« הקודםהמשך »
The man with the
withered hand healed.
A. D. 27.
A. M. 4031. sheep ? Wherefore, it is lawful to do 15 But when Jesus knew it, he A. M. 4031. An. Olymp. well on the sabbath days.
withdrew himself from thence : d and An. Olymp. 13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch great multitudes followed him, and forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; || he healed them all; and it was restored whole, 'like as the other. 16 And charged them that they should not
14 Then the Pharisees went out, and make him known : ' held a council against him, how they might| 17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken destroy him.
by Esaias the prophet, saying,
• Ch. 27. 1. Mark 3. 6. Luke 6. 11. John 5. 18. & 10. 39. & 11. 53.
Or, took counsel.
Sco ch, 10, 23. Mark 3. 7.ch. 19. 2. - cl. 9. 30.
(the owner) bring him food in that place if he can; but if he lence of the living God would have, in a moment, restored cannot, let him bring clothes and litter, and bear up the beast; this withered hand? There could be no collusion here; the whence, if he can come up, let him come up, &c." man who had a real disease, was instantaneously, and there
“ If a heast or its foal fall into a ditch on a holy day, R. fore miraculously cured; and the mercy and power of God Lazar saith, let him lift up the former to kill him, and let him | were both amply manifested in this business. kill him, but let him give fodder to the other lest he die in that It is worthy of remark, that as the man was healed with a place. R. Joshuah saith, let him lift up the former with the || word, without even a touch, the sabbath was unbroken, even intention of killing him, although he kill him not ; let him according to their most rigid interpretation of the letter of the lift up the other also, although it be not in his mind to kill Law. him.” To these cauons our Lord seems here very properly
Verse 14. Held a council against him] Nothing sooner leads to appeal, i vindication of his intention to heal the distressed to utter blindness, and hardness of heart than enoy. There man. See Lightfoot.
are many who abandon themselves to plensure tuking and deSelf-interest is a very decisive casuist, and removes abund- || bauchery on the sabbath, who condemn a poor man, whom ance of scruples in a moment. It is always the first consulted, || necessity obliges to work on what is termed a holiday, or a naard the most readily obeyed. It is not sinful to hearken to it, tional fast. but it must not govern nor determine by itself.
Verse 15. Jesus-withdrew kimself from thence] It is the Verse 12. How much then is a man better thun a sheep?] Our || part of prudence and christian charity, not to provoke, if Lord's argument is what is called argumentum ad hominem : possible, the blind and the hardened ; and to take from them they are taken on their own ground, and confuted on their the occasion of sin. A man of God is not afraid of persecuown maxims and conduct. There are many persons who call tion; but as his aim is only to do good, by proclaiming, every themselves christians, who do more for a beast of burden or where, the grace of the Lord Jesus, he departs from any pleasure than they do for a man for whom Christ died! Many place, when he finds the obstacles to the accomplishment of his spend that on coursers, spaniels, and hounds, of which multi-end are, humanly speaking, invincible; and that he cannot do tudes of the followers of Christ are destitute :- but this also | good without being the means of much evil. Yield to the shall come to judgment.
stream when you cannot stem it. Wherefore, it is lawful to do well, &c.] This was allowed by Greul mukitudes followed him, and he healed them all] The a multitude of Jewish canons. See Schoetgen.
rejection of the gospel in one place has often been the mean of Verse 13. Stretch forth thine hand.] The bare command of sending it to, and establishing it in another. Jesus healed all God is a sufficient reason of obedience. This man right have that followed him, i. e. all who had need of healing, and who Teasoned thrus, “ Lord, my hand is withered, how then can I desired to be healed: for thus the passage must be understood ;--stretch it out? Make it whole first, and afterwards I will do and is he not still the same? No soul shall ever implore his. as thou commandest.” This may appear reasonable, but in healing power in vain; but let it be remembered, that only his case it would have been foolishness. At the command of those who follow Christ, and apply to him, are healed of their the Lord he made the effort, and in making it the cure was spiritual maladies. effected! Faith disregards apparent impossibilities, where Verse 16. Charged them that they should not make him there is a command and promise of God. The effort to be- || known] Sce chap. 8. 4. Jesus Christ, as God, could have ea. leve, is, often, that faith by wbich the soul is healed. sily concealed himself, but he chooses to do it as man, and to
A little before (verses 6 and 8.) Jesus Christ had asserted his use no other than human means, as these were quite sufficient Godhead, in this verse le proces it. What but the onınipo- for the purpose, 10 teach us not to neglect them in our neces
