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and went away;-this was the way for him to leave a strange State.” XVIII. Mencius said, “The reason why the superior man was reduced to straits between Ch'in and Ts'ae was because neither the princes of the time nor their ministers communicated with him.” XIX. 1. Mih Koe said, “Greatly am I from anything to depend upon from the mouths of men.” 2. “Mencius observed, “There is no harm in that. Scholars are more exposed than others to suffer from the mouths of men. 3. “It is said, in the Book of Poetry, ‘My heart is disquieted and grieved, I am hated by the crowd of mean creatures.’ This might have been said by Confucius. And again, “Though he did not remove their wrath, He did not let fall his own fame.’ This might be said of king Wan.” XX. Mencius said, “Anciently, men of virtue and talents by means of their own enlightenment made others enlightened. Now-a-days, it is tried, while they are themselves in darkness, and by means of that darkness, to make others enlightened.” XXI. Mencius said to the disciple Kaou, “There are the foot-paths along the hills;–if suddenly they be used, they become roads; and if, as suddenly they are not used, the wild grass fills them up. Now, the wild grass fills up your mind.” XXII. I. The disciple Kaou said, “The music of Yu was better than that of king Wan.” . 2. “Mencius observed, “On what ground do you say so?” and the other replied, “Because at the pivot the knob of Yu's bells is nearly worn through.” 3. Mencius said, “How can that be a sufficient proof? Are the ruts at the gate of a city made by a single two-horsed chariot ?”

XXIII. 1. When Tse was suffering from famine, Ch'in Tsin said to Mencius, “The people are all thinking that you, Master, will again ask that the granary of T'ang be opened for them. I apprehend you will not do so a second time.”

2. Mencius said, “To do it would be to act like Fung Foo. There was a man of that name in Tsin, famous for his skill in seizing tigers. Afterwards, he became a scholar of reputation, and going once out to the wild country, he found the people all in pursuit of a tiger. The tiger took refuge in a corner of a hill, where no one dared to attack him, but when they saw Fung Foo, they ran and met him. Fung Foo immediately bared his arms, and descended from the carriage. The multitude were pleased with him, but those who were scholars laughed at him.”

XXIV. 1. Mencius said, “For the mouth to desire sweet tastes, the eye to desire beautiful colours, the ear to desire pleasant sounds, the nose to desire fragrant odours, and the four limbs to desire ease and rest;these things are natural. But there is the appointment of Heaven in connection with them, and the superior man does not say of his pursuit of them, ‘It is my nature.”

2. “The exercise of love between father and son, the observance of righteousness between sovereign and minister, the rules of ceremony between guest and host, the display of knowledge in recognizing the talented, and the fulfilling the heavenly course by the sage;—these are the appointment of Heaven. But there is an adaptation of our nature for them. The superior man does not say, in reference to them, ‘It is the appointment of Heaven.’”

XXV. 1. Haou-sang Puh-hae asked, saying, “What sort of man is Yo-ching?” Mencius replied, “He is a good man, a real man.”

2. “What do you mean by ‘A good man,’ ‘A real man 2 ” 3. The reply was, “A man who commands our liking, is what is called a good man. 4. “He whose goodness is part of himself, is what is called a real man. 5. “He whose goodness has been filled up, is what is called a beautiful man. 6. “He whose completed goodness is brightly displayed, is what is called a great man. 7. “When this great man exercises a transforming influence, he is what is called a sage. 8. “When the sage is beyond our knowledge, he is what is called a spirit-man. 9. “Yo-ching is between the two first characters, and below the four last.” XXVI. 1. Mencius said, “Those who are fleeing from the errors of Mih naturally turn to Yang, and those who are fleeing from the errors of Yang naturally turn to orthodoxy. When they so turn, they should at once and simply be received. 2. “Those who now-a-days dispute with the followers of Yang and Mih, do so as if they were pursuing a stray pig, the leg of which after they have got it to enter the pen, they proceed to tie. XXVII. Mencius said, “There are the exactions of hempen-cloth and silk, of grain, and of personal service. The prince requires but one of these at once, deferring the other two. If he require two of them at once, then the people die of hunger. If he require the three at once, then fathers and sons are separated.” XXVIII. Mencius said, “The precious things of a prince are three ;-the territory, the people, the government and its business. If one value as most precious pearls and stones, calamity is sure to befall him.” XXIX. P'un-shing Kwoh having obtained an official situation in Tse, Mencius said, “He is a dead man,— P'un-shing Kwoh!” Pun-shing Kwoh being put to death, the disciples asked, saying. “How did you know, Master, that he would meet with death?” Mencius replied, “He was a man, who had a little ability, but had not learned the great doctrines of the superior man— He was just qualified to bring death upon himself, but for nothing more.” XXX. 1. When Mencius went to Tang, he was lodged in the upper palace. A sandal in the process of making had been placed there in a window, and when the keeper of the place came to look for it, he could not find it. 2. On this, some one asked Mencius, saying, “Is it thus that your followers pilfer?” Mencius replied, “Do you think that they came here to pilfer the sandal?” The man said, “I apprehend not. But you, Master, having arranged to give lessons, do not go back to inquire into the past, and you do not reject those who come to you. If they come with the mind to learn, you receive them without any more ado.” XXXI. 1. Mencius said, “All men have some things which they cannot bear;-extend that feeling to what they can bear, and benevolence will be the result. All men have some things which they will not do;-extend that feeling to the things which they do, and righteousness will be the result.” 2. “If a man can give full development to the feeling which makes him shrink from injuring others, his benevolence will be more than can be called into practice. If he can give full development to the feeling which refuses to break through, or jump over, a wall, his righteousness will be more than can be called into practice. 3. “If he can give full development to the real feeling of dislike with which he receives the salutation,

“Thou, ‘Thou, he will act righteously in all places and circumstances. 4. “When a scholar speaks what he ought not to speak, by guile of speech seeking to gain some end; and when he does not speak what he ought to speak, by guile of silence seeking to gain some end;—both these cases are of a piece with breaking through a neighbour's wall.” XXXII. 1. Mencius said, “Words which are simple, while their meaning is far-reaching, are good words. Principles which, as held, are compendious, while their application is extensive, are good principles. The words of the superior man do not go below the girdle, but great principles are contained in them. 2. “The principle which the superior man holds is that of personal cultivation, but the empire is thereby tranquillized.” 3. “The disease of men is this:–that they neglect their own fields, and go to weed the fields of others, and that what they require from others is great, while what they lay upon themselves is light.” XXXIII. 1. Mencius said, “Yaou and Shun were what they were by nature; Tang and Woo were so by returning to natural virtue. 2. “When all the movements, in the countenance and every turn of the body, are exactly what is proper, that shows the extreme degree of the complete virtue. Weeping for the dead should be from real sorrow, and not because of the living. The regular path of virtue is to be pursued without any bend, and from no view to emolument. The words should all be necessarily sincere, not with any desire to do what is right. 3. “The superior man performs the law of right, in order that he may wait simply for what has been appointed.” XXXIV. 1. Mencius said, “Those who give coun

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