« הקודםהמשך »
The hypocrisy, superstition, and cruelly Sr. MATTHEW.
of the Scribes and Pharisees. 25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pha 28 Even so ye also outwardly appear A.M. 4033 An. Olymp. risees, hypocrites ! ' for ye make clean righteous unto men, but within ye are An. Olymp.
the outside of the cup and of the full of hypocrisy and iniquity. platter, but within they are full of extortion 29 'Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hy. and excess.
pocrites! because ye build the tombs of the 26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the is within the cup and platter, that the outside of righteous, them may be clean also.
30 And say, If we had been in the days of 27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hy- our fathers, we would not have been partakers pocrites ! "for ye are like unto whited sepul- with them in the blood of the prophets. chres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, 31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of that 'ye are the children of them which killed all uncleanness.
* Mark 7. 4. Luke 11, 39.- Luke 11. 44. Acts 23. 3.
Luke 11. 47.
-- Acts 7. 51, 52. 1 Thess. 2. 15.
Lorde M.CCCCC.XLVII. the fyrste yere of the kynges what will this appearance avail, a man, when God sits in (Exlwd. VI) moste gracious reygne” in which the verse judgment upon his soul! Will the fair reputation which he stands thus : Ye blinile gides, which struyne out a gnat, and had acquired among men while his heart was the seat of unswalowe a cummel. It is the same also in Edmund Becke's righteousness, screen, him from the stroke-of that justice, Bible, printed in London 1549, and in several others.-Olen- which impartially sends all impurity and unboliness into the fyngi a gnatt?.--MS. Eng Bib. so Wickliff.
pit of destruction ? No. In the sin that he hath sinned, Verse 25. Ye muke clean the outside} The Pharisees were and in which he hath died, and according to that, shall he be exceedingly exact in observing all the washings and purifica- judged and punished; and his profession of holiness only tendo tions prescribed by the law; but paid no attention to that in to sink him deeper into the lake which burns with unquenchWard purity which was typified by them. A man may ap- able fire. Reader.! see that thy heari be right with God. pear clean without, who is unclean within : but outward pu Verse 29. Ye build the tombs of the prophets] It appears, rity will not avail in the sight of God, where inward holiness that through respect to their memory, they often repaired, is wanting.
and sometimes beautified the tombs of the prophets, M. Ertortion and ercess.] 'Agrayns xar axgxoras, rapine and in- || De la Vallé, in his journey to the Holy Land, says, that temperance: but instead of axşagios, intemperance, many of when he visited the cave of Machpeluk, he saw some Jews the very best MSS. CEFGHJKS. and more than a hundred honouring a sepulchre, for which they have a great veneraothers, the Syriac, Arabic, Æthiopic, Slavonic, with Chrysos- tion, with lighting at it wax candles, and burning perfumes. tom, Luthym. and Theophylact, have a dexias, injustice, which See Harmer, vol. ill. p. 416. And in ditto, p. 424, we are Griesbach has admitted into the text instead of anpuosas. informed that building tombs over those reputed suints, or The latter Syriac has both. Several MSS. and versions have beautifying those already built, is a frequent custom among unalagoras, uncleanness: others have povišias, coretousness : the Mohammedans. soine have Toungras, wickedness ; and two of the ancients have Verse 30. We would not huve been partakers] They iminiquitate, iniquity. Suppose we put them all together, the agined themselves much better than their ancestors; but our character of the Pharisee will not be overcharged. They Lord, who knew what thicy would do, uncovers their hearts, were full of rapine and intemperance, injustice and unclean- and shews them that they are about to be more alıundantly ness, coritousness, wickedness, and iniquity.
vile tban all who had ever preceded thein. Verse 27. For ye are like) Ilagorosame, ye eractly resem Verse 31. Ye be witnesses] Ye acknowledge that ye are ble-the parallel is complete.
the children of those murderers, and ye are about to give Wked sepulchres] White-wasked tombs. As the law con- full proof that ye are not degeneruted. sidered those unclean who had touched any thing belonging There are many who think, that bad they lived in the time to the dead, the Jews took care to have their tombs white- of our Lord, they would not have acted towards him as the washed cach year, that being easily discovered, they might Jews did. But we can scarcely believe, that they who reject be consequently uvoided.
his gospel, trample under foot his precepts, do despite to the Verse 28. Even so ye also appear righteous unto men] But Spirit of his grace, love sin, and hate his followers, would
A. M. 1083.
A D. 29.
