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crochet (fig. l.). The wonderful durability of point in where the threads cross each other; these are lace is attested by the fact, that it is not uncommon called modes, and not only add much to the strength in our most choice collections, although the art is of the fabric, but greatly increase its richness of

supposed to have been effect. In all these varieties,
lost about the beginning but two kinds of stitches are
of the 16th c., when a employed, and these differ chiefly
more easily made, and the greater or less closeness
consequently cheaper of the threads employed. First,
style of point-lace, dis- a series of threads are laid down
placed the older and all in one direction, so as to

more artistic kind. cover the pattern, and then a
Fig. 1.
The point-lace of the certain number of these are

Fig. 2. second period, though taken up and covered by loops always very beautiful, was deficient in solidity and of the cross-stitches, as in fig. 1, or are more lightly in purity of design ; moreover, it, bears indications held together, as in fig. 2. of having been copied from patterns, whilst the The second class is Pillow-lace, sometimes called older kind was evidently the carrying out of artistic Cushion or Bobbin lace, from the pillow or cushion thoughts, as they were conceived, in the original being used to work the pattern upon, and the various material, the worker and the designer being the same threads of which the figures are made up, each being person. It was during this period that the pillow wound upon a bobbin, usually of an ornamental was first used, and it is most probable that the use character, to distinguish one from the other. The of patterns led to the application of the pillow. pattern on parchment or paper, being attached to First, the lace would be worked on the pattern, to the pillow or cushion, pins are stuck in at regular insure correctness, where the worker was merely a intervals in the lines of the pattern, and the threads copyist; then it would soon become evident that if of the bobbins are twisted or plaited round them so the pattern were so arranged as to avoid shifting, the facilities of working would be greatly increased; and it has been suggested that the pattern pinned to the pillow, and the threads twisted round the pins, to prevent ravelling when not in use, suggested the net-work which afterwards became a leading feature in the fabric.

The invention of pillow-lace has been claimed by Beckmann, in his quaint way, for one of his countrywomen. He says: 'I will venture to assert that the knitting of lace is a German invention, first known about the middle of the 16th c.; and I shall consider as true, until it be fully contradicted,

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4. the account given us that this art was found out before 1561, at St Annaberg, by Barbara, wife of as to form the net-work arrangement which is characChristopher Uttmann. This woman died in the teristic of this class of lace (figs. 3 and 4), the patterns, 6lst year of her age, after she had seen sixty-four or figured portions, being worked out by a crossing children and grandchildren; and that she was the of threads, which, although actually plaiting, gives inventress of this art is unanimously affirmed by all the effect of weaving, as in fig. 5. The varieties of this the annalists of Saxony.' Whether she invented, or lace are- -Spanish, Grounded Spanish, merely introduced the art, cannot now be proved, Saxony Brussels, Flemish Brussels, but certain it is, that it soon became settled in Mechlin, Valenciennes, Dutch, Lisle, Saxony, and spread thence to the Netherlands and Chantilly, Silk and Cotton Blonde, France. Even to the present day, we occasionally Limerick, Buckinghamshire, and Honihear of 'Saxon bone-lace,' a name which was given ton. The last has of late years become to indicate the use of bone-pins, before the intro- the most beautiful of all the varieties

Fig. 5. duction of the common brass ones.

