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UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE

LABRADOR-LABRIDÆ.

LABRADO'R (Port. terra labarador, cultivable and seal-oil—the annual amount being estimated at land'), the name given by certain Portuguese dis- fully £600,000 sterling. The climate, like that of coverers to the continental coast of America near North America generally, is subject to great vicissiNewfoundland ; a name as inappropriate as that tudes. In summer, the thermometer ranges as high of Greenland ! The name gradually came to be as 85° Fabr. ; in winter, the temperature, and that extended from the Strait of Belleisle to Hudson's in nearly the same latitudes as the British Isles, falls Strait, being sometimes carried as far westward as 30° below the freezing-point. L. is a dependency the eastern shores of Hudson's Bay. More properly, of the United Kingdom, but it has never had a however, L. embraces only such portions of that separate government its own, being considered vast peninsula as do not fall within the chartered sometimes as an appendage of Canada, and someterritories of the Hudson's Bay Company (q. v.), by times as an appendage of Newfoundland. It is at pouring water into Hudson's Strait or Hudson's present believed to be in the latter position. Bay. In this restricted sense, the country stretches in N. lat. from about 52° to about 60°, and in variety of Felspar (q. v.), common as a constituent

LA'BRADORITE, or LABRADOR STONE, a W. long. from about 55° to upwards of 65°; area, of dolerite, greenstone, the gabbro, and hypersthene 70,000 square miles ; pop. 5000. Of this extensive country the interior 'is little known; but is under rocks. It consists of about 53 per cent. of silica, stood to be mostly an impenetrable wilderness of and 29 alumina, with 12 lime, and a little soda and swamps and forests. The maritime border, how. peroxide of iron. It is cut into snuff-boxes and ever (although its shores are wild and precipitous, exhibiting rich colours

, not unfrequently several

other articles ; taking a fine polish, and often reaching a height of from 400 to 600 feet, and in the same piece, when the light falls on it in on the north from 1000 to 1500 feet), is not without its value. The sea is here far less subject particular directions ;. the general colour being to fogs than it is in the neighbourhood of New missionaries in the island of St Paul, on the

gray.

It was first discovered by the Moravian foundland, where the warm waters of the Florida | coast of Labrador. It has been found in meteoric Stream meet the cold currents from the north ; and

stones. as it is constantly supplied from the polar ice, its temperature is remarkably favourable both to the LA'BRIDÆ, a family of osseous fishes, ranked quantity and the quality of its fish. Of the entire by Cuvier in the order Acanthopterygii (q. v.), by population of L., 4000 are Esquimaux, who are Müller in his new order, Pharyngognathi (q. v.). settled on the gulfs and creeks of the coast, and who They are divided by Müller into two families, subsist chiefly by fishing. Many European estab- Cteño-labridæ and Cyclo-labridæ, the former having lishments also have sprung up on the coast, some ctenoid, the latter, cycloid scales; the former comof them, such as the Moravian settlements, blending paratively a small, the latter, a very numerous commercial pursuits with missionary labours. The family. They are generally, oval or oblong, and principal missionary stations are Nain_(founded more or less compressed, with a single dorsal fin, 1771), Okak (1776), Hebron (1830), and Hopenthal spinous in front, and the jaws covered by fleshy lips. (1782). The fisheries employ, in the season, nearly Their colours are generally brilliant. They abound 1000 decked vessels, belonging partly to the British chiefly in tropical seas, but twelve or thirteen Provinces, principally Newfoundland, and partly to species are found on the British coasts, none of the United States. Besides a few furs and feathers, them large, nor esteemed for food. The most the exports consist of cod and salmon, with cod-ois | valuable of the family is the Tautog (q. v.) of North

LABRUYERE-LABYRINTH.

