« הקודםהמשך »
sel to the great should despise them, and not look at their pomp and display. 2. “Halls several times eight cubits high, with beams projecting several cubits;–these, if my wishes were to be realized, I would not have. Food spread before me over ten cubits square, and attendant girls to the amount of hundreds;–these, though my wishes were realized, I would not have. Pleasure and wine, and the dash of hunting, with thousands of chariots following after me;—these, though my wishes were realized, I would not have. What they esteem are what I would have nothing to do with ; what I esteem are the rules of the ancients—Why should I stand in awe of them 7” XXXV. Mencius said, “To nourish the heart there is nothing better than to make the desires few. Here is a man whose desires are few:—in some things he may not be able to keep his heart, but they will be few. Here is a man whose desires are many:—in some things he may be able to keep his heart, but they will be few.” XXXVI. 1. Mencius said, “Tsang Seih was fond of sheep dates, and his son, the philosopher Tsang, could not bear to eat sheep-dates.” 2. Kung-sun Ch'ow asked, saying, “Which is bestminced meat and roasted meat, or sheep-dates?” Mencius said, “Mince and roasted meat, to be sure.” Kungsun Chow went on, “Then why did the philosopher Tsang eat mince and roast-meat, while he would not eat sheep-dates?” Mencius answered, “For mince and roast sheep-meat there is a common liking, while that for sheep-dates was peculiar. We avoid the name, but do not avoid the surname. The surname is common; the name is peculiar.” XXXVII. 1. Wan Chang asked, saying, “Confucius, when he was in Ch'in, said, ‘Let me return. The scholars of my school are ambitious but hasty. They are
for advancing and seizing their object, but cannot forget their early ways.’ Why did Confucius, when he was in Ch'in, think of the ambitious scholars of Loo?” 2. Mencius replied, “Confucius not getting men pursuing the true medium, to whom he might communicate his instructions, determined to take the ardent and the cautiously-decided. The ardent would advance to seize their object; the cautiously-decided would keep themselves from certain things. It is not to be thought that Confucius did not wish to get men pursuing the true medium, but being unable to assure himself of finding such, he therefore thought of the next class.” 3. “I venture to ask what sort of men they were who could be styled ‘The ambitious?” 4. “Such,” replied Mencius, “as K'in Chang, Tsang Seih, and Muh Pei, were those whom Confucius styled “ambitious.’” 5. “Why were they styled “ambitious?” 6. The reply was, “Their aim led them to talk magniloquently, saying, ‘The ancients!’ ‘The ancients!' But their actions, compared with their words, did not come up to them.” 7. “When he found also that he could not get such as were thus ambitious, he wanted to get scholars who would consider anything impure as beneath them. Those were the cautiously-decided,—a class next to the former.” 8. Chang pursued his questioning, “Confucius said, “They are only your good careful people of the villages at whom I feel no indignation, when they pass my door without entering my house. Your good careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue?” What sort of people were they who could be styled ‘Your good careful people of the villages?’” 9. Mencius replied, “They are those who say, ‘Why are they so magniloquent? Their words have not respect to their actions, and their actions have not respect to their words, but they say,+The ancients / The ancients / Why do they act so peculiarly, and are so cold and distant? Born in this age, we should be of this age, to be good is all that is needed.' Eunuch-like, flattering their generation;–such are your good careful men of the villages.” 10. Wan Chang said, “Their whole village styles those men good and careful. In all their conduct they are so. How was it that Confucius considered them the thieves of virtue 7" 11. Mencius replied, “If you would blame them, you find nothing to allege. If you would criticize them, you have nothing to criticize. They agree with the current customs. They consent with an impure age. Their principles have a semblance of right-heartedness and truth. Their conduct has a semblance of disinterestedness and purity. All men are pleased with them, and they think themselves right, so that it is impossible to proceed with them to the principles of Yaou and Shun. On this account they are called, “The thieves of virtue.' 12. “Confucius said, ‘I hate a semblance which is not the reality. I hate the darmel, lest it be confounded with the corn. I hate glib-tonguedness, lest it be confounded with righteousness. I hate sharpness of tongue, lest it be confounded with sincerity. I hate the music of Ch'ing, lest it be confounded with the true music. I hate the reddish blue, lest it be confounded with vermilion. I hate your good careful men of the villages, lest they be confounded with the truly virtuous.’ 13. “The superior man seeks simply to bring back the unchanging standard, and that being rectified, the masses are roused to virtue. When they are so aroused, forthwith perversities and glossed wickedness disappear.”
XXXVIII. 1. Mencius said, “From Yaou and Shun down to Tang were 500 years and more. As to Yu and Kaou-yaou, they saw those earliest sages, and so knew their doctrines, while T'ang heard their doctrines as transmitted, and so knew them. 2. “From Tang to king Wan were 500 years and more. As to E Yin, and Lae Choo, they saw Tang and knew his doctrines, while king Wan heard them as transmitted, and so knew them. 3. “From king Wan to Confucius were 500 years and more. As to Tae-kung Wang and San E-sang, they saw Wan, and so knew his doctrines, while Confucius heard them as transmitted, and so knew them. 4. “From Confucius downwards until now, there are only 100 years and somewhat more. The distance in time from the sage is so far from being remote, and so very near at hand was the sage's residence. In these circumstances, is there no one to transmit his doctrines? Yea, is there no one to do so?”
SUBJECTS IN THE WORKS OF MENCIUS.
The first figure, followed by a period
(1.) is the number of the Book—that
followed by a colon (2:) is the Part—that which follows is the Chapter.
Absurdity of a ruler not following wise counsellors, Book 1, Part 2, Chap. 9.
Acknowledged favours, how Mencius, 6. 2: 5.
Action, faith necessary to firmness in, 6. 2:12.
Adherence to one course, against ob-
Air, how one's material position affects
and maxims of the, 3.2:7.—kings, the example and principles of, must be studied, 4. 1: 1, 2. — the, exchanged sons, each one teaching the son of the other, 4. 1: 18.-making friends of the, 5. 2: 8–the, cultiwated the nobility that is of Heaven, 6. 1: 16.-scholars maintained the dignity of their characters, how, 7. 1: 8-and modern rule contrasted, 7. 2: 8–the, led men by their example, 7. 2:20. Also man how much different from, . 2: 19. Antiquity, the example of 7. 1:9. Appetites, the superior man subjects his to the will of Heaven, 7. 1:24. Archer, he who would be benevolent is like an, 2. 1:7. Archery, learning, 4. 1:24; 6.1:20. Arrangement of dignities and emoluments according to the dynasty of Chow, 5. 2:2. Association, influence of 3. 2:6; 6.1: 9.—with those of whom one does not approve, unavoidable, 3.2:10. Attainment, real must be made by the learner for himself, 7.2: 5. Authority, punishment should be inflicted only by the proper, 2.2:8. Barbarians, influence of the Chinese on, 3. 1:4.; 2: 9. Barley, illustration taken from, 6.1:7. Beauty, the love of, compatible with royal government, 1. 2: 5. – only moral is truly excellent, 4. 2:25. Behaviour of Mencius with an unworthy associate, 2. 2:6. Bone of trouble and affliction, 7.1: )