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sacrifices occurred “often ;” (Heb. ix. 25, x. 1, 11.) but, with respect to each several year, they are considered as occurring but “once,” for the purpose

of typifying the “one sacrifice” of Christ. In this way only could this circumstance be typified at all.

but, after this, judgment;”—Entrance, after this death, invested with the breast-plate of judgment, into the holy place. Exod. xxviii. 29, 30.

to bear the sins of many :”—As typically represented by the breast-plate of judgment borne by Aaron on his heart. According to the common explanation, there is no analogy between the two clauses of the comparison.

“who look for him,” &c.-Alluding to our Lord's encouraging language: “When these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh.” Luke xxi. 28. Contrasted with this, the apostle represents the expectation of apostates as "a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which is about to devour the adversaries; which representation again seems to contain an allusion to our Lord's words : “men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after the things which are coming on the empire.” Heb. x. 27, Luke xxi. 26.

“ without sin, to salvation." He that endureth unto to the end, the same shall be saved.” Matt. xxiv. 13.

We thus perceive, that our Lord's second coming is identified with that, which has been hitherto considered ; and that this passage, contrary to the common explanation, which supposes it to speak of a future and posthumous tribunal, relates to our Lord's priestly office, and to the deliverance of his people from the great impending temporal judgment.

Attempts have been made to invalidate this conclusion by assigning a diversity of meaning to the words “coming” and “ appearing,” and also a difference of time between our Lord's second coming, which is allowed to be past, and his second appearing, which is maintained to be still future. “ There are," says an objector, “sixteen texts containing the word ontojai, which our translators have translated “ appear;" and having examined most of them, I find, in every instance, an object presented to the vision : it is not a conception, or an apprehension by faith, or an impression on the intellectual faculties; but an external object presents itself to view. As a specimen of the whole, take the following: “There appeared unto them Moses and Elias.” Matt. xvii. 3, Mark ix. 4.—" And there appeared unto him an angel.” Luke i. 11.—" And there appeared unto him an angel from heaven.” Luke xxii. 43.-" The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon." Luke xxiv. 34.” In this criticism, the objector rests much more on the authority of the translator's word on that of the original word ontouai; as he enumerates those texts only, in which it is so translated. There are fifty-seven texts “ containing the word on Topal,” out of which he produces five “as a specimen of the whole;" and then asks, “if every other portion, where the word ontouai is translated “ appear,” presents an object to the vision of the eye, why not that in Heb. ix. 28 : “ unto them that look for him he shall appear ?”—He hath appeared once openly and visibly, by a personal manifestation ; and "that same Jesus shall so come in like manner” Acts i. 11.--I find, however, the word ontojai applied, in Mark xiii. 26, and in Luke xxi. 27, to our Lord's coming within that generation; which sufficiently proves these distinctions to have no existence.

appear,” than But the chief argument for a future literal coming is founded on the assumed principle, that, as the fulfilment of prophecy was literal in the case of the first coming, it must be equally so in the second. The two cases, however, are essentially different. The first related to his personal manifestation : the second to his unseen agency. The first therefore, even though expressed in figurative terms, required a literal fulfilment; but the second, even though expressed in literal terms, a spiritual fulfilment. This view affords an easy explanation of the objector's last cited text. The disciples had seen a cloud receive our Lord out of their sight, and were informed that he should “so come in like manner:" that is, the likeness of literal to figurative, or of type to antitype; which, if we “ transfer ourselves," as Professor Lee recommends, to the time when this language was used, we shall perceive the disciples would be at no loss to understand it. They had been familiarized with it in the following passage of Isaiah.—“Behold, Jehovah rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it.”—xix. 1. And our Lord's use of the same image, when speaking of his judicial coming, would lead them to assign the same meaning to it under this similar association. It is further remarkable, that Luke, as if to identify the meaning of the word “cloud” on both these occasions, uses it in the singular; whereas Matthew and Mark use it in the plural. Comp. Luke xxi. 27, and Acts i. 11. The cloud in Isaiah is shown, by the context, to prefigure anarchy and invasion; and the cloud or clouds, in the other passages before us, the Roman armies. See also Jer. iv. 13, Dan. vii. 13, Rev. i. 7, and Professor Lee's Dissertations, p. 239--243.

But, though I conceive this view of our Lord's coming to be sufficiently proved, there is one subject connected with it, on the particulars of which I have to offer a few observations. This subject is the resurrection. It has been already shewn, that the posthumous sense attached to Dan. xii. 2, and John v. 28, 29, must be rejected. The following passages however, evidently require its admission.

Matt. xxii. 23–33, -John xi. 24,—Acts iv. 2, xvii. 32, xxiii. 6, 8, xxiv. 15, 21, xxvi. 23,-Rom. viii. 11, 23,-1 Thess. iv. 13--18, v. 1-3, -1 Cor. xv. 12--57,-Phil. iii. 21,42 Tim. ii. 18,—Heb. xi. 35.

