« הקודםהמשך »
He institutes the
A. D. 29.
A. M. 4033. and said, Master, is it I? He said • Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and A.M. 20.si An. Olymp. unto him, Thou hast said.
brake it, and gave it to the disciples, An. Olymp. 26
* And as they were eating, and said, Take, eat; "this is my body.
a Alark 14. 22. Luke 92. 19.-01 Cor. 11. 23, 24, 25. Many Greek copies
[upwards of 100] have, gave thanks. See Mark 6. 41.--- 1 Cor. 10. 16.
xugue, Lord, is it I? But, Judas dares not, or will not use this Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, which speaks of the august title, but simply says publ., Teachen, is it I?
same subject, and which, he assures us, he received by divine Thou hast said.] Eu Elmas, or giovaex 79.8 atun amaritun, revelation. It may seem strange, that although John (chap. "ye have said,” was a common form of expression for yes. It xiii. v. 1–38) mentions all the circumstances preceding the
" When the Zipporenses enquired whether Rabbi holy supper, and, from chap. xiv. 1-36. the circum-tances Judas was dead? The son of Kaphra answered, Ye have said,” which succeeded the breaking of the bread, and in chapters i. e. he is dead. See Schoetgen. Ilor. Ilebr. P:
xv. xvi. and xvii. the discourse which followed the administraVerse 26. Jesus took bread] This is the first institution of what tion of the cup; yet he takes no notice of the divine instituis termed the Lord's SUPPER. To every part of this ceremony, tion at all. This is generally accounted for on his knowledge as here mentioned, the utmost attention should be paid. of what the other three Evangelists had written ; and on his
To do this, in the most effectual manner, I thi nk it neces- conviction, that their relation was true, and needed no addisary to set down the text of the thiree Evangelists, who have tional confirmation, as the matter was amply established by transmitted the whole account, collated with that part of St. I, the conjoint testimony of three such respectable witnesses.
After this, our Lord resumes thut discourse which is found in the 15th, 16th, and 17th chapters of John, beginning with the last
verse of chap. xiv. Arise, let us go hence. Then succeed the following words, which conclude the whole ceremony.
JOHN xiv. V. 30. And wlien they had V. 26. And when they had V. 39. And he came out, V.1. When Jesus had spoken sung a hymn, they went out sung a hymn, they went out and went as he was wont to these words, he went forth with into the Nount of Olives, into the Mount of Olives. the Mount of Olives. And his bis disciples over the brook KeThe sacrament of the
disciples also followed him. dron.
Lord's supper instituted.
From the preceding harmonized view of this important | as the clearest light can discern no stain in, might be diffused transaction, as described by three evangelists and one APOSTLE, through the whole soul; and, that truth, the law of righteouswe see the first institution, nature, and design of what has been ness and true boliness, might regulate and guide all the actions since called Tue Lord's Supper. To every circumstance, as set of life. Had the bread used on these occasions been of the down here, and the mode of expression by which such circum- common kind, it would have been perfectly unfit, or improper, stances are described, we should pay the deepest attention. to have communicated these uncommon significations; and, as
Verse 26. As they were eating] Either an ordinary supper, it was seldom used, its rare occurrence would make the emblemor the paschal lamb, as some think.--See the observations at atical representation more deeply impressive; and the sign, and the end of this chapter.