made in Great Britain. The Irish or It will readily be supposed that an art depending Limerick lace has also taken a high position. 80 much on individual skill and taste, would be The third class is machine-made lace, which, by likely to vary exceedingly; nevertheless, all the its wonderful improvement and rapid development, varieties resolve themselves into few_well-marked has worked a complete revolution in the lace-trade, groups, under three distinct classes. The first class so that the prices formerly obtained for hand-made is the Guipure, which comprises all the true needle- lace can no longer be commanded, whilst machine worked lace, whether ancient or modern ; its varie- lace, of great beauty, has become so cheap and ties are-Rose-point, in which the figures are in high plentiful as to be worn by all classes. It has been relief, having a rich embossed appearance; Venetian- mentioned before that the use of the pillow led to point, Portuguese-point, Maltese-point : in all of these the introduction of net as the ground-work for lace the pattern is flatter than in the Rose-point, Point figures, and it was to the manufacture of this d'Alençon, and Brussels-point. The last two are still so-called bobbin-net that the machinery was first made, the modern Point d'Alençon quite equalling applied (see BOBBIN-NET). The figure in the article in beauty and value that made in the middle of the referred to indicates very satisfactorily the structure 17th c., when its manufacture was introduced by of net. The lace-machine, or frame, as it is techthe celebrated Colbert, chief minister of Louis nically called, is so complicated, that it would be XIV. The Point d'Alençon has very distinctive hopeless to convey any really intelligible description characteristics. When the pattern is once designed, of it without a voluminous description of all its each portion may be worked by a separate person, parts. One or two points of chief importance may, and the various figures are then connected by a however, remove any difficulty in understanding its groundwork of threads, which are so passed from general principles. First, then, as in the loom (see one figure to another as to represent a web of Loom), there is a series of warp-threads, placed, wonderful delicacy and regularity: small spots however, perpendicularly instead of horizontally, or other figures are here and there skilfully worked and not so close as in ordinary weaving, the space


between each being sufficiently wide to admit of a of Luigi Martini of Milan have in this respect shilling passing edgeways between them. Behind attained great celebrity, and are said to produce these threads, and corresponding to the interspaces, about £16,000 worth per annum. is a row of ingeniously constructed flat bobbíns or

LACE-BARK TREE (Lagetta lintearia), a tree reels resting in an arrangement called a comb-bar of the natural order Thymeleacea, a native of the or bolt-bar.

These are so placed, that with the West Indies. It is a lofty tree, with ovate, entire, first movement of the machine, each bobbin, which smooth leaves, and white flowers. It is remarkable carries its thread with it, passes through two of the for the tenacity of the fibres of its inner bark, and parallel and perpendicular threads of the warp, and the readiness with which the inner bark may be is lodged in another and similar bolt-bar in front of separated, after maceration in water, into layers the warp. But this front bolt bar, besides an advanc resembling lace. A governor of Jamaica is said to ing and receding motion, has another movement, have presented to Charles II. a cravat, frill, and called shoggingfrom right to left. When it receives a rutlles made of it. bobbin by its forward motion, it draws back, bringing the bobbin and thread through two of the upright

LACE-LEAF. See LATTICE LEAF. threads; it then shogs or moves to one side, and LACÉPÈDE, BERNARD GERMAIN ÉTIENNE DE goes forward again, taking the thread through the LAVILLE, CounT DE, an eminent naturalist and next two warp-threads, and lodging the bobbin on elegant writer, was born of a noble family, 26th the back bolt-bar again, one distance beyond its last December 1756, at Agen. Having early devoted space; this it recovers by the next movement, and himself to the study of natural history, in which it again passes through the first space, to be again he was greatly encouraged by the friendship of received by the front bolt-bar. By these move. Buffon, he was appointed curator of the Cabinet ments, the bobbin-thread is twisted quite round one of Natural History in the Royal Gardens at Paris. upright thread of the warp; another movement This office he held till the Revolution, when he then shifts the bobbin, so that it will pass through became Professor of Natural History, and also the next pair of upright threads, and so carry on its entered upon a political career, in which he rose work, the warp-threads moving at the same time, to be a senator in 1799, a minister of state in 1809, unwinding from the lower beam, and being rolled and, after the return of the Bourbons, a peer of on the upper one. There being twice as many bob- France, although he had previously been one of the bins as there are threads in the warp, each bolt-bar most zealous adherents of Bonaparte. He died of having a set which it exchanges with the other, and small-pox at his mansion of Epinay, near St Denis, all being regulated with great nicety, a width of lace 6th October 1825. A collective edition of his works is made in far less time than has been required to was published in 1826. Among them are works on write this short description. The various additions the Natural History of Reptiles, of Fishes, and of the to, and variations upon, these operations, which only Cetacea, a Work on the Natural History of Man, and apply to bobbin-net, for the production of patterns, one entitled Les Ages de la Nature. His work on are so numerous and complicated-each pattern Fishes (5 vols. 1798-1803) is the greatest of his requiring new complications—that it will be useless works, and was long unrivalled in that department attempting to describe them; suffice it to say, they of zoology, although it has now been in a great all depend upon the variations which can be given measure superseded. L. was a highly accomplished to the movements of the flat, disc-like bobbins. musician, was the author of a work entitled La

