תמונות בעמוד

Jonah a sign of Christ's


death and resurrection.

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39 But he answered and said unto 40 • For as Jonas was three days A. 11.4931. An. Olymp. them, An evil and · adulterous gene- and three nights in the whale's belly: An.Olymp.

ration seeketh after a sign ; and there so shall the Son of man be three days shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the and three nights in the heart of the earth. prophet Jonas :

41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judg

* Isai. 57. 3. ch. 16. 4. Mark 8. 38. John 4. 48.

o Jonah 1. 17. — Luke 11. 32.


Verse 38. We would see a sign from thee.] That is, we wish | in vindication of the propriety of the expression in the text. now to see thee work a miracle. Pride, vain curiosity, and For farther satisfaction, the Reader, if he please, may conincredulity, have never proof sufficient of the truth: for they sult Whitby and Wakefeld, and take the following from Lightwill not be satisfied.

foot. Verse 39. An evil and adulterous generation] Or, race of peo- ~ I. The Jewish writers extend that memorable station of ple; for so yeysa should be translated here, and in most other the unmoving sun at Joshun's prayer, to six and thirty hours ; places in the Gospels ; for our Lord, in general, uses it to for so Kimchi upon that place. According to anore exact point out the Jewish people. This translation is a key to un interpretation, the sun and moon stood still for six and thirty lock some very obscure passages in the Evangelists.

hours : for when the fight was on the eve of the subbath, Joshua Seeketh after a sign] Or, seeketh another sign, (+37T8) so feared lest the Israelites might break the sabbath, therefore he I think this word should be translated. Our Lord had already' spread abroad his hands, that the sun might stand still on the given the Jews several signs: and here they desire sign upon sixth day, according to the meusure of the day of the sabbath, sign.

and the moon according to the measure of the night of the subOur Lord terms the Jews an adulterous race. Under | bath, and of the going out of the sabbath, which amounts to six the Old Covenant, the Jewish nation was represented as in a | und thirty hours.' marriage contract with the Lord of hosts; as believers, in “ II. If you number the hours that passed from our Savithe New Covenant, are represented as the spouse of Christ, our’s giving up the ghost upon the cross to his resurrection, all unfaithfulness and disobedience was considered as a breach you shall find almost the same number of hours; and yet of this marriage contract : hence the persons who were thus that space is called by him three days and three nights, whereguilty, are denominated adulterers and adultresses. But in- as two nights only came between, and only one complete day. dependantly of this, there is the utmost proof from their own Nevertheless, while he speaks these words, he is not without writings, that in the time of our Lord, they were most lite- the consent both of the Jewish schools and their computation. rally an adulterous race of people : for, at this very time, Weigh well that which is disputed in the tract Scabbath, conR. Jochanan ben Zacchai abrogated the trial by the bitter cerning the separation of a woman for three days; where waters of jealousy, because so many were found to be thus many things are discussed by the Gemarists, concerning the criminal. See on John viii. 3.

computation of this space of three days. Among other things Verse 40. Three days and three nights) Our Lord rose from these words occur : R. Ismael saith, Sometimes it contains four the grave on the day but one after his crucifixion : so that in 1918 onoth, sometimes five, sometimes sir. But how much is the computation in this verse, the part of the day on which the space of an nis onah? R. Jochanan saith, Either a day he was crucified, and the part of that on which he rose again, or a night. And so also the Jerusalem Talmud : R. Akiba are severally estimated as an entire day: and this, no doubt, fired a day for an orah, and a night for an onah.' But the exactly corresponded to the time in which Jonah was in the tradition is, that R. Eliazar ben Azariah said, A day and n belly of the fish. Our Lord says, As Jonah was, so shall the night make an onah : and a part of an onah is as the whole. Son of man be, &c. Evening and morning, or night and day, And a little after, R. Ismael computed a part of the onak for is the Hebrew phrase for a natural day, which the Greeks the whole.Thus then, three days and three nights, accordtermed vuxOnpeigoy nuchthemeron. The very same quantity of ing to this Jewish method of reckoning, included any part time which is here termed three days and three nights, and of the first day; the whole of the following night; the next which in reality was only one whole day, a part of two others, day and its night; and any part of the succeeding or third and two whole nights, is termed three days and three nights, day. in the book of Esther : Go; neither eat nor drink THREE DAYS, In the whale's belly] That a fish of the shark kind, and not Night or day, and so I will go in unto the hing : chap. iv. 16. a whale, is here meant, Bochart has abundantly proved, voi. Afterwards it follows, chap. y. 1. On the THIRD DAY, Esther iii. col. 742, &c. edit. Leyd. 1692. It is well known, that the stood in the inner court of the king's house. Many examples throat of a whale is capable of admitting little more than the might be produced from both the sacred and profane writers, arm of an ordinary man; but many of the shark species can