the thing signified, have their due correspondence and influence. Jesus took bread] of what kind? Unleavened bread, cer- These circumstances considered, will it not appear that the tainly, because there was no other kind to be had in all Judea use of common bread in the sacrament of the Lord's supper is at this time; for this was the first day of unleavened bread, highly improper ? He who can say, “ This is a matter of no (ver. 17.) i. e. the 14th of the month Nisan, when the Jews, importance," may say, with equal propriety, the bread itself according to the command of God, (Exod. xii. 15-20. xxiii. is of no importance; and another may say, the wine is of no 15. and xxxiv. 25.) were to purge away all leaven from importance; and a third may say, “ neither the bread nor their houses; for he who sacrificed the pass-over, having leaven, wine is any thing, but as they lead to spiritual references; and in his dwelling, was considered to be such a transgressor of the the spiritual reference being once understood, the signs are divine law as could no longer be tolerated among the people of useless.” Thus we may, through affected spirituality, refine God; and therefore, was to be cut off from the congregation away the whole ordinance of God; and with the letter and of Israel. Leo of Modena, who has written a very sensible form of religion, abolish religion itself.—Many have already treatise on the customs of the Jews, observes, " That so strictly acted in this way, not only to their loss, but to their ruin, by do some of the Jews observe the precept concerning the re- shewing how profoundly wise they are above what is written. moval of all leaven from their houses, during the celebration Let those, therefore, who consider that man shall live by every of the paschal solemnity, that they either provide vessels en word which proceeds from the mouth of God, and who are contirely new for baking, or else have a set for the purpose, which scientiously solicitous that each divine institution be not only are dedicated solely to the service of the pass-over, and never preserved, but observed in all its original integrity, attend to brought out on any other occasion.”
this circumstance. The Lutheran church makes use of unleaTo this divinely instituted custom of removing all leaven vened bread to the present day. previously to the paschal solemnity, St. Paul evidently alludes, And blessed it] Both St. Matthew and St. Mark use the 1 Cor. v. 6, 7, 8. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth word eroyndas, blessed, instead of ruxagosnoas, gave thanks, the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old learen, that ye may which is the word used by St. Lake and St. Paul. But instead be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ, our pass- of evdognoos, blessed, suxaçısnoos, gave thanks, is the reading over, is sacrificed for us; therefore let us keep the feast, not of ten MSS. in uncial characters, of the Dublin Codex rescripwith old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wicked- tus, published by Dr. Barrett, and of more than one hundred ness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. others, of the greatest respectability. This is the reading also of
Now, if any respect should be paid to the primitive institu- the Syriac and Arabic, and is confirmed by several of the tion, in the celebration of this divine ordinance, then, unleavened, Primitive Fathers. The terms, in this case, are nearly of the unyeasted bread should be used. In every sign or type, the thing same import, as both blessing and giving thanks were used on signifying or pointing out that which is beyond itself, should these occasions. But what was it that our Lord blessed ? Not either have certain properties, or be accompanied with certain the bread, though many think the contrary, being deceived circumstances, as expressive as possible, of the thing signified by the word it, which is improperly supplied in our version. Bread, simply considered in itself, may be an emblem apt In all the four places referred to above, whether the word enough of the body of our Lord Jesus, which was given for blessed or gave thanks is used, it refers not to the bread, but to us; but the design of God was evidently that it should not God, the dispenser of every good. Our Lord here conforms only point out this
, but also the disposition required in those himself to that constant Jewish custom, viz. of acknowledging who should celebrate both the antetype and the type; and this God as the author of every good and perfect gift, by giving the apostle explains to be sincerity and truth, the reverse of ma- thanks on taking the bread, and taking the cup at their ordinary lice and wickedness. The very taste of the bread was instructive: meals. For every Jew was forbidden to eat, drink, or use it pointed out to every communicant, that he who came to the any of God's creatures without rendering him thanks; and he table of God with malice or ill-will against any soul of man, who acted contrary to this command, was considered as a or with wickedness, a profligate or sinful life, might expect to person who was guilty of sacrilege. From this custom we eat and drink judgment to himself, as not discerning that the have derived the decent and laudable one of saying grace, Lord's body was sacrificed for this very purpose, that all sin | (gratias thanks) before and after meat. The Jewish form of mäght be destroyed; and that sincerity, Moxgrvua, such purity || blessing, and probably that which our Lord used on this occaThe sacrament of the
Lord's supper instituted.