America. To this family belong the Wrasses and the Egyptian, the Cretan, and the Samian. The the Parrot-fishes, one of which is the celebrated first, or Egyptian, of which the others seem to have Scarus of the ancients.

been imitations, was situated at Crocodilopolis, close LABRUYERE, JEAN DE, a French author of to the lake Maris, in the vicinity of the present celebrity, particularly noted for his nice and delicate pyramid of Biakhmu. According to the classical delineations of character. He was born at Dourdan, Petesuchis, Tithoes, Imandes, Ismandes, Maindes, or

authors, it was built by an Egyptian monarch named in Normandy, in 1644 or 1646, was brought to Mendes. The recent discovery of the remains of the French court at the recommendation of Bossuet, this building by Lepsius has, however, shewn that and became one of the tutors of the Dauphin, whose the city was founded by Amenemha I., of the education Fenelon superintended. He spent the twelfth Egyptian dynasty, about 1800. B. c., and whole remainder of his life at court, in the enjoy that this monarch was probably buried in it, while ment of a pension, and in the most intimate inter- the pyramid and south temple were erected by course with the most accomplished men of his time. Amenemha III. and IV., whose prænomens resemble The work on which his high reputation rests, Les the name of Mæris, and their sister, Sebeknefru or Caractères de Théophraste, traduits du Grec, avec Scemiophris

, appears to have been the last sovereign les Caractères ou les Mæurs de ce Siècle (Par. 1687), of the twelfth dynasty. Great confusion prevails has gone through many editions, some of them in the ancient authorities as to the object of the annotated, and has been translated into several building, which contained twelve palaces under languages.

one roof, supposed to have been inhabited by LABUA'N, a member of the Malayan Archi- the Dodecarchy, or twelve kings who conjointly pelago, lies about thirty miles off the north-west reigned over Egypt before Psammetichus I. ; while, coast of Borneo. It measures ten miles by five, and according to other authorities, it was the place of the latitude and longitude of its centre are 5° 22 N., assembly of the governors of the nomes or districts, and 115° 10 E. Small as it is, it is peculiarly twelve in number according to Herodotus, sixteen valuable. Besides possessing a good harbour, it according to Pliny, and twenty-seven according to contains an extensive bed of excellent coal, which is Strabo. It was built of polished stone, with many worked by a recently formed company of British chambers and passages, said to be vaulted, having capitalists; and having become, in 1846, a British a peristyle court with 3000 chambers, half of possession, it bids fair, as well from its political which were under the earth, and the others above connection as from its natural advantages, to be a ground, which formed another story. The upper nucleus of civilisation for the whole of the surround. chambers were decorated with reliefs; the lower ing islands. Already it has been erected into a see were plain, and contained, according to tradition, of the Church of England.

the bodies of the twelve founders of the building,

and the mummies of the sacred crocodiles, conferring LABU'RNUM [Cytisus (q. v.) Laburnum), a

on the building the character of a mansoleum, small tree, a native of the Alps and other moun

probably conjoined with a temple, that of Sebak, tains of the south of Europe, much planted in the crocodile-god, and so resembling the Serapeium. shrubberies and pleasure-grounds in Britain, on Herodotus and Strabo both visited this edifice, account of its glossy foliage and its large pendulous which was difficult to pass through without the aid racemes of yellow flowers, which are produced of a guide. It stood in the midst of a great square. in great abundance in May and June. It is

Part was constructed of Parian marble-probably often mixed with lilac, and when the latter pre rather arragonite--and of Syenitic granite pillars ; ponderates, the combination has a fine effect. In had a staircase of ninety steps, and columns of favourable circumstances, L. sometimes attains a porphyry; and the opening of the doors echoed like height of twenty, or even forty feet. It is very the reverberation of thunder. For a long time, hardy, and nowhere flourishes better than in the great doubt prevailed whether any remains of the north of Scotland. It is of rapid growth, yet its building existed, and it was supposed to have been wood is hard, fine-grained, and very heavy, of a overwhelmed by the waters of the lake Mæris ; and dark-brown or dark-green colour, and much valued although P. Lucas and Letronne thought they had for cabinet-work, inlaying, and turnery, and for discovered the site, its rediscovery is due to Lepsius, making knife-handles, musical instruments, &c. The who found part of the foundations or lower chambers leaves, bark, &c., and particularly the seeds, are close to the site of the old Mæris Lake, or modern nauseous and poisonous, containing. Cytisine, an Birket-el-Keroun. According to Pliny, it was 3600 emetic, purgative, and narcotic principle, which is also found in many allied plants. Accidents from years old in his days. L. seeds are not unfrequent to children ; but to was the labyrinth of Crete, supposed to have been