The common acceptation of these passages is therefore partly right; but the resurrection which they teach, being connected with the same past coming of our Lord, we are led to deny the resurrection of the perished earthly body, (a resurrection, which Scripture no where asserts, and which certainly did not then happen,) and to look for another explanation of the circumstances. The

passages, which speak most particularly of this resurrection, are 1 Thess. iv. 13-18, and i Cor. xv. 12–57: the former for the purpose of consoling the Thessalonians on the loss of their relatives and friends, and the latter for that of refuting the objections of such as denied the doctrine altogether.

The subjects of resurrection in both are divided into two general classes : those who sleep, and those who do not sleep, or who shall be living and remaining at the coming of the Lord. Of both classes it is said, that they will all be changed; that the change of the former will terininate an interval called sleep; but that the change of the latter will be immediate, and therefore not admitting any interval.* They who maintain, that this coming has not yet arrived suppose that the change in the living will consist in their translation, after the manner of Enoch and Elijah, without tasting death; but the connection leads me to conclude, not that they should be exempt from natural death, but that the survivors and subsequently born would pass instantaneously from death to immortality. Christ, from the time of his resurrection, being possessed of all power in heaven and earth, (Matt. xxviii. 18.) and his exercise of it, for the subjugation of his enemies and the deliverance of his people, being repeatedly expressed under the figure of a “ coming,” this figure is carried on by representing the saints of former ages as brought with him, and those of future ages as caught up to meet him, and so becoming thenceforward one company. But, in whatever way interpreted, this event and all the others now examined were coincident with the end.” “Death, the last enemy," (so called, I conceive, because the last that assails human nature,) had been previously disabled by the resurrection of the head ; (1 Cor. xv. 26.)but the victory was incomplete till the ressurection of the members. Death was then “swallowed up in victory;" the mediatorial kingdom then surrendered; and God, without distinction of agencies, became “all things in all.”

R. R.

ON APOSTOLICAL SUCCESSION.

At the present time, when the doctrines of the Reformation, though far below the Scripture standard, are, with a few exceptions, retrograding rather than advancing, we deem it seasonable, as an argumentum ad hominem, to produce the two following testimonies : one, that of an eminent commentator; and the other, that of a pious clergyman now living in Dublin.

“ Ephes. iv. 12—15. 1st. To come to a perfect man, as to the unity of the faith and knowlege of the son of God, is, in the

Scripture language, to be sufficiently instructed in the articles of the Christian faith and knowledge. Thus, when our Lord said to the young man, If thou wilt be perfect, sell all that thou hast, Matt. xix. 21, by comparing these words with those in St. Mark and St. Luke, One thing is lacking, or is wanting to thee, Mark, x. 21. Luke xviii. 22, it is evident, that to be perfect, there, is not to be wanting in the knowledge or practice of any thing to be done, that this young man might have eternal life.

When St. Paul saith, We speak wisdom among them that are perfect,

* The word in the original, translated “ changed," does not signify altera. tion, but substitution ; as may be seen from all the other passages, in which it occurs - Acts vi. 14,- Rom. i. 23,- Gal. iv. 20,- Heb. i. 12. It is admitted, that the expressions often seem to imply a resurrection of the same body ; but this presents no material difficulty. We speak of the present living body as always the same, though we know its particles to be in such continual mutation as to be wholly different at different periods; and the Scripture expressions may be well understood in like manner. The body, in both cases, is considered as the same; because belonging to the same conscious individual.

+ The resurection of Christ, a past event with continuous effects, is indifferently expressed by the present passive, katapyaltai, is disabled, as in 1 Cor. xv. 26, or by the aorist active, katapynoavtos, having disabled, as in 2 Tim. i. 10. 1 Cor. ii. 6, the meaning is, say the Greek commentators, among those who are perfectly instructed in the faith ; and when he saith, As many as are perfect, let us mind the same thing, he speaks of persons fully instructed in their Christian liberty; and when he saith, Leaving the principles of the oracles of Christ, let us go on to perfection, he calls us to advance to a more full instruction in the faith and knowledge of Christ.

2ndly. Note, that the apostles, and first preachers of the gospel, were made ministers of his church, to teach fully the word of God, Col. i. 25, 26; to teach every man in all wisdom, that they might present every man perfect in Christ Jesus, ver. 28 ; and accordingly, departing from the churches planted by them, they commended them only to the word of grace, which was able to build them up, and to give them an inheritance among all that are sanctified. Acts xx. 32.