The history of the lace-machine is not very clear; Poétique de la Musique (2 vols. 1785), and of two it is said to have been originally invented by a romances intended to illustrate social and moral frame-work knitter of Nottingham, from studying principles. He was an amiable man, extremely the lace on his wife's cap; but it has been continu- kind, delighting in domestic life, and very simple, ally receiving improvements, amongst which those of and almost abstemious, in his habits. Heathcote in 1809--the first to work successfully

LACERTA and LACE'RTIDÆ. See LIZARD. Morley, in 1811 and 1824, and those of Leaver and Turton, and of Clark and Marl, both in 1811. The

LACHAISE, FRANCIS D'AIX DE, a Jesuit, born manufacture of lace by machinery is chiefly located of a noble family, 25th August 1624, in the castle in Nottingham, whence it is sent to all parts of the of Aix, now in the department of Loire, was a world; but we have no means of knowing to what provincial of his order, when Louis XIV. 'selected extent, for, with that strange perversity which dis- him for his confessor on the death of Father Ferrier tinguishes our statistical administration, only thread. in 1675. His position was one of great difficulty, lace is mentioned in the lists of exports, whilst our owing to the different parties of the court, and the vast production of cotton-lace is mixed up with the strife between Jansenists and Jesuits. In the most returns of calico and other fabrics of that material.

important questions of his time, Father L. avoided Gold-lace and Silver-lace, properly speaking, are

extreme courses. A zealous Jesuit, and of moderate laces woven, either by the hand or by machinery, abilities, he yet sustained among his contemporaries from exceedingly fine threads of the metals, or from the reputation of a man of mild, simple, honourable linen, silk, or cotton threads which are coated with character. Madame Maintenon could never forgive still finer threads of gold or silver; but in this him the little zeal with which he opposed the reasons country it is too common to designate as gold or urged against the publication of her marriage with silver lace, not only that which is rightly so-called, the king; but during the thirty-four years that he but also fringe made of these materials, and also gold filled his office of confessor, he never lost the favour and silver embroidery, such as is seen on state robes of the king. He was a man of some learning, and and trappings, and upon some ecclesiastical dresses, fond of antiquarian pursuits. He died 20th January &c. Gold-lace is made in London, but consider. 1709.---Louis XIV. built him a country-house to the able quantities of that used for decorating uniforms west of Paris, the large garden of which was in 1804 and other dresses, &c., in this country, is obtained converted into a burial-place, and is known as the from Belgium, where it is an important branch of

Père-la-Chaise. manufacture. France supplies much of the gold and LACHES, in English Law, is a word used (from silver thread used, and excels all other countries in Fr. lâcher, to loosen) to denote negligence or undue its production, in some of the more artistic varieties delay, such as to disentitle a party to a particular of gold and silver lace and embroidery. Italy has remedy, or to relief. In Scotland, the word mora lately shewn great taste and skill. The works is often used to denote undue delay.


LA'CHESIS, a genus of serpents of the Rattle- bicarbonate of soda, and tonics, such as the citrate snake family (Crotalidae), but differing from rattle of iron and quinine. snakes in having the tail terminated with a spine Obstruction of the nasal duct is generally caused instead of a rattle, and in having the head covered by a thickening of the mucous membrane that lines with scales, and not with plates. The species are it, and is a not uncommon affection, especially in all natives of the warm parts of America, where scrofulous young persons. There is a feeling of some of them are among the most dreaded of weakness of the eye on the affected side, and tears venomous serpents. They are usually seen coiled run down the cheek, while the nostril on that side up, with keen glaring eyes, watching for prey, on is unnaturally dry. The lachrymal sac (see fig. 6 in which they dart with the swiftness of an arrow, and the article EYE) is distended with tears, and forms then coiling themselves up again, wait quietly till a small tumour by the side of the root of the nose. the death-struggle of the victim is over. Some of On pressing this tumour, tears and mucus can be them attain the length of seven feet. They are squeezed backwards through the puncta, or downsaid to be apt to attack men, even when not wards into the nose, if the closure is only partial. attacked or threatened.