The second, or next in renown to the Egyptian, hares and rabbits, L. is wholesome food, and they built by Dædalus for the Cretan monarch Minos, are so fond of it, that the safety of other trees in a in which the Minotaur was imprisoned by his orders. young plantation may be insured by introducing L. Although represented on the Cretan coins of Cnossus plants in great number, which spring again from the sometimes of a square, and at other times of a roots when eaten down.-A fine variety of L., called circular form, no remains of it were to be found Scotch L., by some botanists regarded as a distinct even in times of antiquity, and its existence was species (C. Alpinus), is distinguished by broader supposed to be fabulous. The only mode of finding leaves and darker yellow flowers, which are pro- the way out of it was by means of a hank or skein duced later in the season than those of the common of linen thread, which gave the clue to the dwelling or English laburnum.

of the Minotaur. The tradition is supposed to have LA'BYRINTH (a word of unknown origin, been based on the existence of certain natural derived by some from Labaris, the name of an caves or grottos, perhaps the remains of quarries, Egyptian monarch of the twelfth dynasty), the and it has been supposed to have existed northname of some celebrated buildings of antiquity, west of the island, near Cnossus, while a kind of consisting of many chambers or passages difficult to natural labyrinth still remains close to Gortyna. pass through without a guide, and the name hence The idea is supposed to have been derived from the applied to a confused mass of constructions. In Egyptian. the hieroglyphics, the word mera signifies a ‘laby- The third of the labyrinths of antiquity was the rinth. The principal labyrinths of antiquity were Samian, constructed by Theodorus and artists of

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LABYRINTHODON-LAC.

his school, in the age of Polycrates (540 B.C.), teeth in front. The bases of the teeth were anchysupposed to be a work of nature embellished by art, losed to distinct shallow sockets. Externally, they having 150 columns erected by a clever mechanical were marked by a series of longitudinal grooves, contrivance.—Other inferior labyrinths existed at which correspond to the inflected folds of the cement. Nauplia, at Sipontum in Italy, at Val d'Ispica in The peculiar and characteristic internal structure Sicily, and elsewhere ; and the name of labyrinth of the teeth is very remarkable, and to it these was applied to the subterraneous chambers of the fossils owe their generally accepted generic name tomb of Porsena, supposed to be that now existing of Labyrinthodon (labyrinth-tooth). The few and as the Poggio Gazella, near Chiusi. Labyrinths fragmentary bones of the body of the animal called mazes were at one time fashionable in garden- exhibit a combination of batrachian and crocodilian ing, being imitations, by hedges or borders, of the characters, leaning, however, on the whole, more to Cretan; the best known in modern times being the the first type. The restoration exhibited in the Maze at Hampton Court.

wood-cut is that suggested by Owen; it must be conHerodotus, ii. 148 ; Diodorus, i. 61, 97, iv. 60, 77; sidered as to a large extent imaginary, owing to the Pausanias, i. 27; Strabo, x. 477, xviii. 111; Plutarch, imperfect materials for such a work. In the same Theseus, 15; Pliny, N. H., xxvi. 19, 3, 83 ; Isidorus, deposits there have been long noticed the prints of Orig., xv. 2, 6 ; Höck, Creta, i. 447; Prokesch, feet, which so much resembled the form of the Denku., i. 606; Duc de Luynes, Annali, 1829, 364; human hand, that Kaup, their original describer, Lepsius, Einleit., p. 268.

gave the generic name of Cheirotherium to the great LABYRI'NTHODON, a genus of gigantic sauroid unknown animals which produced them. From the batrachians, found in the New Red Sandstone fore being much smaller than the hind foot, he measures of Great Britain and the continent. The considered that they were the impressions of a remains of several species have been described, but marsupial; but this relative difference in the feet all so fragmentary, that no certain restoration of exists also in the modern batrachians; and the the genus can yet be made. The head was triangular, discovery of the remains of so many huge animals

belonging to this order, in these very strata, the different sizes of which answer to the different footprints, leave little doubt that the cheirotherian footprints were produced by labyrinthodont reptiles.