Baruch atta ברוך אתה אלהינו מלך העולם המוציא לחם מן הארץ
الله الرحمن الرحيم
sion, none of my readers will be displeased to find here, though it the DISTEIBution of the bread are necessary parts of this rite. has been mentioned once before : on taking the bread, they say: In the Romish church, the bread is not broken nor delivered
to the people, that they may take and eat; but the conseElohinoo, Melech, haộlam, ha motse Lechem min haarets. crated wafer is put upon their tongue by the priest, and it
Blessed be thou our God, king of the universe, who bringest is generally understood by the communicants, that they should forth bread out of the earth!
not masticate, but swallow it whole. Likewise on taking the cup, they say:
“ That the breaking of this bread to be distributed,” says : 1937 193 892 Sbryn 759 1958 7102 Baruch Elohinoo, Dr. Whitby, “is a necessary part of this rite is evident, first, Melech, haộlam, Boré perey haggephen.
by the continual mention of it by St. Paul and all the EvanBlessed be our God, the king of the universe, the creator of gelists, when they speak of the institution of this sacrament, the fruit of the cine !
which shews it to be a necessary part of it. Adly, Christ The Mohammedans copy their example, constantly saying says, Take, eat, this is my vody Broken for you, 1 Cor. xi. 24. before and after meat :
But when the elements are not broken, it can be no more said, I
This is my body broken for you, than where the elements are Bismillahi arahmuni arraheemi.
not given. Billy, Our Lord said, Do this in remembrance of In the name of God, the most merciful, the most compassionate.
me, i. e.
" Eat this bread broken, in remembrance of my No blessing therefore of the elements is here intended; they body broken on the cross :” now, where no body broken is were already blessed, in being sent as a gift of mercy from distributed, there, nothing can be eaten in memorial of his the bountiful Lord; but God the sender is blessed, because of broken body. Lastly, The Apostle, by saying, The bread the liberal provision he has made for his worthless creatures. I which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? Blessing and touching the bread, are merely Popish ceremonies
, sufficiently informs us, that the eating of his broken body is unauthorised either by Scripture, or the practice of the pure necessary to that end, 1 Cor. x. 10. Hence it was, that this church of God; necessary of course to them who pretend to
rite of distributing bread broken, continued for a thousand transmute, by a kind of spiritual incantation, the bread and years; and was, as lumbertus testifies, observed in the Roman wine into the real body and blaod of Jesus Christ; a measure, || church in the eleventh century.” Whitby in loco. At prethe grossest in folly and most stupid in nonsense, to which sent, the opposite is as boldly practised, as if the real seripGod in judgment ever abandoned the fallen spirit of man.
tural rite had never been observed in the church of Christ. And brake it] We often read in the Scriptures of breaking
This is my body.] Ilere it must be observed, that Christ bread, but never of cutting it. The Jewish people had no- had nothing in his hands at this time, but part of that unleathing similar to our high raised loaf : their bread was made vened bread which he and his disciples had been eating at broad and thin, and was consequently very brittle, and to di- supper, and therefore he could mean no more than this, viz. vide it, there was no need of a knife.
that the bread which he was now breaking represented his The breuking of the bread, I consider essential to the proper body, which, in the course of a few hours, was to be crucified performance of this solemn and significant ceremony; because for them. Common sense, umsophisticated with superstition this act was designed by our Lord to shadow forth the round and erroneous creeds; and reason, unawed by the secular ing, pierciny, and breaking of his body upon the cross; and sword of sovereign authority, could not possibly take any as all this was essentially necessary to the making a full atone other meaning than this plain, consistent, and rational one, went for the sin of the world; so it is of vast importance that out of these words. “ But,” says a false and absurd creed, this apparently little circumstance, the breaking of the bread, " Jesus meant, when he said noc EsT CORPUS MEUM, this is should be carefully attended to, that the godly communicant my body, and Hic EST CALIX SANGUINIS MEI, this is the chalice may have every necessary assistance to enable him to discern of my blood, that the bread and wine were substantially changed the Lord's body, while engaged in this most important and into his body, including flesh, blood, bones, yea, the whole divine of all God's ordinances. But who does not see that Christ, in his immaculate humanity and adorable divinity!" ene small cube of fermented, i. e. leavened bread, previously And for denying this, what rivers of righteous blood have divided from the mass with a knife, and separated by the been shed by state persecutions and by religious wars! Well fingers of the minister, can never answer the end of the in- may
be asked, “Can any man of sense believe, that when stitution, either as to the matter of the bread, or the mode of Christ took up that bread and broke it, that it was his own dividing it? Man is naturally a dull and heedless creature, body which he held in his own hands, and which himself especially in spiritual things, and has need of the utmost as- broke to pieces, and which he and his disciples ate?" He sistance of his senses, in union with those expressive rites and who can believe such a congeries of absurdities, cannot be ceremonies which the Holy Scripture, not tradition, has sanc- || said to be a volunteer in faith ; for it is evident, the man can tioned, in order to enable him to arrive at spiritual things, neither have faith nor reason, as to this subject. through the medium of earthly similitudes.
