« הקודםהמשך »
The sacrament of the
Lord's supper instituted. 4. 14938. 29 But "I say unto you, I will not drink til that day when I drink it new with AM, 1983, An. Cymp. henceforth of this fruit of the vine, "un- you in Father's kingdom.
verse! And though Christ bas in the most positive manner poured out, the following form of adjuration was used by the enjoined it, they will not permit one of the Jaity to taste it ! contracting parties : Oh! what a thing is man! a constant contradiction to reason
Ζευ κυδισε, μεγισε, και αθανατοι θεοι αλλοι, and to himself
Οππoτεροι προτεροι υπερ ορκια πημηνειαν, , I have just said, that our blessed Lord lays remarkable stress
Ωδε σφ' εγκεφαλος χαμαδες ρεοι, ως οδε οινος, on the administration of the cup, and on that which himself
Αυτων, και τεκεων. αλοχοι δ' αλλοισι μιγειεν. assures us, is represented by it. As it is peculiarly emphatic, All glorious Jove, and ye, the Powers of heaven! I beg leave to set down the original text,
ich the critical Whoso shall violate this contract first, reader will do well minutely to examine : TOUTO yog 650 TO
So be their blood, their childrens', and their own αίμα μου TO της καινης διαθηκης, TΟ περι πολλων εκχυνομενον εις Pour'd out, as this libation, on the ground : 20:0w apagtown. The following literal translation and para- And let their wives bring forth to other men ! phrase do not exceed its meaning :
Iliad. I. iii. v. 298–301. For, THIS is THAT blood of mine, which was pointed out Our blessed Saviour is evidently called the Abahnen, ons by all the sacrifices under the Jewish law, and particularly by berith, or covenant sacrifice, Isai. xlii. 6. xlix. 8. Zech. ix. 11. the shedding and sprinkling of the blood of the paschal lamb. And to those Scriptures he appears to allude, as in them the THAT blood of the sacrifice slain for the ratification of the Lord promises to give him for a covenant (sacrifice) to the new covenant. THE blood ready to be poured out for the Gentiles, and to send forth, by the blood of this covenant (vicmultitudes, the whole Gentile world as well as the Jews, for tim) the prisoners out of the pit. The passages in the Sacred the taking away of sins ; sin, whether original or actual, in all Writings, which allude to this grand sacrificial and atoning its power and guilt, in all its internal energy and pollution. act, are almost innumerable. See the Preface to Matthew.
And gave thanks] See the form used on this occasion on In this place, our Lord terms his blood, the blood of the ver. 26. and see the Mishna, Tract, nina Beracoth. New covenant; by which he means that grand plan of agree
Verse 28. For this is my blood of the New Testament] This ment or reconciliation, which God was now establishing beis the reading both here and in St. Mark; but St. Luke and tween himself and mankind, by the passion and death of his St. Paul say, This cup is the New Testament in my blood. Son; through whom alone, men could draw nigh to God : and This passage has been strangely mistaken: by New Testa- this New covenant is mentioned in contradistinction from the ment, many understand nothing more than the book commonly OLD covenant, n Tod ccma Aichnun, 2 Cor. iii. 14. by which apknown by this name, containing the four Gospels, Acts of the pellative all the books of the Old Testament were distinguishApostles, apostolical Epistles, and book of the Revelation; and ed, because they pointed out the way of reconciliation to God they think that the cup of the New Testament, means no more by the blood of the rarious victims slain under the law : but than merely that cup which the book called the New Testa- now, as the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the ment enjoins in the sacrament of the Lord's supper. As this world, was about to be offered up, a new and Living way is the case, it is highly necessary that this term should be ex- was thereby constituted, so that no one henceforth could come plained. The original, h Kaun Auchnen, which we translate, unto the Father but by him. Hence all the books of the New The New Testament, and which is the general title of all the Testament, which bear unanimous testimony to the doctrine contents of the book already described, simply means the new of salvation by faith through the blood of Jesus, are termed. COVENANT. Covenant, from con, together, and venio, I come, H Kon