LAC, in the East Indies, signifies a sum of 100,000 rupees. A lac of Company's Rupees is equal to £9270 sterling; a lac of Sicca Rupees, which in some places are also in very general

use, is equal to £9898 sterling. One hundred Labyrinthodon Pachygnatus.

lacs, or ten millions of rupees, make a Crore.

LAC, the general name under which the having a crocodilian appearance both in the shape / various products of the lac. insect (Coccus lacca) are and in the external sculpturing of the cranial bones, known. The curious hemipterous insect which but with well marked structural modifications in yields these valuable contributions to commerce is in the vomer, and in the mode of attachment of the many respects like its congener the Cochineal Insect head to the atlas, that stamp it with a batrachian (Coccus cacti), but it also differs essentially from it: character, conspicuous above the more apparent the males alone, and those only in their last stage of

development, have wings, therefore the whole life of the creature is spent almost on the same spot. They live upon the twigs of trees, chiefly species of Butea, Ficus, and Croton, and soon entomb themselves in a mass of matter, which oozes from small punctures made in the twigs of the tree, and which thus furnishes them with both food and shelter. It is said that to each male there are at least 5000 females, and the winged males are at least twice as large as the females. When a colony, consisting of a few adult females and one or two males, find their way to a new branch, they attach themselves to the bark, and having pierced it with holes, through which they draw up the resinous juices upon which they feed, they become fixed or glued by the superfluous excretion, and after a time die, forming by their dead bodies little domes or tents over the myriads of minute eggs which they have laid. In a short time, the eggs burst into life, and the young, which are very minute, eat their way through the dead bodies of their parents, and swarm all over the twig or small young branch of the tree in such countless numbers as to give it the appearance of being covered with a blood-red dust. They soon spread to all parts of the tree where the bark is tender enough to afford them food, and generation after generation dwells upon the same twig

until it is enveloped in a coating, often half an inch Footprint and Rain-drops.

in thickness, of the resinous exudation, which is

very cellular throughout, the cells being the casts saurian resemblances. The mouth was furnished of the bodies of the dead females. During their with a series of remarkable teeth, numerous and lifetime, they secrete a beautiful purple colouring small in the lateral rows, and with six great laniary matter, which does not perish with them, but

a

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LACCADIVES—LACE.

remains shut up in the cells with the other results by continually drawing it out into lengths, and of decomposition.

twisting it, be made not only quite white, but also The small twigs, when well covered, are gathered opaque; in this state it has a beautiful silky lustre; by the natives, and are placed in hot water, which and if melted and mixed with vermilion, or any melts the resinous matter, liberates the pieces of other colouring matter, it forms some of the fancy wood and the remains of the insects, and also kinds of sealing-wax: the more usual kinds are, dissolves the colouring matter. This is facilitated however, made by merely melting shell-lac with a by kneading the melted resin whilst in the hot little turpentine and camphor, and mixing the water; it is then taken out and dried, and is after- colouring matter. Shell-lac has the property of wards put into strong and very coarse cotton bags, being less brittle after the first melting than after which are held near enough to charcoal fires to subsequent meltings; hence the sealing-wax manumelt the resin without burning the bags. By twist- factured in India has always had a high repuing the bags, the melted resin is then forced through tation, and hence also the extreme beauty and the fabric, and received in thin curtain-like films durability of those Chinese works of art in lac, upon strips of wood. This hardens as its surface some of which are very ancient. These are usually becomes acted upon by the air, and being broken off chow-chow boxes, tea-basins, or other small objects in fragments, constitutes the shell-lac of commerce. made in wood or metal, and covered over with a The best shell-lac is that which is most completely crust of lac, coloured with vermilion, which, whilst freed from impurities, and approaches most to a soft, is moulded into beautiful patterns. So rare light orange brown colour. If the colouring, matter and beautiful are some of these works, that even in has not been well washed out, the resin is often China they cost almost fabulous prices. very dark, consequently, we find the following varieties in commerce-orange, garnet, and liver. Divh, i. e., the Lakara Islands), a group of islands