The judgments of God
denounced against them. 32 · Fill ye up then the measure of of them ye shall kill and crucify; and A. 111033. An. Olymp. your fathers.
some of them shall ye scourge in your an. Olymp. 33 Ye serpents, ye generation of synagogues, and persecute them from vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of city to city : hell?
35 'That upon you may come all the right34 F Wherefore, behold, I send unto you pro- eous blood shed upon the earth, from the phets, and wise men, and scribes : and some blood of righteous Abel, unto the blood of
* Gen. 15. 16. 1 Thess. 2. 16.-_ch. 3.7. & 12. 34. ch. 21. 54, 35.
Luke 11. 49. Acts 5. 40. & 7. 58, 59. & 22. 19.
• Ch. 10. 17. 2 Cor. 11. 24, 25. of Rev. 18. 24.
S. 12.-- 2 Cliron. 24. 20, 21.
Gen. 4. 8. 1 John.
hare acted otherwise to him than the murdering Jews, had Every person must see, with what propriety this was apthey lived in the same times.
plied to the Jews, who were about to murder the very person Verse 32. Fill ye up then] Notwithstanding the profession who gave them their being and all their blessings. you make, ye will fill up the measure of your fathers--will Verse 34. Wherefore] To shew how my prediction, Ye will continue to walk in their way, accomplish the fulness of every fill up the measure of your fathers, shall be verified, Behold, I send evil purpose by murdering me; and then, when the measure (I am just going to commission them) prophets, &c. and some of your iniquity is full, vengeance shall come upon you to ye will kill, (with legal process) and some ye will crucify, the uttermost, as it did on your rebellious ancestors. The pretend to try and find guilty, and deliver them into the 31st verse should be read in a parenthesis, and then the 320 hands of the Romans, who shall, through you, thus put them will appear to be what it is, an inference from the 30th. to death. See on Luke xi. 49. By prophets, wise men, and
Ye will fill up, or, fill ye up-asang woate but it is manifest Scribes, our Lord intends the evangelists, apostles, deacons, that the imperative is put here for the future, a thing quite &e. who should be employed in proclaiming his gospel : men consistent with the Hebrew idiom, and frequent in the Scrip- who should equal the ancient prophets, their wise men, and tures. So John ii, 19. Destroy this temple, &c. i. e. Ye will de- Seribes, in all the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit. stroy or pull down this temple, and I will rebuild it in three Verse 35. Upon the earth] ETK tns yns, upon this land, days—Ye will crucify me, and I will rise again the third meaning probably the land of Judea ; for thus the word is day. Two good MSS. have the word in the future tense : often to be understood. The national punishment of all the and my old MS. bible has it in the present-Gee (ye) fulfillen innocent blood which had been shed in the land, shall speedily the malurt of goure (your) fabris.
