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2. It is by the Rules of propriety that the character is established. 3. It is from Music that the finish is received.” IX. The Master said, “The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it.” X. The Master said, “the man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme.” XI. The Master said, “Though a man have abilities as admirable as those of the duke of Chow, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being looked at.” XII. The Master said, “It is not easy to find a man who has learned for three years without coming to be ood.” 9. XIII. 1. The Master said, “With sincere faith he unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course. 2. “Such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a disorganized one. When right principles of government prevail in the empire, he will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed. 3. “When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and honour are things to be ashamed of.” XIV. The Master said, “He who is not in any particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties.” XV. . The Master said, “When the music-master, Che, first entered on his office, the finish with the Kwan Tseu was magnificent;-how it filled the ears' " XVI. The Master said, “Ardent and yet not upright; stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sincere:—such persons I do not understand.”

XVII. The Master said, “Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should lose it.” XVIII. The Master said, “How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yu held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!” XIX. 1. The Master said, “Great indeed was Yaou as a sovereign How majestic was hel It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yaou corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue / The people could find no name for it. 2. “How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished 2 How glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!” XX. 1. Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed. 2. King Woo said, “I have ten able ministers.” 3. Confucius said, “Is not the saying that talents are difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of Tang and Yu met, were they more abundant than in this of Chow, yet there was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more than nine men.” 4. “King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Chow may be said to have reached the highest point indeed.” XXI. The Master said, “I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water-channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu.”

BOOK IX. TSZE HAN.

CHAPTER I. The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were—profitableness, and also the appointments of Heaven, and perfect virtue. II. 1. A man of the village of Ta-heang said, “Great indeed is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and yet he does not render his name famous by any particular thing.” 2. The Master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, “What shall I practice? Shall I practice charioteering, or shall I practice archery 7 I will practice charioteering.” III. 1. The Master said, “The linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is worn. It is economical, and I follow the common practice. 2. “The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That is arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose the common practice.” IV. There were four things from which the Master was entirely free. He had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no obstinacy, and no egoISIII. W. 1. The Master was put in fear in Kwang. 2. He said, “After the death of king Wan, was not the cause of truth lodged here in me * 3. “If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a future mortal, should not have got such a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the people of Kwang do to me?”

VI. 1. A high officer asked Tsze-kung saying, “May we not say that your Master is a sage? How various is his ability 1" 2. Tsze Kung said, “Certainly Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is various.” 3. The Master heard the conversation and said, “Does the high officer know me? When I was young, my condition was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many things, but they were mean matters. Must the superior man have such variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability.” 4. Laou said, “The Master said, ‘Having no official employment, I acquired many arts.'” VII. “The Master said, “Am I indeed possessed of knowledge? I am not knowing. But if a mean person who appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and exhaust it.” VIII. The Master said, “The FUNg bird does not come; the river sends forth no map:—it is all over with me.” IX. When the Master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with the cap and upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person, on observing them approaching, though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily. X. 1. Yen Yuen, in admiration of the Master's doctrines sighed and said, “I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high ; I tried to penetrate them, and they seemed to become more firm; I looked at them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be behind. 2. “The Master, by orderly method, skilfully leads men on. He enlarged my mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety.

3. “When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I cannot do so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems something to stand right up before me; but though I wish to follow and lay hold of it, I really find no way to do so.” XI. 1. The Master being very ill, Tsze-loo wished the disciples to act as ministers to him. 2. During a remission of his illness, he said, “Long has the conduct of Yew been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers when I have them not, whom should I impose upon 2 Should I impose upon Heaven? 3. “Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of ministers, is it not better that I should die in the hands of you, my disciples 2 And though I may not get a great burial, shall I die upon the road?” XII. Tsze-kung said, “There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it up in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a good price and sellit?” The Master said, “Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait till the price was offered.” XIII. 1. The Master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes of the east. 2. Some one said, “They are rude. How can you do such a thing?” The Master said, “If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness would there be?” XIV. The Master said, “I returned from Wei to Loo, and then the music was reformed, and the pieces in the Imperial songs and Praise songs found all their proper place.” XV. The Master said, “Abroad, to serve the high ministers and officers; at home, to serve one's father and elder brother; in all duties to the dead, not to dare not to exert one's-self; and not to be overcome of wine: —what one of these things do I attain to?” XVI. The Master standing by a stream, said It passes on just like this, not ceasing day or night!” XVII. The Master said, “I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty.”

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