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must exert yourself to the utmost. Now, the first thing towards a benevolent government must be to lay down the boundaries. If the boundaries be not defined correctly, the division of the land into squares will not be equal, and the produce available for salaries will not be evenly distributed. On this account, oppressive rulers and impure ministers are sure to neglect this defining of the boundaries. When the boundaries have been defined correctly, the division of the fields and the regulation of allowances may be determined by you, sitting at your ease. 14. “Although the territory of Tang is narrow and small, yet there must be in it men of a superior grade, and there must be in it country-men. If there were not men of a superior grade, there would be none to rule the country-men. If there were not country-men, there would be none to support the men of superior ade. 15. “I would ask you, in the remoter districts, observing the nine-squares division, to reserve one division to be cultivated on the system of mutual aid, and in the more central parts of the kingdom, to make the people pay for themselves a tenth part of their produce. 16. “From the highest officers down to the lowest, each one must have his holy field, consisting of fifty 772,000. 17. “Let the supernumerary males have their twentyfive mow. 18. “On occasions of death, or removal from one dwelling to another, there will be no quitting the district. In the fields of a district, those who belong to the same nine squares render all friendly offices to one another in their going out and coming in, aid one another in keeping watch and ward, and sustain one another in sickness. Thus the people are brought to live in affection and harmony.
19. “A square le covers nine squares of land, which nine squares contain nine hundred mow. The central square is the public field, and eight families, each having its private hundred mow, cultivate in common the public field. And not till the public work is finished, may they presume to attend to their private affairs. This is the way by which the country-men are distinguished from those of a superior grade. 20. “Those are the great outlines of the system. Happily to modify and adapt it depends on the prince and you.” IV. 1. There came from Ts'oo to Tang one Heu Hing, who gave out that he acted according to the words of Shin-nung. Coming right to his gate, he addressed the duke Wan, saying, “A man of a distant region, I have heard that you, Prince, are practising a benevolent government, and I wish to receive a site for a house, and to become one of your people.” The duke Wan gave him a dwelling-place. His disciples, amounting to several tens, all wore clothes of haircloth, and made sandals of hemp and wove mats for a living. 2. At the same time, Ch’in Seang, a disciple of Chin Leang, and his younger brother, Sin, with their ploughhandles and shares on their backs, came from Sung to Tang, saying, “We have heard that you, Prince, are putting into practice the government of the ancient sages, showing that you are likewise a sage. We wish to become the subjects of a sage.” 3. When Chin Seang saw Heu Hing, he was greatly pleased with him, and, abandoning entirely whatever he had learned, became his disciple. Having an interview with Mencius, he related to him with approbation the words of Heu Hing to the following effect:- The prince of Tang is indeed a worthy prince. He has not yet heard, however the real doctrines of antiquity. Now, wise and able princes should cultivate the ground
equally and along with their people, and eat the fruit of their labour. They should prepare their own meals, morning and evening, while at the same time they carry on their government. But now, the prince of Tang has his granaries, treasuries, and arsenals, which is an oppressing of the people to nourish himself—How can he be deemed a real worthy prince?” 4. Mencius said, “I suppose that Heu Hing sows grain and eats the produce. Is it not so?” “It is so.” was the answer. “I suppose also he weaves cloth, and wears his own manufacture. Is it not so?” “No. Heu wears clothes of haircloth.” “Does he wear a cap 2" “He wears a cap.” “What kind of cap?” “A plain cap.” “Is it woven by himself?” “No. He gets it in exchange for grain.” “Why does Heu not weave it himself?” “That would injure his husbandry.” “Does Heu cook his food in boilers and earthenware pans, and does he plough with an iron share” “Yes.” “Does he make those articles himself?” “No. He gets them in exchange for grain.” 5. Mencius then said, “The getting those various articles in exchange for grain, is not oppressive to the potter and the founder, and the potter and the founder in their turn, in exchanging their various articles for grain, are not oppressive to the husbandman. How should such a thing be supposed? And moreover, why does not Heu act the potter and founder, supplying himself with the articles which he uses solely from his own establishment 2 Why does he go confusedly dealing and exchanging with the handicraftsmen? Why does he not spare himself so much trouble : " Ch'in Seang replied, “The business of the handicraftsman can by no means be carried on along with the business of husbandry.” 6. Mencius resumed, “Then, is it the government of the empire which alone can be carried on along with
the practice of husbandry 2 Great men have their proper business, and little men have their proper business. Moreover, in the case of any single individual, whatever articles he can require are ready to his hand, being produced by the various handicraftsmen —if he must first make them for his own use, this way of doing would keep the whole empire running about upon the roads. Hence, there is the saying, “Some labour with their minds, and some labour with their strength. Those who labour with their minds govern others; those who labour with their strength are governed by others. Those who are governed by others support them; those who govern others are supported by them.' This is a principle universally recognized. 7. “In the time of Yaou, when the world had not yet been perfectly reduced to order, the vast waters, flowing out of their channels, made a universal inundation. Vegetation was luxuriant, and birds and beasts swarmed. The various kinds of grain could not be grown. The birds and beasts pressed upon men. The paths marked by the feet of beasts and prints of birds, crossed one another throughout the Middle kingdom. To Yaou alone this caused anxious sorrow. He raised Shun to office, and measures to regulate the disorder were set forth. Shun committed to Yih the direction of the fire to be employed, and Yih set fire to, and consumed, the forests and vegetation on the mountains and in the marshes, so that the birds and beasts fled away to hide themselves. Yu separated the nine streams, cleared the courses of the Tse and Tah, and led them all to the sea. He opened a vent also for the Joo and Han, and regulated the course of the Hwae and Sze, so that they all flowed into the Keang. When this was done, it became possible for the people of the Middle kingdom to cultivate the ground and get food for themselves. During that time, Yu was eight years
away from his home, and though he thrice passed the door of it, he did not enter. Although he had wished to cultivate the ground, could he have done so *
8. “The Minister of agriculture taught the people to sow and reap, cultivating the five kinds of grain. When the five kinds of grain were brought to maturity, the people all enjoyed a comfortable subsistence. Now men possess a moral nature; but if they are well fed, warmly clad, and comfortably lodged, without being taught at the same time, they become almost like the beasts. This was a subject of anxious solicitude to the sage Shun, and he appointed See to be the Minister of instruction, to teach the relations of humanity: —how, between father and son, there should be affection; between sovereign and minister, righteousness: between husband and wife, attention to their separate functions; between old and young, a proper order; and between friends, fidelity. The highly meritorious emperor said to him, “Encourage them; lead them on; rectify them; straighten them; help them; give them wings:–thus causing them to become possessors of themselves. Then follow this up by stimulating them, and conferring benefits on them.” When the sages were exercising their solicitude for the people in this way, had they leisure to cultivate the ground?
9. “What Yaou felt giving him anxiety, was the not getting Shun. What Shun felt giving him anxiety was the not getting Yu and Kaou-yaou. But he whose anxiety is about his hundred mow not being properly cultivated, is a mere husbandman.
10. “The imparting by a man to others of his wealth, is called “a kindness.’ The teaching others what is good, is called “the exercise of fidelity.’ The finding a man who shall benefit the empire, is called ‘benevolence.' Hence to give the empire to another man would be easy; to find a man who shall benefit the empire is difficult.