AlcInen, The New covenant. See the Preface. signifies an agreement, contract, or compact between two Dr. Lightfoot's Observations on this are worthy of serious parties, by which both are mutually bound to do certain notice. “ This is my blood of the New Testament. Not only things, on certain conditions and penalties. It answers to the the seal of the covenant, but the sanction of the new covenant. Hebrew nung berith, which often signifies not only the cove- The end of the Mosaic æconomy, and the confirming of a rant or agreement, but also the sacrifice which was slain on new one. The confirmation of the old covenant was by the the occasion, by the blood of which the covenant was rati- blood of bulls and goats, Exod. xxiv. Heb. ix. because blood fied; and the contracting parties professed to subject them- was still to be shed : the confirmation of the new was by a selves to such a death as that of the victim, in case of vio- cup of wine, because under the new covenant there is no far. lating their engagements. An oath of this kind, on slaying ther shedding of blood. As it is here said of the cup, This the covenant sacrifice, was usual in ancient times; so in Ho- | cup is the New Testament in my blood; so it might be said of mer, when a covenant was made between the Greeks and the the cup of blood, Exod. xxiv. That cup was the Old Testament Trojans, and the throats of lambs were cut, and their blood " in the blood of Christ : there, all the articles of that covenant
Jesus foretells the unfaithfulness
of his disciples. 30 T * And when they had sung al 31 Then saith Jesus unto them, “All A. M1. 4658. An. Olymp. bhymn, they went out into the mount ye shall be offended because of me
An. Olymap. CCII.1. of Olives.
this night: for it is written, 'I will
.1.1. 1993. AD,
A. D. 29.
a Mark 14. 26.
to Or, pealm.
Mark 11.27. John 16. 32-ch. 11. 6.-_Zech. 13. 7.
being read over, Moses sprinkled all the people with blood, nant, referred to by our Lord in this place, was universal ; and said, This is the blood of the corenant which God hath for as Jesus Christ by the grace of God tasted deuth for EVERY made with you ; and thus that old covenant or testimony was man, Heb. xi, 9. and is that Lamb of God that taketh away confirmed. In like manner, Christ, having published all the the sin of the world, John i. 29. who would have ALL MEN to articles of the new covenant, he takes the cup of wine, and be saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth, 1 Tim. ii. 4. gives them to drink, and saith, This is the New Testament in even that knowledge of Christ crucified, by which they are to my blood, and thus the new covenant was established.”-Works, be justified, Isai. liii. 11. therefore he has commanded his disvol. ii. p. 260,
ciples to go into all the world, and preach the gospel to EVERY Which is shed (s*X930pt!vox, poured out) for many] Exxew CREATURE, Mark xvi. 15. The reprobate race, those who were and erxuw, to pour out, are often used in a sacrificial sense in no people and not beloved, were to be called in; for the gosthe Septuagint, and signify to pour out or sprinkle the blood pel was to be preached to all the world, though it was to begin of the sacrifices before the altar of the Lord, by way of atone- at Jerusalem, Luke xxiv. 47. For this purpose was the blood ment. See 2 Kings xvi. 15. Lev. viii. 15. ix. 9. Exod. xxix. of the new covenant-sacrifice poured out for the multitudes, 12. Lev. iv. 7, 14, 17, 30, 34. and in various other places that there might be but one fold, as there is but one shepherd; Our Lord, by this very remarkable mode of expression, and, that God might be all and in all. teaches us, that as his body was to be broken or crucified, For the remission of sins.] Eus Detvy opeenetowy, for (or, in UTE ES news, in our stead, so here the blood was to be poured reference to) the taking away of sins. For, although the blood out to make an atonement, as the words, remission of sins, is shed, and the atonement made, no man's sins are taken away, sufficiently prove; for without shedding of blood there was no until, as a true penitent, he returns to God; and feeling his remission, Heb. ix. P2. nor any remission by shedding of utter incapacity to save himself, believes in Christ Jesus, whe blood, but in a sacrificial way. See the passages above, and is the justifier of the ungodly. on ver. 26.