come upon you ; from the blood of Abel the just, the first proVerse 33. Ye serpents, ye generation of ripers) What a phet and preacher of righteousness, Heb. xi. 4. 2 Pet. ii. 5. terrible stroke-Ye are serpents, and the offspring of ser- to the blood of Zachariak, the son of Baruchiuh. It is likepents. This refers to ver. 31. they confessed that they werely that our Lord refers to the murder of Zachariah, menthe children of those who murdered the prophets; and they | tioned 2 Chron. xxiv. 20. who said to the people, Why transare now going to murder Christ and his followers, to shew gress ye the commandments of God, so that ye cannot prosper? that they have not degenerated-an accursed seed, of an ac- Because you have forsaken the Lord, he hath forsaken you. cursed breed. My old MS. translates this place oddly--Ozz And they conspired against him and stoned him--at the comstrpentis, fruytis of burrolnyugis of eddris chat sleen her modris. mandment of the king, in the court of the house of the Lord. There seems to be here an allusion to a common opinion, And when he died, he suid, The Lord look upon and require that the young of the adder or viper which are brought it: ver. 21, forth alive, eat their way through the womb of their mo- But it is objected, that this Zachariah was called the soń thers. Hence that ancient ænigma attributed to Lactantius: of Jehoiada, and our Lord calls this one the son of Baru
chiah. Let it be observed, 1. That double names were freNon possum nasci, si non occidero matrem.
quent among the Jews, and sometimes the person was called Occidi matrem : sed me manct exitus idem.
by one, sometimes by the other. Compare 1 Sam. ix. 1. with Id mea mors faciet, quod jam mea fecit origo.
1 Chron. viii. 33. where it appears that the father of Kish Cal. Firm. Symposium, N. xv. had two names, Abiel and Ner. So Matthew is called Levi,
compare Matt. ix. 9. with Mark ii. 14. So Peter was also I never can be born, nor see the day
called. Simon, and Lebbeus was called Thaddeus, Matt. x. "Till through my parent's womb I eat my way.
2, 3. Her I have slain; like her must yield my breath, 2. That Jerom says, that in the gospel of the Nazarenes; For that which gave me life, shall cause my death. it was Jehoiada, instead of Baruchiak.
A 21.933. Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye 37 °O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that A. 11. 433. An. Olymp. slew between the temple and the altar. killest the prophets, and stonest them an. Olyap.
36 Verily I say unto you, All these which are sent unto thee, how often things shall come upon this generation. would ‘I have gathered thy children together,
• Luke 13. 31.-02 Chron. 24. 21.
• Deut. S2. 11, 12. 9 Esdr. 1. 30.
3. That Jehoiada and Barachiah have the very same mean- therefore wrath, i. e. punishment, came upon them to the uting, the praise or blessing of Jehovah.
termost. From this it is evident, that there have been persons 4. That as the Lord required the blood of Zachariah so whom Christ wished to save, and bled to save, who notwithfully, that in a year all the princes of Judah and Jerusalem standing perished, because they would not come unto him, John were destroyed by the Syrians, and Joash, who commanded v. 40. The metaphor which our Lord uses here is a very the murder, slain by his own servants, 2 Chron. xxiv. 23—25. beautiful one. When the ben sees a bird of prey coming, and their state grew worse and worse, till at last the temple she makes a noise to assemble her chickens, that she may was burned, and the people carried into captivity by Nebu- cover them with her wings from the danger. The Roman , zaradan :-so it should be with the present race. The Lord cagle is about to fall upon the Jewish state--nothing can prewould, after the crucifixion of Christ, visit upon them the vent this but their conversion to God through Christ Jesus murder of all those rigliteous men, that their state should cries throughout the land, publishing the gospel of reconciliagrow worse and worse, till at last the temple should be de- tion—they would not assemble, and the Roman eagle came stroyed, and they finally ruined by the Romans. See this and destroyed them. The hen's affection to her brood is so prediction in the next chapter : and see Dr. Whithy concern- very strong as to become proverbial. The following beautiful ing Zachariah, the son of Barachiab.