1. M. 4031. A.D. 27.
Prophecies fulfilled in Christ.
The Jews blaspheme, 18 - Behold my servant, whom 1 | 22 q *Then was brought unto him 4: 1.4051, An. Olymp. have chosen ; my beloved, in whom one possessed with a devil, blind, and An. Olymp.
my soul is well pleased : I will put my dumb: and he healed him, insomuch spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to that the blind and dumb both spake and saw. the Gentiles.
23 And all the people were amazed, and said, 19 He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall Is not this the son of David? miy man hear his voice in the streets.
24 " But when the Pharisees heard it, they 20 A bruised reed shall he not break, and said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send by · Beelzebub the prince of the devils. forth judgment unto victory.
25 And Jesus 'knew their thoughts, and said 21 And in his name shall the Gentiles trust. unto them, Every kingdom divided against
a Isai. 42. 1.
b ch. 3. 17. & 17. 5. See ch.9. 32. Mark S. 11.
Luke 11. 1.
& Ch. 9. 34. Mark 3. 22. Luke 11. 15.- Le Gr. Beelzebul: and so ver. 97.
ich. 9. 4. John 4. 25. Rev. 2. 23.
sity. Indeed he always used his power less on his own account, sires must not be stifled, but encouraged. The bruised reed than on that of men.
may recover itself, if permitted to vegetate under the genial Verse 18. Behold my serrant] This title was given to our influences of heaven, and the life and light of the expiring lamp blessed Lord in several prophecies. See Isa. xlii. 1. liii. 2. may be supported by the addition of fresh oil. Jesus therefore Christ assumes it, Psal. xl. 7–9. compare these with John quenches not faint desires after salvation, even in the worst xvii. 4. and Phil. ii. 7. God required an acceptable and perfect and most undeserving of men : for even such desires may lead service from man; but man being sinful, could not perform to the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of peace. it. Jesus taking upon him the nature of man, fully performed Judgment unto victory.] See ver. 18. By judgment, underthe whole will of God, and communicates grace to all his fol- stand the gospel, and by victory, its complete triumph over lowers, to enable them perfectly to love, and worthily to mag- | Jewish opposition, and Gentile impiety. Ile will continue by nify their maker.
these mild and gentle means to work till the whole world is And he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles.] That is, He will christianized, and the universe filled with his glory. publish the gospel to the heathens, for the word xptou here Verse 21. And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.] EXTOUTI, answers to the word ovn mishpat of the prophet, and it is they shall hope. Jesus Christ is the sole hope and trust of manused among the Hebrews to signify laws, precepts, and a kind; to trust and hope in his name Jesus, is to expect salvawhole system or body of doctrine. See Psal. xix. 19. cxix. 30, tion and all things necessary from him alone, to despise, com39. Isa. lviii. 2.
paratively, all earthly promises, to esteem, love, and desire Verse 19. He shall not strive, nor cry] The spirit of Christ heavenly things only, and to bear with patience and tranquillity is not a spirit of contention, murmuring, clamour, or litigi- all the losses and evils of this life, upon the prospect and hope nusness. He who loves these does not belong to him. Christ of that felicity which he has purchased for us. therefore fulfilled a prophecy by withdrawing from this place,
Verse 22. One possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb) A on account of the rage of the Pharisees.