CCI. 3.

The Ninevites, and the queen of the South, CHAP. XII. much more teachable than the Jers. 4,1.431. ment with this generation, and “shall parts of the earth to hear the wisdom A. M. 4131. An. Olymp. condemn it: " because they repented of Solomon ; and, behold, a greater An. Olymp.

at the preaching of Jonas; and, be-than Solomon is here. hold, a greater than Jonas is here.

43 - When the unclean spirit is gone out of a 42 · The queen of the south shall rise up in man, "he walketh through dry places, seeking the judgment with this generation, and shall | rest, and findeth none: condemn it: for she came from the uttermost 44 Then he saith, I will return into my


* See Jer. 3. 11. Ezek. 16. 51, 52. Rom. 2. 27.-b Jonak 3. 5.

10. 1. 2Chron. 9. 1. Luke 11. 31.

c 1 Kings

a Luke 11. 24.- Job 1.7. 1 Pet. 5. 8.

swallow a man whole; and men have been found whole in the standing all this, the people of Judea did not repent, though stomachs of several. Every natural history abounds with facts the people of Nineveh did of this kind. Besides, the shark is a native of the Mediter- Verse 42. The queen of the south] In 1 Kings x. 1. this ranean sea, in which Jonah was sailing, when swallowed by queen is said to be of Saba, which was a city and province what the Hebrew terms byna 17 dag gadol, a great fish ; but of Arabia Felix, to the south, or south-east, of Judea. every body knows that whales are no produce of the Medi- Uttermost parts of the earth] Ilegatwy ons yns—a form of terranean sea, though some have been by accident found there, || speech which merely signifies, a great distance. See Deut. as in most other parts of the maritime world; but let them be xxviii. 49. found where they may, there is none of them capable of swal- Verse 43. When the unclean spirit] If there had been no lowing a man. Instead of either whale or shark, some have reality in demoniacal possessions, our Lord would have translated 5999 97 dag gadol, Jonah i. 17. by a fishing cove, scarcely appealed to a case of this kind here, to point out or something of this nature; but this is merely to ged rid of the real state of the Jewish people, and the desolation which the miracle : for, according to some, the whole of Divine re- was coming upon them. Had this been only a vulgar error, of velation is a forgery-or it is a system of metaphor or allegory, | the nonsense of which the learned Scribes and the wise Phathat has no miraculous interferences in it. But independantly risees must have been convinced, the case not being one in of all this, the criticism is contemptible. Others say, that the point, because not true, must have been treated by that very great fish means a vessel so called, into which Jonah went, people with contempt, for whose conviction it was alone deand into the hold of which he was thrown, where he conti- || signed. nued three days and three nights. In short, it must be any He walketh through dry places] Ai' avudowy TOTWw. There thing but a real miracle, the existence of which, the wise men, | seems to be a reference here to the . Orphic demonology, in so called, of the present day cannot admit. Perhaps these which evil spirits were divided into various classes, accordvery men are not aware, that they have scarcely any beliefing to the different regions of their abode, or places in even in the existence of God himself!

which they delighted. These classes were five : 1. Aapones Verse 41. The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment] ougavios

, Celestial damons. 2. Accspores negros, Aerial.

3. The voice of God, threatening temporal judgments, caused Aaspoves Evudgson, Aquatic. 4. AxiMoves xboros, Terrestrial. 5. a whole, people to repent, who had neither Moses nor Christ, Kas secsports VFoxBovios, And subterranean dæmons. See neither the Law nor the prophets; and who perhaps never had Orph. ad Mus. ap. Schott. The Platonists, the followers of but this one preacher among them. What judgment may | Zoroaster, and the primitive Jews, made nearly the same not we expect, if we continue impenitent, after all that God distinctions. has bestowed upon us ?