3rdly. Observe, that the apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, here named, were given at our Lord's ascension for these ends for, when he ascended up on high, he actually gave some apostles, &c. and that even these pastors and teachers had their xapropara, or supernatural gifts of the Holy Spirit, to fit them for that end. Whence it demonstratively follows, that, these gifts ceasing soon after, a succession of such persons was neither promised, nor was necessary to this end; for, if so, Christ must be charged with breach of promise, and being wanting to the church in what was necessary for the obtainment of those ends.

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4thly. Observe, that these apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, endued with these supernatural gifts, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ unto a perfect man, not doing all or any of these things in person since their death, and yet being given for the accomplishing of these ends, must be acknowledged to have done all these things as far as they were needful, by some other way. Now there being no other way in which they could do it but by their writings left behind them as a rule of faith, and by which, they being dead, yet speak, it follows, that these writings, duly attended to, must be sufficient for these ends; and consequently they must both with sufficient fulness and perspicuity, instruct us in all the necessary articles of Christian faith and knowledge. Hence Chrysostom informs us, that they writ the gospel for the perfecting the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ

. In a word, it is evident, this text doth as much prove a necessity of apostles, prophets, and evangelists, in all future ages of the church, to keep her members fixed in the truth, as of pastors and doctors; these apostles, prophets, and evangelists, being here placed in the first rank of those, whom God had given for this end. Since therefore these apostles, prophets, and evangelists, were only given in the first age of the church, it evidently follows, that the persons mentioned in this text were not given them to do this personnally to the world's end; but only to do it by the doctrine they then taught.” Whitby.

Having stated what I conceive to be our threatening dangers, it may be asked—What I would have to be done, if peradventure the Lord may still avert the threatening calamity, and save the world from the scourge and curse of Popery and Popish principles ? I will answer the inquiry, by addressing myself, in the first place, to my brethren in the ministry of the Established Church, and by saying, we must humble ourselves before God for our individual unfaithfulness to our solemn trust as pastors and ministers of Christ's flock. We must also unfeignedly acknowledge and lament the many imperfections cleaving to the Church to which we belong, and the still more numerous ones that cleave to many of those who serve at her altars; nor must we forget our past uncourteous, unkind, and unchristian conduct towards those ministers of the Lord Jesus who go not with us. We must study and more closely follow the example of our blessed Lord himself. There yet are, I trust, many of you who stand aloof from Puseyism, and from most of the high-church extravagancies maintained by others; but it is to be feared that no few of you are, more or less entangled in the net of apostolic succession. Now, as I consider this delusion to lie at the root of all high church extravagancies, of all Puseyism, of all Popery, and of every kind of spiritual intolerance, I would most earnestly beseech you to break from this leading snare, to rouse yourself from this self-exalting temptation, and “not to think more highly of yourselves than ye ought to think.” Look, my brethren, with prayer and calmness, on this scheme. Look at the fruits it has borne in every age of the Church, when armed with power. Look at what it is now doing, and then ask, Can such views and such consequences be agreeable to the mind of Christ Jesus? Can such be the rule and law of Heaven concerning the church militant here on earth ? I address you most solemnly as a man who expects shortly to have done with this world and all its contentions and strifes—as a man who is labouring to think and feel on this subject as I must and shall do when I am actually on my passage from earth to heaven. Be assured it is a delusion, and one as destructive of harmony and peace in England, as high caste is of universal sympathy in Bengal. How can you seriously believe that the ever-blessed God hath made the salvation of millions of millions to depend on such a scheme; or that his covenant promises of mercy are shut out from all but those who are ministered unto by episcopalian bishops and episcopalian-ordained teachers and preachers? Can you seriously believe that the kingdom of God cannot universally fill the earth, unless it be constituted under the form and government of the Church of England, or under that of the apostate, adjudged, and condemned Church of Rome? Or, to come still closer home, can you really think that in this country the clergy of the national church, and they only, are entitled to the respect and obedience of the people, as their lawful guides and governors in spiritual things; that they alone are duly commissioned to preach the word of God and administer the sacraments? If these are the settled convictions of your minds, then must you relinquish every scriptural hope of the Lord's will being done on earth as it is done in heaven; of that time ever coming when “peace shall flow down as a river, and righteousness as the waves of the sea.” On such terms as the apostolic succession holds out, there cannot be realised any thing like a heavenly unity of spirit among Protestants, Popery cannot be resisted with success. Oh, that I could but convince you that the kingdom of God is not meat and drink ;" that it is not form and ceremony; that it is not one exclusive denomination or another ; but “ righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.”—That" in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but faith which worketh by love.” Blessed be God, there is still the possibility of a real unity of spirit and bond of peace existing among his children, without even an attempt at uniformity in matters of church forms and government. Blessed be God, there is a communion of saints still existing on earth. There is yet an offering of a sweet-smelling savour of love and charity towards all the brethren daily ascending to God from the altar of many a heart; though, alas! the number is too few, and the flame too faint! Faint indeed, but it still

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