person from whom the indwelling demon took away both light Verse 20. A bruised reed shall he not break] A reed is, in and hearing. Satan makes himself master of the heart, the Scripture, the emblem of weakness, Ezek. xxix. 6. and a bruised | eyes, and the tongue of the sinner. His heart he fills with the reed must signify that state of weakness that borders on disso- love of sin; his eyes he blinds that he may not see his guilt, lution and death.
and the perdition which awaits him; and his tongne he hinders And smoking flax shall he not quench] Asroy tupo pasvov. Alyos from prayer and supplication though he gives it increasing limeans the wick of a lamp, and tu come Evor is intended to point out berty in blasphemies, lies, slanders, &c. None but Jesus can its expiring state, when the oil has been all burnt away from it, redeem from this threefold captivity. and nothing is left but a mere snuff, emitting smoke. Some Verse 23. Is not this the son of David ?] Is not this the suppose the Jewish state, as to ecclesiastical matters, is here true Messiah? Do not these miracles sufficiently prove it? See intended, the prophecy declaring that Christ would not de- Isai. xxxv. 5. stroy it, but leave it to expire of itself, as it already contained Verse 24. Beelzebub] See chap. x. 25. the principles of its own destruction. Others have considered Verse 25. Every kingdom divided against itself is brought 10 it as implying that great tenderness with which the blessed || desolation) Our Lord's argument runs thus, “ The welfare of Jesus should treat the weak and the ignorant, whose good de- || any kingdom, city, or family depends on its concord and una
and attribute Christ's miracles
to the power of Satan.
4. 11,4031. itself is brought to desolation; and 28 But if I cast out devils by the A. M1, 4031. Amos Olymp. every city or house divided against Spirit of God, then the kingdom of An. Olymp. itself shall not stand :
God is 'come unto you. 26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is di- 29 Or else how can one enter into a strong vided against himself ; how shall then his king- man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first dom stand ?
bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his 27 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by house. whom do your children cast them out ? therefore 30 He that is not with me is against me; and they shall be your judges.
he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.
a Dan. 2. 44. & 7. 14. Lule 1. 33. & 11. 20. & 17. 20, 21.
6 Isai. 49. 24. Luke 11, 21, 22, 23.
rimity: Satan, like every other potentate, must wish to rule Perhaps the Spirit of God is here mentioned by way of oppohis empire in peace and security; how then can he be in league sition to the magical incantations of the Jews; for it is well with me who oppose his authority, and am destroying his known that, by fumigations and magical washings, they kingdom?"
professed to cast out devils. See a case mentioned by SchoThe reasoning of the Pharisees, ver. 24. was not expressed, etgen on this verse. and Jesus knowing their thoughts, gave them ample proof of Then the kingdom of God] For the destruction of the kingbis omniscience. This with our Lord's masterly confutation of dom of Satan plainly implies the setting up of the kingdom of: their reasonings; by a conclusion drawn from their own pre- God. mises, one would have supposed might have humbled and con- Is come unto you.] Is come unexpectedly upon you. Eplacey, vinced these men; but the most conclusive reasoning, and the from @low, to appear suddenly—unexpectedly. most astonishing miracles were lost upon a people who were They pretended to be in expectation of the kingdom of God, obstinately determined to disbelieve every thing good, relative and consequently of the destruction of the kingdom of Satan. to Christ. How true the saying ; le came unto his own, and But by being not prepared to receive Christ in these proofs of his own receired him not!
his divine mission, they shewed that their expectation was but Verse 26. If Satan cast out Satan] A good cause will pro- pretended. They were too carnal to mind spiritual things. duce a good effect, and an evil cause an eril effect. Were I Verse 29. Else how can one enter into a strong man's house) on Satan's side, I would act for his interest, and confirm his in- Men, through sin, are become the very house and dwellingfluence among you; but I oppose his maxims by my doctrine, | place of Satan; having, of their own accord, surrendered and his influence by my power.