The phrase, «Dicas Twy a pagtiwv, remission of sins, (frequently The whole of this passage will receive alditional light when used by the Septuagint) being thus explained by our Lord, is rollated with Isai. liii. 11, 12. By his knowledge shall my right-1 often used by the Evangelists and the Apostles; and does not cous servant justify many, for he shall bear their iniquities-he- mean merely the pardon of sins, as it is generally understood, ciluse he hath POURED out his soul unto death, and he bare the but the removal or taking away of sins; not only the guilty sin of MANY. The pouring out of the soul unto death, in the but also the very nature of sin, and the pollution of the soul Prophet, answers to, this is the blood of the new covenant which through it; and comprehends all that is generally understood is poured out for you, in the Evangelists: and the San rabbim, by the terms justification and sanctification. For the use and multitudes, in Isaiahı, corresponds to the many, Tou'r, of Mat- meaning of the phrase, a¢ssış apagtiw, see Mark i. 4. Luke th:ew and Mark. The passage will soon appear plain, when i. 77. iii. 3. xxiv. 47. Acts ii. 38. v.31. x. 43. xiii. 38. xxvi. we consider that two distinct classes of persons are mentioned 18. Coloss. i. 14. Heb. x. 18. by the prophet. 1. The Jews.-Ver. 4. Surely he hath borne Both St. Luke and St. Paul add, that after giving the bread our griefs, and carried our sorrowus.-Ver. 5. But he was our Lord said, Do this in remembrance of me. And after girwounded for our trunsgressions, he was bruised for our ini-ing the cup, St. Paul alone adds, This do ye, as oft as ye drink quities, the chustisement of our peace was upon him.-Ver. 6. it, in remembrance of me. The account as given by St. Paul Il we like sherp have gone astray, and the Lord hath laid upon should be carefully followed, being fuller; and received, achim the iniquity of us all. 2. The Gentiles.- Ver. 11. By | cording to his own declaration, by especial revelation from his knowledge, anyna bedaâto, i. e. by bis being madle known, God. See 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I have received of the Lord that published as Christ crucified among the Gentiles, he shall jus | which also I delivered unto you, &c. See the harmonized view tify s7 rabbim, the multitudes, (the GENTILES) for he shall above. (also) bear their offences, as well as ours, the Jeu's, ver. 4, Verse 29. I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the &c. It is well known that the Jewish dispensation, termed vine] These words seem to intimate no more than this: We by the Apostle as above, a udara diaconun, the old corenunt, shall not have another opportunity of cating this bread and was partial and exclusive. None were particularly interested drinking this wine together; as in a few hours my crucifixion in it save the descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob: where shall take place. as the Christian dispensation, n xasin doce nxn, the new core- Until that day when I drink it now with you] That is, I shall
his denial foretold. 4. 11,4093. smite the shepherd, and the sheep || 34 Jesus said unto him, Verily I 4. 11,4938. Au. Olymp. of the flock shall be scattered abroad. say unto thee, That this night, be- An. Olymp.
32 But after I am risen again, I will fore the cock crow, thou shalt deny go before you into Galilee.
me thrice. 33 Peter answered and said unto him, Though 35 Peter said unto him, Though I should die all men shall be offended because of thee, yet with thee, yet will I not deny thee. Likewise will I never be offended.
also said all the disciples.
• Ch. 28. 7, 10, 16. Mark 11. 28. & 16.7.
b Mark 14. SO. Luke 22. S4. John 13. $8.