Seeking rest] Or refreshment. Strange! a fallen corrupt A greater than Jonas is here.] IIagoy, for to theboy, some- || spirit can have no rest but in the polluted human heart: the thing more. The evidence offered by Jonah sufficed to con- corruption of the one is suited to the pollution of the other, vince and lead the Ninevites to repentance; but here was and thus like cleaves to like. more evidence, and a greater person ; and yet so obsti- Verse 44. Into my house] The soul of that person from nate are the Jews, that all is ineffectual, 1. Christ, who whom he had been expelled by the power of Christ, and out preached to the Jews, was infinitely greater than Jonah in of which he was to have been kept by continual prayer, his nature, person, and mission. 2. Jonah preached repent- faith, and watchfulness. ance in Nineveh only forty days, and Christ preached among He findeth it empty] Unoccupied, cxona forta, empty of the the Jews for several years. 3. Jonah wrought no miracles to former inhabitant, and ready to receive a new one: denoting authorize his preaching ; but Christ wrought miracles every a soul that has lost the life and power of godliness, and the day, in every place, and of every kind. And 4. Notwith-| testimony of the Holy Spirit.


of the unclean spirit.


Who are our Lord's kindred.

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A. M. 4031. from whence I came out; and when 47 Then one said unto him, Behold, A. M. 4051. An. Olymp. he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, thy mother and thy brethren stand An. Olymp. and garnished.

without, desiring to speak with thee. 45. Then goeth he, and taketh with himself 48 But he answered and said unto him that seven other spirits more wicked than himself, told him, Who is my mother? and who are my and they enter in and dwell there : * and the brethren? last state of that man is worse than the first. 49 And he stretched forth his hand toward Even so shall it be also unto this wicked gene- his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and ration.

my brethren! 46 [ While he yet talked to the people, "be- 50 For whosoever shall do the will of my hold, his mother and his brethren stood with Father which is in heaven, the same is my broout, desiring to speak with him.

ther, and sister, and mother.

a Hebr. 6. 4. & 10. 26. 2 Pet. 2. 20, 21, 22.-0 Mark 3. 31. Luke 8. 19, 20, 21.-ch13. 55. Mark 6. 3. Jobn2. 12. & 7. 3,5. Acts 1, 14.

1 Cor. 9. 5. Gal. 1. 19.-
3. 11. Hebr. 2. 11.

La See John 15. 14. Gal. 5. 6. & 6. 15. Col.

Swept, und garnished.] As oxoratw signifies to be idle, or frequently used among the Hebrews in this sense. But there unemployed, it may refer here to the person, as well as to his are others who believe Mary had other children beside our staté. His affections and desires are no longer busied with Lord, and that these were literally his brothers, who are the things of God, but gad about like an idle person, among spoken of here. And although it be possible, that these were the vanities of a perishing world. Swept, from love, meek- the sons of Mary, the wife of Cleopas or Alpheus, his moness, and all the fruits of the Spirit; and garnished, or adorn- | ther's sister, called his relations, Mark iii. 21. yet it is as ed, xexorumpevov, decorated, with the vain showy trifles of folly likely, that they were the children of Joseph and Mary, and and fashion. This may comprize also smart speeches, cunning | brethren of our Lord, in the strictest sense of the word. See repartees, &c. for which, many who have lost the life of God, on chap. xiii. 55. are very remarkable.

Verse 48. Who is my mother ? and who are my brethren ?) Verse 45. Seven other spirits more wicked] Seven was a The reason of this seeming disregard of his relatives was this; favourite number with the Jews, implying frequently with they came to seize upon him, for they thought he was distracted. them, something perfect, completed, filled up, for such is the See Mark iji. 2). proper import of the Hebrew word yav sheva or shevang: Verse 50. Whosoever shall do the will of my Father, &c.] nearly allied in sound to our seven. And perhaps this mean

Those are the best acknowledged relatives of Christ, who are ing of it refers to the seventh day, when God rested from his united to him by spiritual ties, and who are become one with work, having filled up, or completed the whole of his creative him, by the indwelling of his Spirit. We generally suppose design. Seven dæmons—as many as could occupy his soul, that Christ's relatives must have shared much of his affecharassing it with pride, anger, self-will

, lust, &c. and tor- tionate attention; and doubtless they did : but here we find, turing the body with disease.

that whosoever does the will of God is equally esteemed by The last state of that man is worse than the first.] His soul Christ, as his brother, sister, or even his virgin mother. What before, influenced by the Spirit of God, dilated and expanded an encouragement for fervent attachment to God ! under its heavenly influences, becomes more capable of re- 1. From various facts related in this chapter, we see the finement in iniquity, as its powers are more capacious than nature and design of the revelation of God, and of all the orformerly. Evil habits are formed and strengthened by re- dinances and precepts contained in it—they are all calculated lapses; and relapses are multiplied and become more incur- to do man good: to improve bis understanding, to soften able through new habits.