themselves to this unjust possessor; for whoever gives up his Verse 27. By whom do your children cast them out ?] soul to sin, gives it up to the Devil. It is Jesus, and Jesus Children, or sons of the prophets, means the disciples of the | alone who can deliver from the power of this bondage. When prophets; and children or sons of the Pharisees, disciples of Satan is cast out, Jesus purifies and dwells in the heart. the Phurisees. From Acts xix. 13, 14. it is evident there were Verse 30. Ile that is not with me' is against me] In vain to exorcists among the Jews, and, from our Lord's saying here, | men seek for methods to reconcile God and Mammon. There it is also evident that the disciples of the Pharisees did cast out is no medium between loving the Lord and being his enemy; demons, or at least, those who educated them wished to have between belonging to Christ or to Satan. If we be on the it believed that they had such a power. Our Lord's argument side of the Devil, we must expect to go to the Devil's hell; if here is extremely conclusive: If the man who casts out de- we be on the side of Chrisa, we may expect to go to his mons, proves himself thereby to be in league with, and in- | heaven. When Christ, his truth, and his servants are asfluenced by Satan, then your disciples, and you who taught | saulted, he who does not espouse their cause, is not on Christ's them, are all of you in league with the Devil: ye must either side, but incurs the guilt of deserting and betraying them. give up your assertion, that I cast out dæmons by Beelzebul, | There are many (it is to be feared) in the world who are really or else admit this conclusion in its fullest force and latitude, || against Christ, and scatter abroad, who flatter themselves that that ye are all children of the devil, and leagued with him they are workers together with him, and of the number of against God.
his friends! Envy causes persons often to condemn in one, what they ap- Scattereth abroad.] This seems to have been a proverbial prove in another.
form of speech, and may be a metaphor taken from shepherds. Verse 28. But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God] || He who does not help the true shepherd to gather his flock
A. M. 4031.
Christ explains the nature of
St. MATTHEW. the sin against the Holy Ghost; 31 Wherefore I say unto you, ‘All the Son of man, it shall be forgiven 188.8.131.52. An. Olymp. manner of sin and blasphemy shall behim: but whosoever speaketh against An. Olymp.
forgiven unto men: "but the blas- the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be for- given him, neither in this world, neither in the given unto men.
world to come. 32 And whosoever speaketh a word against 33 Either make the tree good, and his fruit
: Mark 3. 28. Luke 12. 10. Hebr. 6. 4, &c. & 10. 26, 29. 1 John-5. 16.
• Acts 7. 51.
Ch. 11. 19. & 13. 55. Jolin 7. 12, 52.1 Tim. 1. 13.-ech. 7. 17.
Luke 6. 43, 44.
into the fold, is, most likely, one who wishes to scatter them, | under the Christian dispensation as it was under the Jewish, that he may have the opportunity of stealing and destroying viz. by the destruction of the body? And is not this the same them. I do not find any parallel to this proverbial mode of mentioned 1 John i. 7. called there the sin unto death ; i. e. a speech in the Jewish Rabbins, if it be one, nor have I met | sin that was to be punished by the death of the body, while with it among the Greek or Roman writers.
mercy might be extended to the soul? The punishment for Verse 31. All manner of sin and blasphemy] Blaspusa, in- || presumptuous sins, under the Jewish law, to which our Lord jurious or impious speaking, bysmor spræc, mocking and de- || evidently alludes, certainly did not extend to the damnation of riding speech, Anglo-Saxon. See chap. ix. 3.