This affection often leads to inflammation of the sac, LA'CHLAN, a river of East Australia, rises in or to the formation of a fistulous aperture at the inner New South Wales, to the westward of the Blue mal sac, and known as Fistula Lachrymalis

. This

corner of the eye, communicating with the lachryMountains, and, after a course of 400 miles, with fistulous aperture is caused by the bursting of an the characteristics of the Darling (q. v.) on a smaller abscess, arising from inflammation of the sac. It is scale, joins the Murrumbidgee, which itself, a little generally surrounded by fungous granulations (popufurther down, enters the Murray. The former of larly known as proud flesh), and the adjacent skin is these two points of confluence is in lat. 34° 30 S., red and thickened from the irritation caused by the and long. 144° 10' E.

flow of tears. In these cases, the sac must be opened LACHMANN, KARL, a celebrated German critic by a puncture, and a style (a silver probe about an and philologist, was born 4th March 1793, at Bruns- inch long, with a head like a nail) should be pushed wick, studied at Leipsic and Göttingen, became a through the duct into the nose. The retention of professor in the university of Königsberg in 1816, this instrument causes the duct to dilate, so that the and at Berlin in 1827. He died 13th March 1851. tears flow by its side. The flat head of the style L's literary activity was extraordinary. He was lies on the cheek, and both keeps the instrument in equally devoted to classical subjects and to those of its place and facilitates its occasional removal for old German literature, and illustrated both by a the purpose of cleansing. Sometimes it is necessary profound and sagacious criticism. Among his most that the instrument should be worn for life, but important productions are his editions of the Niebe in less severe cases the duct remains permanently lungenlied, the works of Walter von der Vogelweide, dilated, and a cure is effected in a few months. Propertius, Catullus, Tibullus, and the New Testament (Berl. 1831; 3d edit. 1846), of which a larger (whose country was called Laconia), systematically

LACO'NIC. The Spartans, or Lacedæmonians edition, with the Vulgate translation, appeared in endeavoured to confine themselves to a sententious 2 vols. (Berl. 1846 and 1850). The design of the last brevity in speaking and writing; hence the term of these works was to restore the Greek text as it laconic has been applied to this style. existed in the Eastern Church in the 3d and 4th centuries. It is considered, on the whole, the best LACORDAIRE, JEAN-BAPTISTE-HENRI, the edition of the Greek Testament that has yet been most distinguished of the modern pulpit-orators of published

France, was born at Recey-sur-Ource, in the departLACHRYMÆ CHRI'STI, a muscatel wine of ment Côte-d'or, March 12, 1802. He was educated a sweet but piquant taste, and a most agreeable at Dijon, where he also entered upon his legal bouquet, which is produced from the grapes of studies; and having taken his degree, he transferred Mount Somma, near Vesuvius. There are two

himself in 1822 to Paris, where he began to practise kinds,

the white and the red, the first being generally as an advocate in 1824, and rose rapidly to distincpreferred. The demand for this wine being greater tion. As his principles at this period were deeply than the supply, large quantities of the produce of tinged with unbelief, it was a matter of universal Pozzuoli, Istria, and Nola are sold under this name.

surprise in the circle his acquaintance that he A similar wine is produced in many islands of the suddenly gave up his profession, entered the College Archipelago, as Candia, Cyprus, &c.

of St Sulpice, and in 1827 received holy orders.

He soon became distinguished as a preacher, and LACHRYMAL ORGANS, THE, are sufficiently in the College of Juilly, to which he was attached, described in the article EYE. There are, however, he formed the acquaintance of the Abbé Lamen. certain diseases to which they are liable, which nais, with whom he speedily formed a close require a brief notice.