Greek epigram taken from the Anthologia, affords a very fine Some think that our Lord refers, in the spirit of prophecy, illustration of this text. to the murder of Zacharias, son of Baruch, a rich Jew, who
Χειμεριαώς νιφαδεσσι παλυνομενα τιθας ορνις: was judged, condemned, and massacred in the temple by the
Τεχνοις ευκαιας αμφεχεε πτερυγας». Idumean zealots, because he was rich, a lover of liberty, and
Μεσφα μιν ουρανσον κρυος αλεσεν η γας εμεινεν a hater of wickedness. They gave him a mock trial, and
Αιθερος ουρανιων αντιπαλος, νεφεων. when no evidence could be brought against him, of his being
Προκνη και Μεδεια, κατ' αιδος αιδεσθητε, guilty of the crime they laid to his charge, viz. a design to
Μητερες, ορνιθων εργα διδασκομεναι. betray the city, to the Roinans, and his judges had pro
Anthol. lib. i. Tit. lxxxvii. edit. Bosch.
p. nounced him innocent, two of the stoutest of the zealots fell
Beneath her fostering wing the defends upon him and slew him in the middle of the temple. See JQ
Her darling offspring, while the snow descends; sephus, war, b. iv. chap. v. s. 5. See Crevier, vol. vi.
172. History of the Roman Emperors. Others imagine, that Za
Throughout the winter's day unmov'd defies
The chilling fleeces and inclement skies; chariah, one of the minor prophets, is meant, who might
Till vanquish'd by the cold and piercing blast, have been massacred by the Jews: for, though the account is
True to her charge, she perishes at last ! not come down to us, our Lord might have it from a well known tradition in those times. But the former opinion is
O Fame! to hell this fowl's affection bear;
Tell it to Progné and Medea there :every way the most probable.
To mothers such as those, the tale unfold; Between the temple and the altar.] That is, between the
And let them blush to hear the story told ! sanctuary and the altar of burnt-offerings.
T. Green. Verse 36. Shall come upon this generation.] Eti Tmv YEYEXY This epigram contains a happy illustration not only of our Tavtni, upon this ruce of men, viz. the Jews. This phrase Lord's simile, but also of his own conduct. How long had often occurs in this sense, in the evangelists.
these thankless and unholy people been the objects of his tenVerse 37. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem] 1. It is evident that derest cares! For more than 2000 years, they engrossed the eur blessed Lord seriously and earnestly wished the salvation most peculiar regards of the most beneficent Providence; and of the Jews. 2. That he did every thing that could be done during the three years of our Lord's public ministry, his consistently with his own perfectious, and the liberty of his preaching and miracles had but one object and aim, the increatures to effect this. 3. That his tears over the city, Luke | struction and salvation of this thoughtless and disobedient xix. 41. sufficiently evince his sincerity. 4. That these per- people. For their sakes, he who was rich became poor, that sons nevertheless perished. And 5. That the reason was, they through his poverty might be rich :--for their sakes, be they would not be gethered together under his protection : made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form
The temple, city, and people
shall be destroyed. even as a hen gathereth her chickens 39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not 4.1.2. An Olymp.
* under her wings, and ye would not ! see me henceforth, till ye shall say, An. Ogmp. 38 Behold, your house is left unto
Blessed is he that cometh in the name you desolate.
of the Lord.
of a sertant, and became obedient unto death, even the death
2. For their rapacity and pretended sanctity in order to of llie cross! He died, that they might not perish, but have
secure their secular ends : Ye devour widows' houses, &c. everlasting life. Thus, to save their life, he freely abandoned ver. 14. his own.
3. For their pretended zeal to spread the kingdom of God Verse 38. Behold, your house] O 01x05, the temple :--this by making proselytes, when they had no other end in view is certainly what is meant. It was once the Lord's temple,
than forming instruments for the purposes of their oppression God's own house, but now he says, your temple or house-to and cruelty: Ye compuss sca und land, &c. ver. 15. intimale that God had abandoned it. See the note on ver. 21.