the soul, though the body was destroyed : therefore I think But the blasphenry against the Holy Ghost] Even personal that, though there was no such forgiveness to be extended to reproaches, revilings, persecutions against Christ were remis- this crime as to absolve the man from the punishment of temsible; but blasphemy, or impious speaking, against the Holyporal death, yet, on repentance, mercy might be extended to Spirit was to have no forgiveness ; i. é. when the person obsti- || the soul ; and every sin may be repented of under the gospel nately attributed those works to the Devil, which he had the dispensation. fullest evidence could be wrought only by the Spirit of God. Dr. Lightfoot has sufficiently vindicated this passage from That this, and nothing else, is the sin against the Holy Spirit, all false interpretation. “They that endeavour hence to prore is evident from the connexion in this place, and more particu- the remissions of some sins after death, seem little to underlarly from Mark iii. 28, 29, 30. “ All sins shall be forgiven stand to what Christ had respect, when he spake these words. unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they Weigh well this common and most known doctrine of the shall blaspheme, but he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Jewish schools, and judge. Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal “ He that transgresses an affirmative precept, if he presently damnation ; BECAUSE they said he hath an unclean spirit.” || repent, is not moved until the Lord pardon him, and of such it is
Here the matter is made clear beyond the smallest doubt—said, Be ye converted, O backsliding children, and I will heal the unpardonable sin, as some term it, is neither less nor more your backslidings. He that transgresses a negatire precept and than ascribing the miracles Christ wrought, by the power of God, repents, his repentance suspends judgment, and the day of erpiato the spirit of the Devil. Many sincere people have been tion erpiates him; as it is said, This day shall all your uncleangrievously troubled with apprehensions that they had com- nesses be expiated to you. He that transgresses to cutting off mitted the unpardonable sin; but let it be observed that no l (by the stroke of God) or to death by the Sanhedrin, and reman who believes the divine mission of Jesus Christ, ever can | pents, repentance and the day of expiation do suspend judgment, commit this sin : therefore let no man's heart fail because of and the strokes that are laid upon him wipe off sin, as it is said, it, from benceforth and for ever, Amen. See below. and I will visit their transgression with a rod, and their ini
Verse 32. Neither in this world, neither in the world to quity with scourges. But he by whom the name of God is procome.] Thougb I follow the common translation, yet I am fully || phaned (or blasphemed) repentance is of no avail to him to sussatisfied the meaning of the words is, neither in this dispensa-pend judgment, nor the day of erpiation to erpiute it, nor scourges tion (viz. the Jewish) nor in that which is to come, viz. the l or corrections inflicted) to wipe it off, but all suspend judgment, Christian. xan Shiy olam ha-ba, the world to come, is a con- and death wipes it off. Thus the Babylonian Gemaru writes, stant phrase for the times of the Messiah, in the Jewish but the Jerusalem thus: Repentance and the day of expiation writers. See beluw. The sin here spoken of by our Lord, I expiate as to the third part, and corrections as to the third part, ranks high in the catalogue of presumptuous sins, for which and death wipes it of, as it is said, and your iniquities shall not there was no forgiveness under the Mosaic dispensation. See be expiated to you until ye die : behold we learn that death rcipes Num. xv. 30, 31. xxxv. 31. Lev. xx. 10. 1 Sam. ii. 25. When of. Note this, which Christ contradicts, concerning blasour Lord says that such a sin hath no forgiveness, is he not || phremy against the Holy Ghost. It shall not be forgiven, saith to be understood as meaning that the crime shall be punished he, neither in this world, nor in the world to come; that is, nei
nd reprehends the wicked Jews. : CHAP. XII.
Idle words condemned. M: 1931. good; or else make the tree corrupt, | 36 But I say unto you, That every ..D... XIXA. D. 27. n. Olymp. and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is idle word that men shall speak, they An. Olympo known by his fruit.
shall give account thereof in the day 34 Ö * generation of vipers, how can ye, being of judgment. ril, speak good things ? " for out of the abun- 37 For by thy words thou shalt be justi. ince of the heart the mouth speaketh. fied, and by thy words thou shalt be con5 A good man out of the good treasure demned. the heart bringeth* forth good things: and 38 | Then certain of the scribes and of the
evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would forth evil things.
see a sign from thee.
* Ch. 3. 7. & 28. 33. - Luke 6: 45.