and intimate alliance, and in conjunction with There may be a deficient secre. whom, after the revolution of July, he published tion of tears, an affection for which the well-known journal, the Avenir, an organ at the term Xerophthalmia has been once of the highest church principles and of the invented. It may be palliated by most extreme radicalism. The articles published keeping the cornea constantly moist in this journal, and the proceedings which were with glycerine by means of an eye adopted in asserting the liberty of education, led to сир. Or there may be an a prosecution in the Chamber of Peers in 1831 ; and secretion of tears, so that they run when the Avenir itself was condemned by Gregory down the cheeks. This affection is XVI., L. formally submitted, and for a time withtermed Epiphora, and must not be drawing from public affairs, devoted himself to the confounded with the Stillicidium duties of the pulpit. The brilliancy of his eloquence, lachrymarum, or overflow of tears and the novel and striking character of his views,

that arises from an obstruction of excited an interest altogether unprecedented, and Figure of Style.

the channels through which they attracted unbounded admiration. His courses of

pass into the nose. It is common sermons at Notre-Dame drew to that immense pile in scrofulous children, and should be treated with crowds such as had never been seen within the gentle aperients, such as rhubarb combined with memory of the living generation, and had produced


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LACQUER-LACTIC ACID. an extraordinary sensation even on the non-religious early part of the 4th century. He was of Italian world, when once again L. fixed the wonder of the descent, but studied at Sicca, in Africa, under the public by relinquishing the career of distinction rhetorician Arnobius, and in 301 A.D. settled as a which was open to him, and entering the novitiate teacher of rhetoric in Nicomedia. He was invited of the Dominican order in 1840. A short time pre- to Gaul by Constantine the Great (312–318 A. D.), viously, he had published a memoir on the re-estab to act as tutor to his son Crispus, and is supposed to lishment of that order in France, which was followed, have died at Treves about 325 or 330. L.'s prinafter his enrolment in the order, by a Life of its cipal work is his Divinarum Institutionum, libri vii., founder, St Dominic; and in 1841 he appeared once a production both of a polemical and apologetic again in the pulpit of Notre-Dame, in the well-known character. A supposed tendency to Manicheism in habit of a Dominican friar. From this date, he gave his views, and his Chiliasm, have marred his repumuch of his time to preaching in various parts tation for pure orthodoxy. He attacks paganism, of France. In the first election which succeeded and defends Christianity. Among his other the revolution of 1848, he was chosen one of the writings are treatises De Ira Dei and De Mortibus representatives of Marseille, and took part in some Persecutorum. Some elegies have also been ascribed of the debates in the Assembly; but he resigned in to him, but erroneously. His style is wonderful, the following May, and withdrew entirely from if we consider the late age at which he wrote, political life. In 1849, and again in 1850 and 1851, and has deservedly earned for him the title of the he resumed his courses at Notre-Dame, which, Christian Cicero. He was, besides, a man of very together with earlier discourses, have been collected considerable learning, but as he appears not to have in three volumes, under the title of Conferences de become a Christian till he was advanced in years, Notre-Dame de Paris, 1835–1850. About this his religious opinions are often very crude and sintime, however, his health began to decline, and gular. L. was a great favourite during the middle he withdrew in 1854 to the convent of Soreze, ages. The editio princeps of this writer is one of where he spent the remainder of his life. In 1858, the oldest extant specimens of typography. It was he wrote a series of Letters to a Young Friend, printed at Subiaco in 1465. which have been much admired ; and in 1860, having been elected to the Academy, he delivered SELS, are the Lymphatic Vessels (q. v.) of the

LACTEALS, THE, or CHYLIFEROUS VES. what may be called his last address—the customary small intestine. They were discovered in 1622 by inaugural discourse, a Memoir of his predecessor, M. Aselli (q. v.), and received their name from conde Tocqueville. L. died at Soreze in the following veying the "milk-like product of digestion, the year.

Chyle (q. v.), during the digestive process, to the LACQUER is a varnish prepared for coating metal-work (see Lac), usually polished brass. The formula usually employed is, for gold colour : alcohol, 2 gallons; powdered turmeric, 1 pound, macerate for a week, and then filter with a covered filter, to prevent waste from evaporation; to this add, of the lightest-coloured shell-lac, 12 ounces ; gamboge, 4 ounces ; gum-sandarach, 3 pounds. This is put in a warm place until the whole is dissolved, when l quart of common turpentine varnish is added. A red lacquer, prepared by substituting 3 pounds of annotta for the turmeric, and 1 pound of dragon's blood for the gamboge, is extensively used.

