter followed him, afar off, unto the titudes, Are ye come out as against a thief high priest's palace, and went in, and sat with with swords and staves for to take me? I sat the servants, to see the end. daily with you teaching in the temple, and ye 59 Now the chief priests, and elders, and all laid no hold on me.
the council, sought false witness against Jesus, 56 But all this was done, that the scrip- to put him to death ;
d See Jolin 18. 15.- Mark 11. 53. Luke 22. 54. John 13. 12, 13, 94.
a 2 Kings 6. 17. Dan. 7. 10.—_" Isai. 53. 7, &c. ver. 24. Luke 24. 25, 44, 46.
- Lm. 4. 20.
of 1000. Confer with this passage, Psal. ii. 4, 9. and cx. 1, served by his scholars? Was ever parent so treated by liis 5,6. But how came Pcter to have a sword? Judea was at children? Is there not as much zeal anil lore among them this time so infested with robbers and cut-throats, that it was all, as might make one martyr for God and truth? Alas! no. not deemed safe for any person to go unarmed. He pro- He had but twelve who professed inviolable attachment to bably carried one for his mere personal safety.
him, one of these betrayed him, another denied him with Verse 53. More than twelte legions of ungels?] As if he had oatlis, and the rest run away and utterly abandon him to his said, Instead of you twelte, one of whom is a traitor, my Fa- | implacable enemies ! Are there not found among his discither can give me more than twelve legions of angels to defend ples still, Ist. Persons who betray bim and his cause? 2dly. me. A legion at different times, contained different numbers ; Persons who deny him and his people? 3dly. Persons who 4200, 5000, and frequently 6000 men; and from this saying, abandon him, his people, his cause, and his truth? Reader! taking the latter number, which is the common rate, may we not dost thou belong to any of these classes ? safely believe that the angels of God amount to more than 72000? Verse 57. Thsy-led him uway to Caiaphas] John says,
Verse 54. But how then] Had I such a defence---shall the chap. xviii. 13. that they led him first to Annus; but this scriptures be fulfilled, which say, that thus it must be? That appears to have been done merely to do him honour as the is, that I am lo suffer and die for the sin of the world. Pro- father-in-law of Caiaphas, and liis colleague in the high bably the scriptures to which our Lord principally refers are priesthood. But as the Sanhedrin was assembled at the house Ps. xxii. Ixix. and especially Isa. liii. & Dan. ix. 24—27. Christ of Caiaphas, it was there he must be brought to undergo his skews that they had no power against him but what he per- mock trial; but see on John xviii. 13. mitted: and that he willingly gave up himself into their hands. Verse 58. Peter followed him, afar oj] Poor Peter! this
Verse 55. Are ye come out as against a thief] At this time is the beginning of his dreadful fall. His fear kept him Judea was much infested by robbers, so that armed men from joining the company, and publicly acknowledging his Were obliged to be employed ayainst them—to this our Lord Lord; and his affection obliged him to follow at a distance seems to allude. See on ver. 52.
that he might see the end. I sat daily with you] Why come in this hostile manner ? And sat with the servants, to see the end.) When a man is Every day for four days past, ye might have met with me in weak in faith, and can as yet only follow Christ at a di-tance, the temple whither I went to teach you the way of salvation. he should avoid all dangerous places, and the company of See on chap. xxi. 17.
those who are most likely to prove a snare to him. Had not Verse 56. But all this was done] This . probably the ob- ' Peter got to the high priest's palace, and sat down with the servation of the Evangelist. See on chap. ii. 23.
servants, he would not thus have denied his Lord and Ma ter. Then all the disciples forsook him, and fied.] O what is Servants--oficers, vingetay. Such as we term seijiants, man! how little is even his utmost sincerity to be depended constables, &c. on! Jesus is abandoned by all !--eren zeulous Peter, and Verse 59. All the council sought false witness] What a prosloring John are among the fugitives! Was ever muster no 'titution of justice--they first re:olve to ruin hiin, and then
A. D. 29.
They procure false
witnesses against him, 60 But found none: yea, though || priest answered and said unto him, ' I A.M. 1033. An. Olymp. ` many false witnesses came, yet found adjure thee by the living God, that An. Olymp.
they none. At the last came two thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, false witnesses,
the Son of God. 61 And said, This fellow said, 'I am able to 64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: destroy the temple of God, and to build it in nevertheless I say unto you, 5 Hereafter shall three days.
ye see the Son of man sitting on the right 62 4 And the high priest arose, and said unto hand of power, and coming in the clouds of him, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which heaven. these witness against thee?