4. For their bad doctrine and false interpretations of the See also on Luke xii. 35.
Scriptures, and their dispensing with the most solemn oaths Verse 39. Ye shall not see me] I will remove my gospel and vows at pleasure: Ye blind guides, which suy, Whosoever from you, and withdraw my protection.
shull szwear by the temple, it is nothing, &c. ver. 16-22. Till ye shall say, Blessed] Till after the fulness of the Gen 5. For their superstitiou in scrupulously attending to little tiles is brought in, when the word of life shall again be sent things, and things not commanded, and omitting matters of unto you, then will ye rejoice, and bless, and pruise him that | great importance, the practice of which God had especially cometh in the name of the Lord, with full and final salvation enjoined: Ye pay tithe of mint and cummin, &c. ver. 23, 24. for the last sheep of the house of Israel. See Rom. xi. 26, 27. 6. For their hypocrisy, pretending saintship, and endea
vouring to maintain decency in their outward conduct, while Our Lord plainly foresaw, that in process of time, a spi- they had no other object in view than to deceive the people, ritual doinination would arise in his church ; and to prevent and make them acquiesce in their oppressive measures : Ye: its evil influence, he leaves the strong warnings against it, make clean the outside of tle cup, ver. 25, 26. which are contained in the former part of this chapter. As 7. For the depth of their inward depravity and abominathe religion of Christ is completely spiritual, and the influence tion, having nothing good, fair, or supportable, but the mere by which it is produced and maintained, must come from outside.—Most hypocrites and wicked' men have some good : heaven; therefore, there could be no master or head but but these were radically coi totally evil; Ye are like unto himself: for as the Church (the assemblage of true believers). whited sepulchres-within full-of all uncleanness, ver. 27, 28. is his body, all its intelligence, light, and life, must proceed 8. For their pretended concern for the holiness of the peofrom him alone. Our forefathers noted this well ; and this ple, which proceeded no farther than to keep them free from . was one of the grand arguments by which they overturned such pollutions as they might accidentally and innocently con . the papal pretensions to supremaey in this country. In a tract, by casually stepping on the place where a person had been note on ver. 9. in a Bible published by Edmund Becke in l buried : -and for their affected regret that their fathers had 1549, the 4th of Edward VI. we find the following words : killed the prophets, while themselves possessed and cultivated Call no man your father upon the earth. Here is the Bishoppe of the same murderous inclinations : Ye-garnish the sepulehres Rome Dedarid a plaine Antichriste, in that he woulde be called the of the righteous, and say, If rue had been, &c. ver. 29; 30. most hospe father; and that all Christen men shoulde acknowledge hym. It is amazing with what power and authority: our blessed for no lessz tişen their spyritnall kithir notwithstandinge these playne Lord reproves this bad people. This was the last discourse lordis of Christi. It is true, nothing can be plainer; and yet, they ever heard from him : and it is surprising, considering in the face of these commands, the pope has claimed the ho their wickedness; that they waited even for a mock trial, and : pour; and millions of men have been so stupid as to concede did not rise up at once and destroy him. But the time was it. May those days of darkness, tyranny, and disgrace, not yet come, in which he was to lay down his life, for no never return !
man could take it from him. From the 13th to the 39th verse, our Lord 'pronounces While he appears in this last discourse with all the authoeight woes or rather pathetic declarations against the Scribes rity of a lawgiver and judge, he at the same time shews the and Pharisees. 1. For their unwillingness to let the common tenderness and compassion of a friend and a father : he bepeople enjoy the pure word of God, or its right explanation : holds their awful state-his eye affects his heart, and he Ye sinut up the kingdom, &c, ver. 13.
weeps over them! Were not the present hardness and final.
Prophecy of the destruction
of the temple.
perdition of these ungodly men entirely of themselves ? | over the unavoidable consequences of his own sovereign deterCould Jesus as the Supreme God, have fixed their reprobation minations? How absurd as well as shocking is the thought! from all eternity by any necessitating decree; and yet weep || This is Jewish exclusion : Credit Judæus Apella—non ego.