Let it be observed, if any thing further is necessary on this And gave it to the disciples) Not only the breaking, but also point, that the Paschal Lamb is called the Pass-oter, because
The sacrament of the
it represented the destroying angel's passing over the children to live miserably: rectè Esse, to enjoy good lealth : est mihi of Israel, while he slew the first-born of the Egyptians : and fistula, I POSSESS u flute : Est hodie in rebus, he now ENJOYS our Lord and his disciples call this lamb the Puss-over, seve- a plentiful fortune : EST mihi namque domi pater, I HAVE (k ral times in this chapter ; by which it is demonstrably evident, father at home, &c. Esse soltendo, to be able to pay: FUIMUS that they could mean no more than that the lamb sacrificed || Troes, Fuit Ilium; the Trojans are Extinct, Troy is NO MORE. on this occasion was a memorial of, and REPRESENTED the means In Greek also, and Hebrew, it often signifies to live, to die, used for the preservation of the Israelites from the blast of the to be killed. Oux EIMI, I am DEAD, or a dead man. Matt. destroying angel
ii. 13. Rachel weeping for her children, oti ovx E121, because Besides, our Lord did not say, hoc est corpus meum, (this is they WERE MURDERED. Gen. xlii. 36. Joseph is not, 133X70* any body) as he did not speak in the Latin tongue; though as | Yoseph einennu, Iwong oux EETIN, Sept. Joseph is DEVOURED much stress has been laid upon this quotation from the Vul- by a WILD BEAST. Rom. iv. 17. Calling the things that are gate, as if the original of the three Evangelists had been writ- not, as if they were ALIVE. So Plutarch in Laconicis: “ This ten in the Latin language. Ilad he spoken in Latin, follow- shield thy father always preserved; preserve thou it, or may ing the idior of the Vilgate, he would bave said, Panis hic thou not be:” Hun EXO, may thou PeriSH. ΟΥΚ ΟΝΤΕΣ corpus meum significat, or, Symbolum est corporis mei :-hoc 9206, ABROGATED luus. EIMI ŁY fuos, I possess a sound 2.2poculum sanguinem meum representat, or, symbolum est sangui- derstanding. Eus Tatiga petv EEOMAI, I will PERFORM the mis mei :--this bread signifes my body; this cup represents my PART of a father to you. EIMI INSTONEWS TOS de, I am an inblood. But let it be obserred, that in the Hebrew, Chaldee, Habitant of that city. 1 Tim. i. 7. Desiring to be teachers of and Chaldeo-Syriac languages, there is no term which ex- the law, Dinoyte; EINAI vomodidarrado, desiting to be REPUTED presses to mean, signify, denote, though both the Greek and teachers of the law, i. e. Able divines. T& ONTA, the things that Latin abound with them : bience the Hebrews use a figure, are, i. e. NOBLE and Honourable men: ta un ONTA, the things and say, it is, for, it signifies. So Gen. xli. 26, 27. The seven that are not, viz. the vulgar, or those of IGNOBLE BIRTH. kine Ate (i. e. represent) seven years. This is (represents the Tertullian seems to have had a correct notion of those words bread of afliction which our fathers ate in the land of Egyp. of our Lord, Acceptum punem, et distributum discipulis, corpus Dan. vii. 24. The ten horns are (i. e. signify) ten kings. They illum suum fecit, hoc est CORPUS neum dicendo, id est, FIGURA drank of the spiritual Rock which followed them, and the Rock | corporis mei. Advers. Marc. I. v. c. 40. “ Having taken the WAS (represented) Christ. 1 Cor. . 4. And following this bread, and distributed that body to liis disciples, he made it his Hebrew idiom, though the work is written in Greek, we find body by saying, This is my body, i. e. a figure of my body." in Rev. i. 20. The sez en stars are (represent) the angels of the