65 Then the high priest rent his clothes, say63 But “Jesus held his peace. And the high ing, He hath spoken blasphemy; what further
a Ps. 97. 12. & 35. 11. Mark 14. 55. So Acts 6. 13. -- Deut. 19. 15. _ch. 27. 40, John 2. 19. Mark 14. 60.- Isai. 53. 7. ch. 27. 12, 14.
f Lev. 5. 1. 1 Sam. 14. 2.1, 26. - Dan. 7. 13. ch. 16. 27. & 24. 30. Luke 21. 97. & 25. 31. john 1. 51. Rom. 14. 10. 1 Thess. 4. 16. Rev. 1. 7. h Ps. 110. 1. Acts 7. 55.-i2 Kings 18. 57. & 19. 1.
seek the proper means of effecting it: they declare him cri- knew that they were determined to put him to death; and minal, and after that do all they can to fix some crime upon that his hour was now come, and that therefore remonstrance him, that they may appear to have some shadow of justice on or defence would be of no use: he had often before borne suftheir side, when they put him to death. It seems to have | ficient testimony to the truth. been a common custom of this vile court, to employ false wit- Verse 63. I adjure thee by the living God] I put thee to thy ness on any occasion, to answer their own ends. See this oath. To this solemn adjuration Christ immediately replies; exemplified in the case of Stephen, Acts vi. 11-13.
because he is now called on in the name of God, to bear anoVerse 60. Though many false witnesses came] There is an ther testimony to the truth. The anthority of God in the unaccountable confusion in the MSS. in this verse: without most worthless magistrate should be properly respected. stating the variations which may be seen in Griesbach, I shall | However necessary our Lord saw it to be silent, when the acgive that which I believe to be the genuine sense of the Evan- | cusations were frivolous, and the evidence contradictory, he gelist. Then the chief priests and elders, and all the council, sought felt no disposition to continue this silence, when questioned false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; but they found | concerning a truth, for which he came into the world to shed it not, though many false witnesses came up. At last two false his blood. witnesses cume up, saying ; This man said, &c. It is the pro
Verse 64. Thou hast said] That is, I am the Christ, the property of falsity to be ever inconsistent, and to contradict it- mised Messiah: (see on ver. 25.) and you and this whole naself-therefore they could not find two consistent testimonies, tion shall shortly have the fullest proof of it: for hereafter, in without which the Jewish law did not permit any person to a few years, ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right be put to death. However, the hand of God was in this busi- hand of power, fully invested with absolute dominion, and ness;
for the credit of Jesus, and the honour of the Christian coming in the clouds of heaven, to execute judgment upon this religion, he would not permit him to be condemned on a fulse wicked race. See chap. xxiv. 30. Our Lord appears to refer aceusation: and therefort, at last they are obliged to change
to Dan. vii. 13. One like the Son of man came with the clouds their ground, and to the eternal confusion of the unrighteous of heaven, &c. This may also refer to the final judgment. council, he is condemned on the very evidence of his own in- Verse 65. The high priest rent his clothes] This rending of nocence, purity, and truth!
the high priest's garments, was expressly contrary to the law, Verse 61. I am able to destroy the temple of God] Ist, these Lev. x. 6. and xxi. 10. But it was a common method of exwords were not fairly quoted. Jesus had said, John ii. 19. pressing violent grief, Gen. xxxvii. 29, 34. Job i. 20. and Destroy this temple, and I will build it again in three days. horror at what was deemed blasphemous or impious. 2 Kings 2dly, the inuendo which they produce, applying these words | xviii. 37. xix. 1. Acts xiv. 14. All that heard a blasphemous to a pretended design to destroy the temple at Jerusalem, was speech were obliged to rend their clothes, and never to sew utterly unfair: for these words he spoke of the temple of his them up again. See Lightfoot. body. It is very easy, by means of a few small alterations, to He hath spoken blasphemy] Quesnel's note on this is worthy render the most holy things and innocent persons odious to of notice. “ See here a false zeal, a mask of religion, and a the world ; and even to take away the life of the innocent. passionate and seditious way of proceeding, tending only to
Verse 62. Answerest thou nothing ?] The accusation was so incense and stir up others, all which are common to those who completely frivolous, that it merited no notice: besides, Jesus ll would oppress truth by cabal, and without proof. By crying mock, buffet, and abuse him.
Peter denies him.
A. D. 29.
A.M. 1085. need have we of witnesses : behold, | 70 But he denied before them all, A. M. 4033 An. Olymp. now ye have heard his blasphemy. saying, I know not what thou sayest. An. Olymp.