and change his nature, that he may love his neighbour as So shall it be also unto this wicked generation.] And so it himself. That religion that does not inculcate and produce was : for tliey grew worse and worse, as if totally abandoned humanity, never came froin heaven. to diabolic influence; till at last the beesom of destruction 2. We have already seen what the sin against the Holy swept them and their privileges, national and religious, utterly Ghost is : no soul that fears God can commit it: perhaps it away. What a terrible description of a state of apostacy is would be impossible for any but Jews to be guilty of it, and contained in these verses! May he who readeth, understand! they only in the circumstances mentioned in the text; and in

Verse 46. His mother and his brethren] These are supposed || such circumstances, it is impossible that any person should now. . to have been the cousins of our Lord, as the word brother is be found.

Christ teaches the


multitudes by parables.


Christ teaches the multitudes out of a ship, they standing on the shore, 1, 2. The parable of the sower, 3—9. He gives his reasons for speaking in parables, 10—17. Explains the parable of the sorcer, 18—23. Parable of the tares and the wheat, 24—30. Of the grain of mustard seed, 31, 32. Of the leaven, 33. The prophecy fulfilled by this mode of teaching, 34, 35. lle explains the parable of the tures and the wheat, 36–43. Parable of the treasure hid in a field, 44. Of the pearl-merchant, 45, 46. Of the drag net, 47–50. His application of the whole, 51, 52. He teaches in his own country, and his neighbours take offence, 53–56. Our Lord's observations on this, 57. He works no miracle among them because of their unbelief, 58.

THE same day went Jesus out of || gether unto him, so that he went in- A.M.4031. An. Olymp.

the house, “and sat by the sea to a ship, and sat; and the whole mul- An. Olymp. side.

titude stood on the shore. 2 "And great multitudes were gathered to- 3 And he spake many things unto them in

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of similitude, to the real subject, in order to delineate it with Verse 1. The same day] Our Lord scarcely ever appears the greater force and perspicuity. See more on this subject to take any rest—he is incessant in his labours; and instant at the conclusion of this chapter. No scheme, says Dr. in season and out of season : and in this he has left all his Lightfoot, of Jewish rhetoric was more familiarly used, than successors in the ministry an example, that they should fol- | that of parables ; which, perhaps, creeping in from thence, low his steps : for he who wishes to save souls, will find few || among the heathens, ended in fables. opportunities to rest. As Satan is going about as a roaring It is said in the tract Sotah, chap. ix. “ From the time lion seeking whom he may devour, the messenger of God that Rabbi Meri died, those that spake in parables ceased.” should imitate his diligence, that he may counteract his Not that this figure of rhetoric perished in the nation from work.

that time; but because he surpassed all others in these flowWent Jesus out of the house] This was the house of Peter. ers, as the gloss there from the tract Sanhedrin speaks. “A See chap. xvii. 24.

third part of his discourses was tradition ; a third part alleSat by the sea side.] The sea of Galilee, on the borders of gory; and a third part parable.” The Jewish books every which the city of Capernaum was situated.

where abound with these figures, the nation inclining by a Verse 2. Into a ship.] TO TEX000v, The vessel or boat. Mr. | kind of natural genius to this kind of rhetoric. Their very Wakefield supposes (which is very likely) that a particular religion might be called parabolical, folded up within the vessel is uniformly specified, which seems to have been kept || coverings of ceremonies; and their oratory in their sermons on the lake for the use of Christ and his Apostles: it proba- was like to it. But is it not indeed a wonder, that they who bly belonged to some of the fishermen : (see chap. iv. 22.) were so much given to and delighted in parables, and so dexwho, he thinks, occasionally, at least, followed their former terous in unfolding them, should stick in the outward shell occupation. See John xxi. 3.

of ceremonies, and should not have brought out the paraboThe thought of pious Quesnel on this verse should not be lical and spiritual sense of them? Our Saviour, who always neglected. We see here a representation of the church, spoke with the common people, uses the same kind of speech, which consists of the people united to their pastors. These and very often, the same preface which they used, To what being more exposed to violent tossings and storms, are, as is it likened ? See Lightfoot in loco. Though we find the basis it were, in a ship, while those continue at ease on the of many of our Lord's parables in the Jewisia writings, yet shore.

not one of them comes through his hands, without being astoVerse 3. He spake many things unto them in parables] Pa- | nishingly improved. In this respect also, Surely never man rable, from Taga, near, and Badaw, I cast, or put. A com- spake like this man. parison or similitude, in which one thing is compared with Under the parable of the sower, our Lord intimates, 1. another, especially spiritual things with natural, by which that of all the multitudes then attending his ministry, few means these spiritual things are better understood, and make would bring forth fruit to perfection. And 2. That this a deeper impression on an attentive mind. Or, a parable is would be a general case in preaching the Gospel among a representation of any matter accommodated, in the way



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of the parable

of the sower. A. 11.1031. parables, saying,

Behold, a sower forth fruit, some "a hundredfold, some An. Olymp. went forth to sow;

sixtyfold, some thirtyfold.