LACQUERING, the art of coating metal with varnish. The term has also a wider signification, and is made to apply to the process by which some varieties of goods in wood and papier mâché

2 are also coated with layers of varnish, which are polished, and often inlaid with mother-of-pearl, &c. See PAPIER MÂCHÉ. It would appear, from the very fine specimens from Japan in the International Exhibition, that the Japanese excel in the art of producing articles of exquisite thinness and delicacy. The varnish used by the Chinese and Japanese

The Lacteals : appears to be the same, and is a natural secretion which flows from incisions in the stem of the airportion of small intestine connected by the membranous

structure, termed the mesentery, with the spinal column Varnish-tree (q. v.) Usually, the oriental lacquered (the white lines seen in the mesentery are the lacteals, and work is tastefully ornamented with designs painted

the white patches are the mesenteric glands); b, the recep

taculum forming the commencement of the thoracic duct, in gold, or with inlaid shell-work. The Japanese which enters the circulating system at the junction of c, have carried this art so far as to apply it to the subclavian, and d, the jugular vein, on the right side; their delicately beautiful china, some of which is

e, the vertebral column. The large vessel, with a porlacquered and inlaid with mother-of-pearl, forming

tion removed, lying in front of the vertebral column, is the

ascending or inferior vena cava. landscapes and other designs.

LACS D'AMOUR, in Heraldry, a cord of Thoracic Duct (q. v.), by which it is transmitted running knots used as an external decoration to to the blood. These vessels commence, as has been surround the arms of widows and unmarried shewn in the article DIGESTION, in the intestinal women, the cordelier, which differs but slightly villi, and passing between the layers of the Mesenfrom it, being used similarly with the shields of tery (q. V.), enter the mesenteric glands, and finally married women.

unite to form two or three large trunks, which LACTA'NTIUS, in several MSS. designated terminate in the thoracic duct. LUCIUS CELIUS, or CÆCILIUS FIRMIANUS L., an LACTIC ACID (C,H,O,,H0), in its pure state eminent Christian author, who flourished in the ) is a transparent, colourless, or slightly yellow






uncrystallisable, syrupy liquid, of specific gravity gas or absorption of oxygen takes place during the 1-215. It is devoid of odour, has a sharp, acid conversion of the sugar into the acid. taste, and is soluble in all proportions in water, Not only sugar-of-milk, but cane-sugar, starch, alcohol, and ether.

dextrine, and gum pass readily into lactic acid under The best method of obtaining this acid is by dissolv. the influence of caseine or other animal matters ing 8 parts of cane-sugar in about 50 parts of water, undergoing decomposition. and then adding 1 part of decaying cheese, and 3 Pasteur considers that a specific ferment, the germs parts of chalk. If this mixture be set aside for two of which exist in the atmosphere, is concerned in or three weeks at a temperature of about 80°, it the production of the lactic fermentation. During becomes filled with a mass of crystals of lactate of the process recommended in the preceding article lime, which must be purified by re-crystallisation, for the preparation of lactic acid, a layer of particles and treated with about one-third of their weight of of a gray colour is observed on the surface of the sulphuric acid. The residue must be digested in sediment. This substance, when examined under alcohol, which leaves the sulphate of lime, and dis- the microscope, is seen to consist of little globules or solves the lactic acid, which may be obtained pure very short articulations, constituting irregular floccuon evaporating the solution. The mode in which lent particles much smaller than those of beer-yeast, the acid is produced in this process is described in and exhibiting a rapid gyratory motion. When the article LACTIC FERMENTATION.

washed with a large quantity of water, and then Lactic acid is also formed in many other ways; diffused through a solution of sugar, the formation thus, it is a frequent product of the acidification of of lactic acid at once commences. Hence it follows vegetable substances, and in this way is formed in that these organic particles, and not the caseine, are sauer-kraut, in malt vinegar, and in the acid fermen- the actual agents in the conversion that takes place. tation that takes place during the manufacture of

LACTUCA'RIUM, or LETTUCE OPIUM, is wheat-starch. It occurs ready formed in certain the inspissated milky juice of several species of plants, and is very largely produced in the animal Lactuca or Lettuce, and is obtained by incision of body. It is found either free or combined, or both,

the stein. in the gastric juice (although not constantly), in the about half its weight of water, the residue being