That our Lord neither spoke in Greek nor Latin, on this sten churches : and the seven canıdlesticks are (represent) the occasion, needs no proof. It was, most probably, in what seren churches. The same form of speech is used in a variety
was formerly called the Chaldaic, now the Syriac, that our of places in the New Testament, where this sense must neces
Lord conversed with his disciples. Through the providence sarily be given to the word. Matt. xiii. 38, 39. The field 18 of God, we have complete versions of the Gospels in this (represents) the world: the good sced are (represent or sig-language; and in them it is likely we have the precise words nify) the children of the kingdom : the tares are (signify) the spoken by our Lord on this occasion. In Matt. xxvi. 2 and eh Idren of the wicked one. The enemy is (signifies) the deril:
27. the words in the Syriac version are, the harrest is (represents) the end of the rorld: the reapers
wings ARE (1. e. signify) the angels. Luke viii. 9. What might this hanau pagree, this is my body, cedo! Oon hanau demee, parable be? Tos ElH n cazuloan auth;--What does chis parable this is my blood, of which forms of speech the Greek is a verSIGNIFY? John vii. 36. Tos EETIN OUTOS o 1070; ; What is the bal translation ; nor would any man, even in the present day, SIGNIFICATION of this siuying? Jolin x. 6. They understood speaking in the same language, use, among the people to not what things they werE, TWC HN, what was the significa- whom it was vernacular, other terms than the above to exTion of the things he had spoken to them. Acts x. 17. To av press, This represents my body, and this represents my blood. EIH 50 ogasus, what this vision might BE; properly rendered But this form of speech is common, even in our own lanby our translators, what this vision should nean. Gal. iv. 21. guage, though we have terms enow to fill up the ellipsis. For these are the two covenants, artus yas FILIN « duo doo-Suppose a man entering into a museum, enriched with the reOrxes, these siGNIFY the two covenants. Luke xv. 26. Ile ask-mains of ancient Greek sculpture; his eyes are attracted by a ed, Ti EIH : AUTO, what these things MEANT. See also chap. number of curious busts; and on enquiring what they are, xviii
. 36. After such unequivocal testimony from the Sacred he learns, ibis is Socrates," that Plato, a third Ilomer ; others Writings, can any person doubt that, This bread is my body, Hesiod, Ilorace, Virgil, Demosthenes, Cicero, Herodotus, has any other meaning than, This breud nupREsENts my body? | Livy, Cæsar, Nero, Vespasian, &c. Is be deceived by this
The Latins use the verb sum, in all its forms, with a similar information ? Not at all: he knows well that the busts he latitude of meaning. So, esse oneri ferendo, he is able to secs are not the identical persons of those ancient philosophers, beur the burtlen : benè Esse, to LIVE sumptuously : malè essi.. | poets, orators, historians, and emperors, but only REPRESENT
The sacrament of the
Lord's supper instituted.
27 And he took the cup, and gave 28 For this is my blood of the A. M. 1083. An. Olymp. thanks, and gave it to them, saying, New Testament, which is shed for in. Olymp. * Drink ye all of it;
many, for the remission of sins.
a Mark 14. 23.--- See Exod. 24. 8. Lev. 17. 11.
Jer. 31. 31.
- ch. 20. 28. Rom. 5. 15. Hebr. 9. 22.