An. Olymp. 4 And when he sowed, some seeds 9 · Who hath ears to hear, let him fell by the way side, and the fowls came and hear. devoured them up :

10 | And the disciples came, and said unto 5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables ? not much earth : and forth with they sprung up, 11 He answered and said unto them, Because because they had no deepness of earth : “it is given unto you to know the mysteries

6 And when the sun was up, they were scorch of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not ed; and because they had no root, they wither-| given.

12 · For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, 7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns and he shall have more abundance : but whososprung up, and choked them :

ever hath not, from him shall be taken away 8 But otlier fell into good ground, and brought even that he hath.

ed away.

* Luke 8. 5. _b Gen. 26. 12 ch. 11. 15. Mark 4.9.--. ch. 11. 25.

& 16. 17. Mark 4. 11. 1 Cor. 2. 10. 1 John 2. 27.

e Ch. 25. 29. Mark 4. 25. Luke 8. 18. & 19. 26.


Verse 4., Some seeds felt by the way side] The hard beaten cause God designed to exclude them from salvation, but bepath where no plough had broken up the ground.

cause He who knew all things, kney, either that they were Verse 5. Stony places] Where there was a thin surface of not proper persons, or that that was not the proper time : earth, and a ruck at the bottom.

for the choice of the persons by whom, and the choice of the Verse 7. Among thorns] Where the earth was ploughed || Time in which it is most proper to reveal divine things, must up, but the brambles and weeds had not been cleared ever rest with the all-wise God. away.

Verse 12. Whosoever hath, to him shall be given] This is Verse 8. Good ground] Where the earth was deep, the an allusion to a common custom in all countries : he who field well ploughed, and the brambles and weeds all removed. | possesses mueh, or is rich, to such a person, presents are ordiSee more on ver. 18, &c. and see on Luke viii. 15.

narily given. Verse 9. Who hath ears to hear, &c.] Let every person Whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that who feels the necessity of being instructed in the things || he hath.] That is, the poor man : he that has little may be which concern his soul's welfare, pay attention to what is easily made a prey of, and so lose his little. This is a proper spoken, and he shall become wise unto salvation.

sense of the word exey in sacred and profane writers. In Verse 11. It is given unto you to know the mysteries, &c.]|| 1 Cor. xi. 22. tous uen Exories, those who have not, means simBy mysteries here, we may understand not only things con-ply The Poor : and Aristophanes uses TOUS exortas, those that cerning the scheme of salvation, which had not yet been re have, for the RICH or OPULENT. See a variety of pertinent vealed; but also the prophetic declarations concerning the examples in Kypke on Luke viii. 18. There is one example future state of the Christian church, expressed in the ensuing | in Juvenal, Sat. iii. 1. 208, 209. that expresses the whole of parables. It is not given to them to know the purport and our Lord's meaning, and is a beautiful illustration of this design of these things-they are gross of heurt, earthly and apparentìy difficult passage. sensual, and do not improve the light they have received: Nil habuit Codrus : quis enim negat ? et tamen illud but to you it is given, because I have appointed you not only Perdidit infelix TOTUM NIL. to be the first preachers of my gospel to sinners, but also the “ 'Tis true, poor Codius NOTHING had to boast, persons who shall transmit accounts of all these things to And yet poor Courus all that nothing lost.” Drydende posterity. The knowledge of these mysteries, in the first Now what was this NOTHING which the poet said, Codrus instance, can be given only to a few; but when these faith- || had and lost? The fire pieceding lines tell you. fully write and publish what they have heard and seen, unto Lectus erat Codro Proculâ minor, urceoli ser, the world, then the science of salvation is revealed and ad

Ornamentum abaci ; necnon et parvulus infra dressed to all. From ver. 17. we learn, that many prophets Cantharus, et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron ; and righteous men had desired to see and hear these things, Jamque vetus Græcos servabut cistu libellos, but had not that privilege-to them it was not given; not be Et divina Opici rodebant carmina mures,

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