66 What think ye? They answered 71 And when he was gone out into and said, 'He is guilty of death.
the porch, another maid saw him, and said un67 "Then did they spit in his face, and buf- to them that were there, This fellow was also feted him; and others smote him with the with Jesus of Nazareth. palms of their hands,
72 And again he denied with an oath, I do 68 Saying, “Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, not know the man. Who is he that smote thee?
73 And after a while came unto him they 69 [Now Peter sat without in the palace : that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also also art one of them; for thy & speech bewrayeth : wast with Jesus of Galilee.
* Lev. 24. 16. John 19.7.-Isai. 50. 6. & 53. 3. ch. 27. 30.---- Luke
22. 63. John 19. 3. Or, rods.
Mark 14. 66. Luke 22. 64. Mark 14. 66. Luke 22. 53. John 18. 16,
17, 25. - Luke 22. 59.
out 'heresy, blasphemy, and faction', though contrary to all ward him now, was expressly prophesied of, by a man whose appearance, men fail not to stir up those in power, to gain divine mission they did not pretend to deny ; see Isai. I. 6. It the simple, to give some shadow of authority to the ill-dis-l appears, that before they buffeted him, they bound up his eyes, posed, to cast devout but ignorant people into scruples, and see Mark xiv. 65. thereby to advance the mystery of iniquity, which is the mys- Verse 69. A damsel came unto him] A maid sertant, tusdocxn. tery of all ages.” This was the very plan his Catholic breth- See this translation vindicated by Kypke. ren adopted in this country, in the reign of Queen Mary, Thou also wast with Jesus] What a noble opportunity had called the bloody queen, because of the many murders of Peter now, to shew his zeal for the insulted cause of truth, righteous men which she sanctioned at the mouth of her Ca-i and his attachment to his Master. But, alas! he is shorn of tholic priesthood.
his strength. Constables and maid servants are no company Verse 66. He is guilty of death] Exoxos Goyatov ESTı, he is li-' for an apostle, except when he is delivering to them the mesable to death. All the forms of justice are here violated. The' sage of salvation. Evil communications corrupt good manners. judge becomes a party and accuser, and proceeds to the verdict Had Peter been in better company, he would not have had so without examining whether all the prophecies concerning the foul a fall. Messiah, and the innumerable miracles which he wrought,
Verse 70. But he denied before them all] So the evil prindid not justify him. Examination and pronf, are the ruin of ciple gains ground. Before, he followed at a distance, now he all calumnies, and of the authors of them, and therefore they denies; this is the second gradation in his fall. take care to keep off from these two things. See Quesnel. Verse 71. Unto them that were there] Instead of a syed TOIS EXED*
Verse 67. Then did they spit in his face) This was done as xab, more than one hundred MSS. many of which are of the a mark of the most profound contempt. See Job xvi. 10. and first authority and antiquity, have deyes AUTOOS" EX! x01, she suith xxx. 10. Isai. 1. 6. Micah v. 1. The Judges now delivered unto them, this man was THERE also. I rather think this is the him into the hands of the mob.
genuine reading. Tos might have been easily mistaken for And buffeted him] Smote him with their fists, exonez@.ray. AUTO-s, if the first syllable av were but a little faded in a MS. This is the translation of Theophylaet. Kolaputev, says he, from which others were copied: and then the placing of the means, " to beat with the hand, the fingers being clenched. point after exas“ instead of after autcoç: would naturally follow, Συγκαμτομενων Twy daxTuhw, or, to speak more briefly, to buffet as, placed after tout, it would make no sense.
Griesbach apwith the fist.”
proves of this reading. Smote him with the palms of their hands] Egzamiar. Partiyw, Verse 72. And again he denied with an oath] This is a third says Suidas, means,“ motažai thu gyveboy atan Tn Xeigh, to smite gradation of his iniquity. He has told a lie, and he swears the cheek with the open hand. Thus they offered him indignity to support it. A liar has always some suspicion that his tesin all its various and vexatious forms. Insults of this kind are timony is not credited, for he is conscious to his own fulsity, never forgiven by the world : Jesus not only takes no revenge, and is therefore naturally led to support his assertions by. (though it be completely in his power) but bears all with oaths. meekness, without even one word of reply.
Verse 73. Thy speech] Thy manner of speech, 'n dadoo gov, Verse 68. Prophesy unto us, thou Christ] Their conduct to. that dialect of thine-bis accent being different from that of
A. AI. 4033.
Peter reflects on his
conduct, and repents. 74 Then a began he to curse and to which said unto him, "Before the cock A.M. 4135. An. Olymp. swear, saying, I know not the man. crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And An. Olymp. And immediately the cock crew.
he went out and wept bitterly. 75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus,
2 Mark 14. 71.
Ver. 34. Mark 14. 50. Luke 22. 61, 62. Jolin 13. $8.