no more drink of the produce of the vine with you; but shall This night] The time of trial is just at hand. drink new wine-wine of a widely different nature from this I will smite the shepherd] It will happen to you as to a flock --a wine which the kingdom of God alone can afford. The of sheep, whose shepherd has been slain—the leader and guarterm niew in Scripture is often taken in this sense. So the dian being removed, the whole flock shall be scattered, and be new keuren, the new earth, the new corenant, the new man- on the point of becoming a prey to ravenous beasts. mean a heaten, earth, covenant, man, of a very different nature Verse 32. But after I am risen again] Don'i lose your confrom the former. It was our Lord's invariable custom to il- | fidence, for though I shall appear for a time to be wholly left lustrate heavenly things by those of earth : and to make that to wicked men, and be brought under the power of death; which had last been the subject of conversation the means of yet I will rise again, and triumph over all your enemies and doing it. Thus he uses wine here, of which ihey had lately mine. drunk, and on which he had held the preceding discourse, I will go before you] Still alluding to the case of the shepto point out the supreme blessedness of the kingdom of God. || herd and his sheep. Though the shepherd have been smitten But however pleasing and useful wine may be to the body, and the sheep scattered, the shepherd shall revive again, coland how helpful soever, as an ordinance of God, it may be to lect the scattered flock, and go before them, and lead them to the soul in the holy sacrament; yet the wine of the kingdom, peace, security, and happiness. the spiritual enjoyments at the right hand of God, will be in- Verse 33. Peter—said unto him, Though all men shall be finitely more precious and useful. From what our Lord says offended-yet will I never] The presumptuous person imbere, we learn, that the sacrament of his supper is a type of, agines he can do every thing, and can do nothing: thinks he and a pledge to genuine Christians, of the felicity they shall can excel all, and excels in nothing : promises every thing, enjoy with Christ in the kingdom of glory.
and performs nothing. The humble man acts a quite conVerse 30. And when they had sung a hymn] Yjeno antes means, || trary part. There is nothing we know so little of, as ourprobably, no more than a kind of recitative reading or chant- selves-nothing we see less of, than our own weakness and ing. As to the hymn itself, we know, from the universal con- | poverty. The strength of pride is only for a moment. Peter, sent of Jewish antiquity, that it was composed of Psalms 113, though vainly confident, was certainly sincere-he had never 114, 115, 116, 117, and 118, termed by the Jews in hulel, | been put to a sore trial, and did not know his own strength. from 79-7550 halelu-yah, the first word in Psalm 113. These Had this resolution of his been formed in the strength of God, six Psalms were always sung at every paschal solemnity. he would have been enabled to maintain it against earth and They sung this great hillel on account of the five great bene- hell. fits referred to in it; viz. 1. The Exodus from Egypt, Psal. Verse 34. Jesus said] Our Lord's answer to Peter is very cxiv. 1. When Israel went out of Egypt, &c. 2. The miracu- | emphatic and impressive. Verily, I speak a solemn weighty lous division of the Red sea, ver. 3. The sea saw it and fled. truth, thou wilt not only be stumbled, fall off, and forsake thy 3. The promulgation of the Law, ver. 4. The mountains skip- Master, but thou wilt even deny that thou hast or ever had any ped like lambs. 4. The Resurrection of the dead, Psal. cxvi. knowledge of, or connection with me; and this thou wilt do, 9. I will walk before the Lord, in the land of the living. 5. not by little and little, through a long process of time, till the The passion of the Messiah, Psal. cxv. 1. Not unto us, O Lord, apostacy, daily gathering strength, shall be complete ; but not unto us, &c. See Schoetgen, llor. Hebr. p. 231. and my thou wilt do it this very night, and that not once only but Discourse on the nature and design of the Eucharist, 8vo. Lond. thrice; and this thou wilt do also in the earlier part of the 1808.
night, before even a cock shall crow. Was not this warning Verse 31. All ye shall be offended] Or rather, Ye will all enough to him not to trust in his own strength, but to depend be είumbled-παντες υμεις σκανδαλισθησεσθε-ye will all forsake me, and lose in a great measure your confidence in me. i Verse 35. Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny
in the garden.
36 Then cometh Jesus with them 38 Then saith he unto them, “My A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. unto a place called Gethsemane, and soul is exceeding sorrowful, even un- An. Olymp.
saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, to death : tarry ye here, and watch while I go and pray yonder.
37 And he took with him Peter and the two 39 And he went a little farther, and fell on sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, very heavy.
if it be possible, let this cup pass from me!
• Mark 14. 32–35. Luke 22. 39. John 18. 1.-bch. 4. 21.