Ch. 16.1. Mark 8. 11. Luke 11. 16, 29. John 2. 18. 1 Cor. 1. 22.
ther before death, nor as you dream, by death. Jerus. Sanhed. Verse 31. O generation of vipers] These are apparently fol. 37. and Bab. Yoma, fol. 86.
severe words, but they were extremely proper in reference to " Tit the world to come.—I. Some phrases were received into that execrable people to whom they were addressed: the whole common use, by which, in common speech, they opposed the he- verse is an inference from what was spoken before. resy of the Sadducees, who denied immortality. Of that sort were Out of the abundance (Tipico Matos, the overflowings) of the 890 Shi ôlam ha-ba, Abwró pisarwy, The world to come.javya gan heart] Wicked words, and sinful actions may be considered as aden, Tagadeitos, Paradise: Sunna gei hinnom, Cewe, Hell, &c. the overflowings of a heart that is more than full of the spirit
" At the end of all the prayers in the temple, (as we observed of wickedness; and holy words and righteous deeds may be before) they said Shwy ny ad ôlam for ever. But when the Here- || considered as the overflowings of a heart that is filled with the tics (i. e, the Sadducees) brake in, and suid there was no 'AGE Holy Spirit, and running over with love to God and man. but one ; then it was appointed to be said for ever and ever. Sborn Verse 35. A good man out of the good treasure of the heart], Tony Sbryn jo min ha-olam, vead ha-olam. Bab. Beracoth, | Tng xaedias, of his heart, is omitted by upwards of one hun., fol. 54. This distinction of nan shu ôlam hazeh, this world, dred MSS. many of them of the greatest antiquity and auand of xan Sb olam ha-ba, the world to come, you may find thority: by all the Syriac, Arabic, and Persic; by the Slavonic, almost in every page of the Rabbins.
Saxon, Vulgate, and Itala (except four) and by several of the “ The Lord recompense thee a good reward for this thy good | primitive fathers. It seems to have been added here by some cowork in this world, and let thy reward be perfected in the world pyist, merely to explain. The good heart is the good treasury, to come. Targum on Ruth.
and the treasure that is in it is the love of God, and of all man" It (that is, the history of the creation and of the Bible) there- kind. The bad heart is the bad treasury, and its treasure is the fore begins with the letter a beth (in the word nima bereshith) carnal mind, which is enmity against God, and ill-will to man. because two worlds were created, this world, and a world to Verse 36. Every idle word) Pouce agyov, a word that does come. Baal Turim.
nothing, that neither ministers grace, nor instruction to them " II. The world to come hints two things especially (of which who hear it. The word açyov corresponds to the Hebrew see Rambam, in Sanhed. cap. Chelek.) I. The times of the shavé, which signifies not only vain or empty, but also wicked Messiah : Be mindful of the day wherein thou camest out of and injurious, such as a false testimony against a neighbour, Egypt
, all the days of thy life; the wise men say, by the days compare Deut. v. 11. and 20. Add to this that Symmachus of thy life is intimated this world, by all the days of thy life, translates suo piggul, polluted, Lev. xix. 7. by the very Greek the days of the Messiah are superinduced. In this sense the word in the text. It was to explain this ambiguous meaning apostle seems to speak Heb. ij. 5. and vi. 5. II. The state of the word, that ten MSS. have changed agyon after death, thus Rab. Tancum, The world to come, is when a evil. Our Lord must be understood here as condemning all man has departed out of this world.”
false and injurious words: the scope of the place necessarily Verse 33. Either make the tree good] That is, the effect will requires this meaning. be always similar to the cause, a bad tree will produce bad Verse 37. By thy words thou shalt be justified] That is, the fruit, and a good tree, good fruit.
whole tenor of thy conversation will be an evidence for or The works will resemble the heart, nothing good can pro- against thee, in the great day. How many are here who ceed from an evil spirit, no good fruit can proceed from a cor- count words for nothing, and yet eternity often depends on rupt heart ;-before the heart of man can produce any good, them. Lord, put a watch before the door of my lips! is a it must be renewed and influenced by the Spirit of God, prayer, proper for all men.