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in selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?' Now, benevolence is the most honourable dignity conferred by Heaven, and the quiet home in which man should dwell. Since no one can hinder us from being so, if yet we are not benevolent ;—this is being not wise.

3. "From the want of benevolence and the want of wisdom will ensue the entire absence of propriety and righteousness ;—he who is in such a case must be the servant of other men. To be the servant of men and yet ashamed of such servitude, is like a bow-maker's being ashamed to make bows, or an arrow-maker's being ashamed to make arrows.

4. "If he be ashamed of his case, his best course is to practice benevolence.

5. "The man who would be benevolent is like the archer. The archer adjusts himself and then shoots. If he misses, he does not murmur against those who surpass himself. He simply turns round and seeks the cause of his failure in himself."

VIII. 1. Mencius said, "When any one told Tsze-loo that he had a fault, he rejoiced.

2. "When Yu heard good words, he bowed to the speaker.

3. "The great Shun had a still greater delight in what was good. He regarded virtue as the common property of himself and others, giving up his own way to follow that of others, and delighting to learn from others to practise what was good.

4. "From the time when he ploughed and sowed, exercised the potter's art, and was a fisherman, to the time when he became emperor, he was continually learning from others.

5. "To take example from others to practice virtue, is to help them in the same practice. Therefore, there is no attribute of the superior man greater than his helping men to practise virtue."

IX. 1. Mencius said," Pih-e would not serve a prince whom he did not approve, nor associate with a friend whom he did not esteem. He would not stand in a bad prince's court, nor speak with a bad man. To stand in a bad prince's court, or to speak with a bad man, would have been to him the same as to sit with his court robes and court cap amid mire and ashes. Pursuing the examination of his dislike to what was evil, we find that he thought it necessary, if he happened to be standing with a villager whose cap was not rightly adjusted, to leave him with a high air, as if he were going to be defiled. Therefore, although some of the princes made application to him with very proper messages, he would not receive their gifts.—He would not receive their gifts, counting it inconsistent with his purity to go to them.

2. "Hwuy of Lew-hea was not ashamed to serve an impure prince, nor did he think it low to be an inferior officer. When advanced to employment, he did not conceal his virtue, but made it a point to carry out his principles. When neglected and left without office, he did not murmur. When straitened by poverty, he did not grieve. Accordingly, he had a saying, 'You are you, and I am I. Although you stand by my side with breast and arms bare, or with your body naked, how can you defile me?' Therefore, self-possessed, he companied with men indifferently, at the same time not losing himself . When he wished to leave, if pressed to remain in office he would remain.—He would remain in office, when pressed to do so, not counting it required by his purity to go away."

3. Mencius said, "Pih-e was narrow-minded, and Hwuy of Lew-hea was wanting in self-respect. The superior man will not follow either narrow-mindedness, or the want of self-respect.


Chapter I. 1. Mencius said, "Opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth, and advantages of situation are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Mencius.

2. " There is a city, with an inner wall of three le in circumference, and an outer wall of seven.—The enemy surround and attack it, but they are not able to take it. Now, to surround and attack it, there must have been vouchsafed to them by Heaven the opportunity of time, and in such case their not taking it is because opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth.

3. "There is a city, whose walls are distinguished for their height, and whose moats are distinguished for their depth, where the arms of its defendants, offensive and defensive, are distinguished for their strength and sharpness, and the stores of rice and other grain are very large. Yet it is obliged to be given up and abandoned. This is because advantages of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men.

4. "In accordance with these principles it is said, 'A people is bounded in, not by the limits of dykes and borders; a kingdom is secured, not by the strengths of mountains and rivers; the empire is overawed, not by the sharpness and strength of arms.' He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. He who loses the proper course has few to assist him. When this,— the being assisted by few,—reaches its extreme point, his own relations revolt from the prince. When the being assisted by many reaches its highest point, the whole empire becomes obedient to the prince.

5. "When one to whom the whole empire is prepared to be obedient, attacks those from whom their own relations revolt, what must be the result? Therefore, the true ruler will decline to fight; but if he do fight, he must overcome."

II. 1. As Mencius was about to go to court to see the king, the king sent a person to him with this message,—"I was wishing to come and see you. But I have got a cold, and may not expose myself to the wind. In the morning I will hold my court. I do not know whether you will give me the opportunity of seeing you then." Mencius, replied, " Unfortunately, I am unwell, and not able to go to the court."

2. Next day, he went out to pay a visit of condolence to some one of the Tung-kwoh family, when Kung-sun Ch'ow said to him, "Yesterday, you declined going to the court on the ground of being unwell, and to-day you are going to pay a visit of condolence. May this not be regarded as improper?" "Yesterday," said Mencius, "I was unwell; to-day, I am better:—why should I not pay this visit?"

3. In the mean time, the king sent a messenger to inquire about his sickness, and also a physician. Mang Chung replied to them, "Yesterday, when the king's order came, he was feeling a little unwell, and could not go to the court. To-day he was a little better, and hastened to go to court. I do not know whether he can have reached it by this time or not." Having said this, he sent several men to look for Mencius on the way, and say to him, " I beg that, before you return home, you will go to the court."

4. On this, Mencius felt himself compelled to go to King Ch'ow's, and there stop the night. King said to him, "In the family, there is the relation of father and son; abroad, there is the relation of prince and minister. These are the two great relations among men. Between father and son the ruling principle is kindness. Between prince and minister the ruling principle is respect. I have seen the respect of the king to you, Sir, but I have not seen in what way you show respect to him." Mencius replied," Oh! what words are these? Among the people of Tsfe there is no one who speaks to the king about benevolence and righteousness. Are they thus silent because they do not think that benevolence and righteousness are admirable? No, but in their hearts they say,'This man is not fit to be spoken with about benevolence and righteousness.' Thus they manifest a disrespect than which there can be none greater. I do not dare to set forth before the king any but the ways of Yaou and Shun. There is therefore no man of Ts'e who respects the king so much as I do."

5. King said," Not so. That was not what I meant . In the Book of Rites it is said, 'When a father calls, the answer must be without a moment's hesitation. When the prince's order calls, the carriage must not be waited for.' You were certainly going to the court, but when you heard the king's order, then you did not carry your purpose out. This does seem as if it were not in accordance with that rule of propriety."

6. Mencius answered him, " How can you give that meaning to my conduct? The philosopher Tsang said, 'The wealth of Tsin and Ts'oo cannot be equalled. Let their rulers have their wealth:—I have my benevolence. Let them have their nobility:—I have my righteousness. Wherein should I be dissatisfied as inferior to them?' Now shall we say that these sentiments are not right? Seeing that the philosopher Tsang spoke

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