CHAP. XXIV. Christ foretells the destruction of the temple, 1, 2. His disciples enquire when and what shall be the signs of this
destruction, 3. Our Lord answers, and enumerates them-false Christs, 5. Wars, fumines, pestilences, and earthquakes, 6–8. Persecution of his followers, 9. Apostacy from the truth, 10—15. Generul spread of the gospel, 14. We foretells the investment of the city by the Romans, 15—18. The calamities of those times, 1922. Warns them against seduction by false prophets, 23—26. The suddenness of these calamities, 27, 28. Total destruction of the Jewish polily, 29–31. The whole illustrated by the parable of a fig tree, 32, 33. The certainty of the event, though the tine is concealed, 34–36. Careless state of the people, 37–41. The necessity of watchfulness and fidelity, illustrated by the parable of the two servants, one faithful, the other wicked, 42-51.
ND *Jesus went out, and de- him the buildings of the temple. 4. M. 4033 In. Olymp.
A. M. 4038.
parted from the temple : and 2 And Jesus said unto them, See An. Olymp. his disciples came to him for to shew ye not all these things ? Verily I say
a Ch. 23. 38. Hag. 2. 9. Mal. 3. 1. Mark 13. 1.
Luke 21. 5.
Mic. 3. 12.
Luke-21. 3, &c.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXIV.
Verse 2. See ye not all these things ?] The common text, This chapter contains a prediction of the utter destruction and many manuscripts have ou Baemiti, do ye not see, or conof the city and temple of Jerusalem, and the subvereion of | sider. But the negative particle is omitted by several excelthe whole political constitution of the Jews'; and is one of lent manuscripts, by the Coptic, Sahidic, Armenian, Etbithe most valuable portions of the New Covenant Scriptures, opic, Slavonic, Vulgate, and Itala versions, and by some of with respect to the evidence which it furnishes of the truth of the primitive fathers, who all read it thus, See, or consider all Christianity. Every thing what our Lord foretold should these things. come on the temple, city, and people of the Jews, has been There shall not be left here, one stone] These seeni to have fulfilled in the most correct and astonishing manner; and been the last words he spoke as he left the temple, into whicli witnessed by a writer who was present during the whole, he never afterwards entered: and when he got to the mount who was himself a Jew, and is acknowledged to be a histo- of Olives he renewed the discourse. From this mount, on rian of indisputable veracity in all those transactions which which our Lord and his disciples now sat, the whole of the concern the destruction of Jerusalem. Without having de- city, and particularly the temple, were clearly seen. This signed it, he has written a commentary on our Lord's words, | part of our Lord's prediction was fulfilled in the most literal and shewn how every tittle was panctually fulfilled, though manner. Josephus says, War, book vii. c. l. he knew nothing of the scripture which contained this re orders that they should now demolish the whole city and tormarkable prophecy. His account will be frequently referred ple, TE TONY 0700CY XX. tov x£Ww XOTATXETTEV, except the three to in the course of these notes; as alsu the admirable work towers, Phaselus, Hippicus, and Mariamne, and a part of of Bishop Neuton on the Prophecies.
the western wall, and these were spared; but for all the rest Verse 1. And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple) of the wall it was laid so completely even with the ground, Or, And Jesus going out of the temple, was going away. This by those who dug it up to the foundation, that there was is the arrangement of the words in several eminent manu left nothing to make those that came thither believe it had scripts, versions, and fathers; and is much clearer than that ever been inhabited.” Maimonides, a Jewish Rabbin, in in the common translation. The Jews say the temple was Tract. Taanith, c. 4. says, “ That the very foundations of builded of white and green spotted marble. See Lightfoot. the temple were digged up, according to the Roman custom.' Josephus says the stones were white and strong; fifty feet His words are these, “ On that ninth day of the month Ab, Jong, twenty-four broad, and sixteen thick. Antiq. b. 15. fatal for vengeance, the wicked Turnus Rufus, of the chilc. xi. See Mark xiii. 1.
dren of Edom, ploughed up the temple, and the places
“ Cæsar gave