By drying in the air, the juice loses contents of the small and large intestine, in the

lactucarium. chyle (after the use of amylaceous food), in the small lumps about the size of a pea or small bean ;

It usually occurs in commerce in múscular juice (both of the voluntary and involun- they are of a reddish-brown colour, but are sometary muscles), in the parenchymatous juices of the times covered with a grayish efflorescence; and spleen, liver, thymus, pancreas, lungs, and brain, they have a bitter taste, and a smell resembling and is found as lactate of lime in the urine of opium. Lactucarium has been frequently analysed, the horse. It has been found in certain morbid but chemistry has thrown little light on its comconditions of the system in the milk, where it is

position. formed from the sugar by the fermenting action of the caseine ; in the blood in leucocythæmia, properties, and is employed where opium is con

Lactucarium possesses anodyne and sedative pyæmia, and puerperal fever ; in purulent and sidered objectionable ; as, for instance, when there other transudations; in the urine when there is is morbid excitement of the vascular system ; and disturbance of the digestive and respiratory organs, it is of service in allaying cough in phthisis and and in rickets and softening of the bones (and other pulmonary diseases. The usual dose is five almost always after exposure to the air for some time); in the saliva in diabetes; in the sweat in grains, but it may be safely given in larger doses. puerperal fever, and in the scales that form upon coffers of ceilings, and also of the soffits of classic

LACU'NARS, or LACUNARIS, the panels or the skin in lepra.

The lactic acid occurring in the system may be cornices. They are much used in the ceilings of traced to two distinct sources : that which is found porticos and similar classic structures, and are in the intestinal canal is merely the product of the frequently ornamented with pateræ. decomposition of the starchy matters of the food; LADAKH, otherwise known as MIDDLE TIBET, but that which exists in the gastric juice (even when lies between Great Tibet on the E., and Little Tibet only animal food has been taken), in the muscular on the W., stretching in N. lat. from 32° to 36', and juice, and in the juices of the various glands, can in E. long. from 76' to 79o. On the S., it is separated only be regarded as a product of the regressive from Cashmere by the Himalaya, while on the N., metamorphosis or disintegration of the tissues, and it is divided by the Karakorum Mountains from how it is formed is not accurately known.

Chinese Turkestan. It contains about 30,000 square There is no ready test for lactic acid. The best miles, and about 125,000 inhabitants. The country course to pursue is to obtain it, if it is present, as

was conquered by Gholab Singh, the ruler of Casha lactate of lime, which crystallises in beautiful tufts mere, in 1835. It lies chiefly within the basin of of acicular prisms, or as a lactate of zinc, which the Upper Indus, being little better than a mass of crystallises in a very characteristic form in crusts mountains with narrow valleys between them. Notconsisting of delicate four-sided prisms.

withstanding its great elevation, which is equally LACTIC FERMENTATION. Although lac- unfavourable to soil and climate, the temperature is tose or sugar-of-milk may, under certain conditions, sometimes singularly high-a phenomenon attributed be made to undergo alcoholic fermentation (as in the partly to the tenuity of the atmosphere, and partly preparation of kumiss by the Tartars from mares' to the absence of moisture. Pretty good crops of milk), it generally yields a very different product, wheat, barley, and buckwheat are raised; while the viz, lactic acid, as may be seen in the case of milk mineral products are sulphur, iron, lead, copper, and turning sour in warm weather. The caseine is usually gold. The transit-trade is extensive, being carried considered to act as the ferment, but being insoluble on mostly by mules and sheep. The inhabitants are in acids, it is thrown down in flakes as soon as the very peaceful and industrious; they are excellent milk becomes sour. In this insoluble form, it exerts farmers, and their woollen manufactures are said to little action in converting the lactose (C2H,20,2) be important. The women are fresh and fair, but into lactic acid (C,H,O,,HO); but if the acid be rather lax in their morals; among the lower classes, neutralised by carbonate of soda or by chalk, the polyandry is common. The population is essentially curd is redissolved, and the transformation of the Mongolian, but has intermixed with the Cashme. sugar into lactic acid is renewed. No evolution of rians. The language is Tibetan, and in the opinion


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