John 12. 27. Mark 14. 36. Luke 22. 42. Hebr. 5.7.- Joba
12. 2. ch. 20. 22.
thee.] He does not take the warning which his Lord gave great drops of blood falling to the ground. How exquisite him-he trusts in the warm sincere attachment to Christ must this anguish have been, when it forced the very blood which he now feels, not considering that this must speedily through the coats of the veins, and enlarged the pores in fail, unless supported by the power of God.
such a præternatural manner, as to cause them to empty it Verse 36. A place called Gethsemane] A garden at the foot out in large successive drops ! In my opinion, the principal of the mount of Olives. The name seems to be formed from part of the redemption price was paid in this unprecedented na gath, a press, and jou shemen, oil; probably the place and indescribable agony. where the produce of the mount of Olives was prepared for Bloody sweats are mentioned by many authors; but none use. The garden of the oil-press, or olive-press.
was ever such as this—where a person in perfect health, (harSit ye here] Or, stay in this place, while I go and praying never had any predisposing sickness to induce a debility yonder : and employ ye the time, as I shall employ it-in of the system) and in the full vigour of life, about thirty-three watching unto prayer.
years of age, suddenly, through mental pressure, without any Verse 37. And he took with him Peter and the two sons of fear of death, sweat great drops of blood; and these contiZebedee] That is, James and John; the same persons who nued, during his wrestling with God, to fall to the ground. had beheld his transfiguration on the mount—that they might To say that all this was occasioned by the fear he had of contemplate this agony in the light of that glory which they the ignominious death which he was about to die, confutes had there seen ; and so be kept from being stumbled by a itself-for this would not only rob him of his divinity, for view of his present humiliation.
which purpose it is brought, but it deprives him of all excelBegan to be sorrowful] Autevo far, from aww, to dissolve- || lency, and even of manhood itself. The prospect of death exquisite sorrow, such as dissolves the natural vigour, and could not cause him to suffer thus, when he knew that in less threatens to separate soul and body.
than three days he was to be restored to life, and be brought And very heavy.) Overwhelmed with anguish--odnows). This into an eternity of blessedness. His agony and distress can word is used by the Greeks to denote the most extreme sanguish | receive no consistent explication but on this ground-He sufwhich the soul can feel—ercruciating anxiety and torture of | FERED, the just for the UÑJUST, that he might bring us to God. spirit.
O glorious truth! O infinitely meritorious suffering! And O! Verse 38. Then saith he] Then suith—Jesus :- I have added above all, the eternal love, that caused him to undergo such the word Jesus, ó Inceus, on the authority of a multitude of sufferings for the sake of sinners! eminent MSS. See them in Griesbach.
Verse 39. Fell on his face] See the note on Luke xxii. My soul is erceeding sorrowful, (or, is surrounded with er- 44. This was the ordinary posture of the supplicant when ceeding sorrow) even unto deuth.] This latter word explains the favour was great which was asked, and deep humiliation the two former: My soul is so dissolved in sorrow, my spirit required. The head was put between the knees, and the is filled with such agony and anguish, that if speedy succour forehead brought to touch the earth—this was not only a hube not given to my body, death must be the immediate con- miliating, but a very painful posture also. sequence.
This cup] The word cup is frequently used in the Sacred Now, the grand expiatory sacrifice begins to be offered : 1) Writings to point out sorrow, anguish, terror, death. It seems in this garden Jesus enters fully into the sacerdotal office; to be an allusion to a very ancient method of punishing criand now on the altar of his immaculate divinity, begins to minals. A cup of poison was put into their hands, and they offer his own body—his own life-a lamb without spot, for were obliged to drink it. Socrates was killed thus, being obthe sin of the world. St. Luke observes, chap. xxii. 43, 44. liged by the magistrates of Athens, to drink a cup of the that there appeared unto him an angel from heaven strength-juice of hemlock. To death, by the poisoned cup, there ening him ; -and that being in an agony, his sweat was like || seems an allusion in Heb. ii. 9. Jesus Christ by the grace of
A. D. 99.
A. D. 29.
in the garden. A. M. 133. nevertheless
nevertheless not as I will, but as 43 And he came and found them A. M. 4033 An. Olymp. thou wilt.
asleep again: for their eyes were An. Olymp. 40 And he cometh unto the disciples, heavy. and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, 44 And he left them, and went away again, What, could ye not watch with me one hour? and prayed the third time, saying the same
41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into words. temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the 45 Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith flesh is weak.
unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: 42 He went away again the second time, and behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy
thy 46 Rise, let us be going : behold, he is at will be done.
hand that doth betray me.