LACCADIVES (called by the natives Lakara. Much that is squeezed through the bags falls to in the Arabian Sea, discovered by Vasco de Gama the ground without touching the sticks placed to in 1499, lie about 150 miles to the

west of the Malacatch it; small quantities falling form button-like

They drops, which constitute the button-lac; whilst bar coast of the peninsula of Hindustan. larger ones, from an inch to two or three inches extend in N. lat. between 10° and 12, and in É. in diameter, constitute the plate-lac of commerce. long. between 72° and 74°, and are 17 'in number. That known as stick-lac is the twigs as they are

Being of coral formation, they are generally low, gathered, but broken short for the convenience of with deep water immediately round them, and are

therefore all the more dangerous to navigators. packing Below the lac-bearing trees there is always a very sweet potatoes, and cattle of a small breed. The

Pop. 7000; chief productions cocoa, rice, betel-nuts, considerable quantity of the resin in small particles inhabitants, who are called Moplays, are of Arabian which have been detached by the wind shaking and chafing the branches; this also is collected, and origin, and in religion follow a sort of Mohamconstitutes the seed-lac of our merchants.

medanism. They pay tribute, said to be about The water in which the stick-lac is first softened £1000 a year, to the district of Cananore, in the contains, as before mentioned, the colouring matter presidency of Madras. of the dead insect. This is strained and evaporated LACE, an ornamental fabric of linen, cotton, or until the residue is a purple sediment, which, when silk thread, made either by the hands, somewhat sufficiently dried, is cut in small cakes, about two after the manner of embroidery, or with machinery. inches square, and stamped with certain trade. The manufacture of lace by hand is an operation marks, indicating its quality. These are then fully of exceeding nicety, and requires both skill and dried, and packed for sale as lac-dye, of which patience of no ordinary kind, and the best produclarge quantities are used in the production of scarlet tions of this fabric surpass all other applications of cloth, such as that worn by our soldiers; for this textile materials in costliness and beauty. purpose, lac-dye is found very suitable.

Whether the ancients really had any knowledge The lac insect is a native of Siam, Assam, of lace-making, excepting gold-lace, which will be Burmah, Bengal, and Malabar; the lacs and lac-dye mentioned at the end of this article, is not known, come chiefly from Bombay, Pegu, and Siam. During nor is it known with any certainty when this art the last two or three years, the average imports came into practice in Europe; but there is good into Britain have amounted to about 610 tons of reason to suppose that point-lace, the oldest variety the lac-dye, and 1120 tons of lac, including the known, was the work of nuns during the latter half varieties of shell, stick, and seed lac.

of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th centuries. As we have no strictly analogous resin from the This point-lace is very characteristic, and is truly vegetable kingdom, not even from the lac-bearing an art production. The artistic character of the trees, it may be assumed that the juices of the patterns, and the wonderful patience and labour trees are somewhat altered by the insects. The shewn in carrying them out, places them, as female best analyses shew that shell-lac contains several productions, on a parallel with the decorative works peculiar resins. The great value of the lacs is in stone, wood, and metal of the monks. They indi. found in their adaptability for the manufacture cate no tiresome efforts to copy natural objects, but of varnishes, both in consequence of their easy masterly conceptions of graceful forms and tasteful solubility, and also because of the fine hard coating, combinations. The actual figures of the pattern susceptible of high polish, which they give when were cut out of linen, and over these foundation. dry. The well-known French polish' is little more pieces, as they may be called, the actual lace-work than shell-lac dissolved in alcohol; and a fine thin was wrought by the needle, with thread of marvellous varnish made of this material constitutes the lacquer fineness, and with such consummate art, that the with which brass and other metals are coated, to material of the foundation is quite undiscoverable preserve their polish from atmospheric action. under the fairy-like web which has been woven

All the varieties of lac are translucent, and some over it. These portions of the fabric were then of the finer kinds, which are in flakes not much joined together by connecting threads, each of thicker than writing-paper, are quite transparent, which, like the broader parts, consists of a foundaand all, as before stated, are coloured various shades tion, and lace-work covering; the former being a of brown, from orange to liver. Nevertheless, if a mere thread, often of exceedingly fine yarn; the quantity of shell-lac be softened by heat, it may, latter being a sort of loop-work like the modern

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