ations of their persons in sculpture, between which and the there is none without its appropriate and deeply emphatic originals, there is as essential a difference as between a human meaning. So it is written Ephes. v. 2. Christ hath loved us, body, instinct with all the principles of rational vitality, and and given himself, utez mewy, on our account, or in our stead, a block of marble. When, therefore, Christ took up a piece an offering and a sacrIFICE (suora) to God for a sweet-smellof bread, brake it, and said, This is my body, who but the ing suvour, that, as in the sacrifice offered by Noah, Gen. most stupid of mortals could imagine that he was, at the same viii. 21. (to which the Apostle evidently alludes) from which time, handling and breaking his own body! Would not any it is said, The Lord smelled a sweet savour, noun nan riach haperson, of plain common sense, see as great a difference be- nichoach, a savour of rest, so that he became appeased towards tween the man Christ Jesus and the piece of bread, as between the earth, and determined that there should no more be a the block of marble and the philosopher it represented, in the flood to destroy it ; in like manner, in the offering and sacricase referred to above? The truth is, there is scarcely a more fice of Christ for us, God is appeased towards the human common form of speech in any language, than, this is, for, race; and has in consequence decreed, that whosoever believeth this REPRESENTS or siGNIFIES. And as our Lord refers, in the in him shall not perish, but hare everlasting life. whole of this transaction, to the ordinance of the Pass-over, Verse 27. And he took the cup] Meta To SENTYRTE», after we may consider him as saying, “ This bread is now my having supped, Luke xxii. 20. and 1 Cor. xi. 25. Whether body, in that sense in which the Paschal Lamb has been my the supper was on the paschal lamb, or whether it was a combody hitherto; and this cup is my blood of the New Testa- non or ordinary meal, I shall not wait here to enquire : see at ment, in the same sense as the blood of bulls and goats has the end of this chapter. In the parallel place in Luke xxii, been my
blood under the Old : Exod. xxiv. Heb. ix. That we find our Lord taking the cup, ver. 17. and again ver. 19. is, The Paschal Lamb and the sprinkling of blood, repre-l by the former of which was probably meant the cup of blesssented my sacrifice to the present time : this bread and this ing, 1990n dia kos haberakah, which the master of a family wine shall represent my body and blood through all future took, and after blessing God, gave to each of his guests by ages : therefore, Do this in remembrance of me.”
way of welcome: but this second taking the cup, is to be unSt. Luke and St. Paul add a circumstance here which is derstood as belonging peculiarly to the very important rite, not noticed either by St. Matthew or St. Mark. After, this which he was now instituting, and on which he lays a very is my body, the former adds, which is giren for you ; the lat- remarkable stress. With respect to the bread, he had before ter, which is broken for you : the sense of which is, “ As God simply said, Tuke, eat, this is my body; but concerning the has in his bountiful providence given you bread for the suste- | cup, he says, drink ye all of this : for as this pointed out the nance of your lives, so in his infinite grace, he has given you very essence of the institution, viz. the blood of atonement, it my body to save your souls unto life eternal. But as this was necessary that each should have a particular application bread must be broken and masticated, in order to its becom- of it, therefore he says, Drink ye all of this. By this we ing proper nourishment, so my body must be broken, i. e. are taught that the cup is essential to the sacrament of the crucified for you, before it can be the bread of life to your Lord's supper; so that they who deny the cup to the people, souls. As therefore your life depends on the bread which sin against God's institution; and they who receive not the God's bounty has provided for your bodies, so your eternal cup, are not partakers of the body and blood of Christ. If life depends on the sacrifice of my body on the cross for your either could without mortal prejudice be omitted, it might be -souls.” Besides, there is here an allusion to the offering of the bread; but the cup, as pointing out the blood poured out, sacrifices--an innocent creature was brought to the altar of | i. e. the life, by which alone the great sacrificial act is perGod, and its blood (the life of the beast) was poured out for, formed, and remission of sins procured, is absolutely indisor in behalf of the person who brought it. Thus Christ says, pensable. On this ground it is demonstrable, that there is alluding to the sacrifice of the paschal lamb, This is my body, not a priest under heaven, who denies the cup to the people, TO UTER wuwy didou srov, which is given in your stead, or in your that can be said to celebrate the Lord's supper at all ; nor is behalf; a free gift from God's endless mercy for the salva- there one of their votaries that ever received the holy sacration of your souls. This is my body, to vtip wewe mwuevov, ment. All pretension to this is an absolute farce, so long as (1 Cor. xi. 24.) which is broken-sacrificed in your stead ; as the cup, the emblem of the atoning blood, is denied. How without the breaking (piercing) of the body, and spilling of strange is it, that the very men who plead so much for the the blood, there was no remission.
bare literal meaning of this is my body, in the preceding verse, In this solemn transaction we must weigh every word, as I should deny all meaning to drink ye All of this cup, in this