* John 5. 30. & 6. 38. Phil. 2. 8.
Mark 13. 33. & 14. 38. Luke 92. 40, 46. Eph. 6. 18.
God, TASTED death for every man.
The whole world are here Verse 42. O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from represented as standing guilty and condemned before the tri- me] If it be not possible—to redeem fallen man, unless I bunal of God: into every man's hand the deadly cup is put, drink this cup, unless I suffer death for them : thy will be done, and he is required to drink off the poison-Jesus enters, takes I am content to suffer whatever may be requisite to accomevery man's cup out of his hand, and drinks off the poison, plish the great design. In this address the humanity of Christ and thus tastes or suffers the death which every man other most evidently appears; for it was his humanity alone that wise must have undergone.
could suffer: and if it did not appear that he had felt these Pass from me] Perhaps there is an allusion here to several | sufferings, it would have been a presumption that he had not criminals standing in a row, who are all to drink of the same suffered, and consequently made no atonement. And had he cup, but the judge extending favour to a certain one, the not appeared to have been perfectly resigned in these suffereup passes by him to the next.
ings, his sacrifice could not have been a free-will but a conInstead of agora@wy pixgov going a little forward, many emi-strained offering, and therefore of no use to the salvation of nent MSS. have got:29wy coming a little forward--but the mankind. variation is of little moment. At the close of this verse se- Verse 43. Their eyes were heavy.] That is, they could not veral MSS. add the clause in Luke xxii. 43. There appeared keep them open. Was there nothing præternatural in this? en angel, &c.
Was there no influence here from the powers of darkness ? Verse 40. He--saith unto Peter] He addressed himself more Verse 44. Prayed the third time] So St. Paul-I besought particularly to this apostle, because of the profession he had the Lord thrice that it might depart from me, 2 Cor. xii. 8. made ver. 33. as if he had said, “ Is this the way you testify | This thrice repeating the same petition argues deep earnestyour affectionate attachment to me? Ye all said you were ness of soul. ready to die with me; what then, cannot you watch one hour ? Verse 45. Sleep on now, and take your rest] Perhaps it
Instead of oux boXUTATE could ye not; the Coder Alerandri- || might be better to read these words interrogatively, and paRets, the later Syriac in the margin, three of the Itala, and raphrase them thus: Do ye sleep on still? Will no warnings Jurencus read oux 15 Xuces, couldst thou not—referring the re- i avail? Will no danger excite you to watchfulness and prayer? proach immediately to Peter, who had made the promises My hour-in which I am to be delivered up, is at hand; mentioned before.
therefore now think of your own personal safety. Verse 41. That ye enter not into temptation] If ye cannot The Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. ] endure a little fatigue when there is no suffering, how will | Ayaqtwhwy, riz, the Gentiles or heathens, who were generally je do when the temptation, the great trial of your fidelity and distinguished by this appellation, from the Jews. Here it Courage, cometh ?
Watch--that ye be not taken unawares; probably means the Roman colort that was stationed on fesand pray--that when it comes ye may be enabled to bear it. tivals, for the defence of the temple. By the Romans he was
The spirit-is willing, but the flesh is weak.) Your incli- || adjudged to death; for the Jews acknowledged that they had nations are good-ye are truly sincere ; but your good pur- | no power in capital cases. See the note on chap. ix. 10. poses will be overpowered by your timidity. Ye wish to con- Verse 46. Rise, let us be going] That is, to meet them, tinue stelfast in your adherence to your Master; but your giring thereby the fullest proof that I know all their designs, Jeners will lead you to desert him.
and might have by flight, or otherwise, provided for my own