Jerusalem. From various examples given by Lightfoot and lousy; he therefore does the whole by a look. In the hand of Schoetgen, we find, that the Galileans had a very corrupt pro- Omnipotence every thing is easy, and he can save by a fer, nunciation, frequently interchanging x, m, n, and y, and so
as well as by many. blending or dividing words as to render them unintelligible, or He went out] He left the place where he had sinned, and cause them to convey a contrary sense.
the compuny which had been the occasion of his transgression. Beruruyeth thee.] Andou os 101!, maketh thee manifest, from And wept bitterly. ] Felt bitter anguish of soul, which erithe Anglo-saxon befregan, to accuse, betray; a word long denced itself by the tears of contrition which flowed plentisince lost from our language.
fully from his eyes. Let him that standeth take heed lest he Verse 74. Then begun he to curse and 10 swear] Rather, fall! Where the mighty have been slain, what shall support the Then he began positively to affirm-xatakuare, from xata feeble? Only the grace of the ALMIGHTY God. intensive, and sognet I lay down, place, affirm. But the common reading.is xarava Osuariss!), which signifies to wish curses This transaction is recorded by the inspired penmen, Ist, on himself. The former reading is supported by almost every That all may watch unto prayer, and shun the occasions of sin. MS. of value, and is, beyond dispute, the true reading, and has 2dly, That if a man be unhappily overtaken in a fault, he been received by Griesbach into the text. The business is bad may not despair, but cast himself immediately with a contrite enough, but the common reading makes it worse. In ver. 72. heart on the infinite tenderness and compassion of God. See Peter is said to deny with an oath ; here, he positively affirms the notes ou John xviii. 27. and swears, probably by the name of God, for this is the im- I have touched on the subject of our Lord's anointing but port of the word que vuelv. This makes the fourth and final gra- slightly in the preceding notes, because the controversy upon dation in the climax of Peter's fall. From these awful begin this point is not yet settled; and, except to harmonists, it is a nings it is not unfair to conclude, that Peter might have gone matter of comparatively little importance. Bishop Newcome almost as far as Judas himself, had not the traitorous business bas written largely on this fact, and I insert an extract from been effecied before. Yet all this evil sprung simply from the his notes. fear of man. How many denials of Christ and his truth have sprung since from the same cause!
BISHOP NEWCOME'S ACCOUNT OF THE ANOINTING OF OUR LORD. The cock crew] This animal becomes in the land of God, “ The histories of Jesus's unction in Matthew, Mark, and the instrument of awaking the fallen apostle at last, to a sense John, are accounts of the same fact. Hoc fixum maneut, eundem of bis fall, danger and duty. When abandoned of God, the ab omnibus historiam referri. Calv. Harm. p. 375. smallest thing may become the occasion of a fall; and when “ 'The following objections to this position occur in Lightfoot, in the hand of God, the smallest matter may become the in- Whiston, Whitby, and Macknight. strument of our restoration. Let us never think lightly of Ist. “ The unction recorded by St. John happens six days what are termed little sins; the smallest one has the seed of before the Pass-orer; but the other unction is fixed to the eternal ruin in it. Let us never think contemptibly of the second day before that feast. feeblest means of grace : each may have the seed of eternal
“ Ans. The day of the entertainment related John xii. „salvation in it. Let us ever remember that the great apostle | 2. is not restrained to the sixth day before the Pass-over. Peter fell through fear of a servant maid, and rose through Qw die faetum illi fuerit convirium, in quo a Mariâ unctus est, the crowing of a cock.
Johannes non exprimit. Calv. Harm. Johann. p. 144. Ver. 12, Verse 75. Peter remembered the word of Jesus St. Luke 13. much people are said to meet Jesus on the day after his „says, chap. xxii. 61. the Lord turned and looked upon Peter. arrival at Bethany, not on the day after his unction. See ver. 9. So it appears he was nigh to our Lord, either at the time when St. John has recorded events on the sixth and on the filth the cock crew, or shortly after. The delicacy of this reproof day before the Pass-over; and then, ch. xiii. 1. le proceeds was great—he must be reproved and olurmed, otherwise be will
to the evening on which the Pass-over was eaten. On this proceed yet further in his iniquity; Christ is in bonds, and account he anticipates the history of Jesus's unction; and he cannot go
and speak to him; if he call aloud, the disciple is naturally anticipates it on mentioning the place where it discovered, and falls a victim to Jewish malice and Roman jeu- happened.