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will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."
XXVI. The Master said, “ The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease.”
XXVII. The Master said, “ The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest, are near to virtue.”
XXVIII. Tsze-loo asked saying, “What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called a scholar?” The Master said, “ He must be thus,-earnest, urgent, and bland :-among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland.”
XXIX. The Master said, “ Let a good man teach the people seven years, and they may then likewise be employed in war.”
XXX. The Master said, “ To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them away.”
BOOK XIV. HEEN-WAN.
CHAPTER I. Heen asked what was shameful. The Master said, “ When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of his salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of his salary ; this is shameful.”
II. 1. “When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, may this be deemed perfect virtue ?”
2. The Master said, “ This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue.”
III. The Master said, “ The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort, is not fit to be deemed a scholar.”
IV. The Master said, “ When good government prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve.”
V. The Master said, “The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle.”
VI. Nan-kung Kwoh, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, “ E was skilful at archery, and Ngaou could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yu and Tseih personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the empire.” The Master made no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwoh went out, he said, “ A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this !”
VII. The Master said, “ Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous.”
VIII. The Master said, “ Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object ?"
IX. The Master said, “ In preparing the governmental notifications, Pie Shin first made the rough
draught; She-shuh examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yu, the manager of Foreign intercourse, then made additions, or subtractions; and, finally, Tszechéan of Tung-le gave it the proper elegance and finish.”
X. 1. Some one asked about Tsze-chéan. The Master said, “ He was a kind man.'
2. He asked about Tsze-se. The Master said, “That man! That man!”
3. He asked about Kwan Chung. “For him," said the Master, " the city of Preen, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Pih family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, till he was toothless, he had only coarse rice to eat.”
XI. The Master said, “ To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is
XII. The Master said, “ Mang Kung-ch‘o is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Chaou and Wei' but he is not fit to be minister to either of the states Tang or See.”
XIII. 1. Tsze-loo asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, “Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Woo-chung, the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Peen, and the varied talents of Yen K'ew; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music :—such an one might be reckoned a COMPLETE man.”
2. He then added, “ But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life ; and who does not forget an old agreement, however far back it extends :-such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man.”
XIV. 1. The Master asked Kung-ming Kea about Kung-shuh Wan, saying, “ Is it true that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?”
2. Kung-ming Kea replied, “ This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth.—My Master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking.” The Master said, “ So ! But is it so with him ?”
XV. The Master said, “ Tsang Woo-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Loo to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was.”
XVI. The Master said, “ The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. The duke Hwan of Ts'e was upright and not crafty.”
XVII. 1. Tsze-loo said, “The duke Hwan caused his brother Kew to be killed, when Shaou Hwuh died with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue ?”
2. The Master said, “ The duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots :-it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his ? Whose beneficence was like his ?”
XVIII. 1. Tsze-kung said, “ Kwan Chung, I apprehend, was wanting in virtue, When the duke Hwan caused his brother Kew to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan.”
2. The Master said, “Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the duke Hwan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole empire. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair dishevelled, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.
3. “ Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing any thing about them?”
XIX. 1. The officer, Seen, who had been familyminister to Kung-shuh Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.
2. The Master, having heard of it, said, “ He deserves to be considered wan.”
XX. l. The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei, when Ke Kang said, “ Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose his throne ?”
2. Confucius said, “ The Chung-shuh, Yu, has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, To, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Kea has the direction of the army and forces :—with such officers as these, how should he lose his throne ?”
XXI. The Master said, “He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good.”
XXII. 1. Ch'in Shing murdered the duke Keen of Tse.
2. Confucius bathed, went to court, and informed the duke Gae, saying, “ Ch'in Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him.”
3. The duke said, “ Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.”
4. Confucius retired, and said, “ Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, “Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.'”