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VIII. 1. The Master said to Tsze-kung, “Which do you consider superior, yourself or Hwuy 2" 2. Tsze-kung replied, “How dare I compare myself with Hwuy "Hwuy hears one point and knows all about a subject; I hear one point and know a second.” 3. The Master said, “You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not equal to him.” IX. 1. Tsae Yu being asleep during the day time, the Master said, “Rotten wood cannot be carved ; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. This Yu!—what is the use of my reproving him?” 2. The Master said, “At first, my way with men was to hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yu that I have learned to make this change.” X. The Master said, “I have not seen a firm and unbending man.” Some one replied, “There is Shin Ch'ang.” “Ch'ang,” said the Master, “is under the influence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm and unbending 2" XI. Tsze-kung said, “What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not to do to men.” The Master said, “Tsze, you have not attained to that.” XII. Tsze-kung said, “The Master's personal displays of his principles, and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard.” XIII. When Tsze-loo heard anything, if he had not yet carried it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something else. XIV. Tsze-kung asked saying, “On what ground did Kung-wan get that title of wan’” The Master said, “He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of

his inferiors —On these grounds he has been styled WAN.” XV. The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics of a superior mah:—in his conduct of himself, he was humble; in serving his superiors, he was respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering the people, he was just.” XVI. The Master said, “Gan P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as at rSt.” fi XVII. The Master said, “Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on the capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, with representations of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters. Of what sort was his wisdom 7” XVIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked, saying, “The minister Tsze-wan, thrice took office, and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he retired from office, and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new minister of the way in which he had conducted the government;-what do you say of him?” The Master replied, “He was loyal.” “Was he per fectly virtuous?” “I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?” 1. Tsze-chang proceeded, “When the officer Tsuy killed the prince of Ts’e, Ch'in Wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned them and left the country. Coming to another state, he said, “They are here like our great officer, Tsuy, and left it. He came to a second state, and with the same observation left it also;-what do you say of him?” The Master replied, “He was pure.” “Was he perfectly virtuous?” “I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?” XIX. Ke Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When the Master was informed of it, he said, “Twice may do.” XX. The Master said, “When good order prevailed in his country, Ning Woo acted the part of a wise man, When his country was in disorder, he acted the part of a stupid man. Others may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal his stupidity.” XXI. When the Master was in Ch'in, he said, “Let me return Let me return! The little children of my school are ambitious and too hasty. They are accomplished and complete so far, but they do not know how to restrict and shape themselves.” XXII. The Master said, “Pih-e and Shuh-tsie did not keep the former wickednesses of men in mind, and hence the resentments directed towards them were few.” XXIII. The Master said, “Who says of Wei-shang Kaou that he is upright? One begged some vinegar of him, and he begged it of a neighbour and gave it him.” XXIV. The Master said, “Fine words, an insinuating appearance, and excessive respect;-Tso-kiew Ming was ashamed of them. I also am ashamed of them. To conceal resentment against a person, and appear friendly with him;-Tso-kiew Ming was ashamed of such conduct. I also am ashamed of it.” XXV. 1. Yen Yuen and Ke Loo being by his side, the Master said to them, “Come, let each of you tell his wishes.” 2. Tsze-loo said, “I should like, having chariots and horses, and light fur dresses, to share them with my friends, and though they should spoil them, I would not be displeased. 3. Yen Yuen said, “I should like not to boast of my excellence, nor to make a display of my meritorious deeds.” 4. Tsze-loo then said, “I should like, sir, to hear your

wishes.” The Master said, “They are, in regard to the aged, to give them rest; in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in regard to the young, to treat them tenderly.” XXVI. The Master said, “It is all over ! I have not yet seen one who could perceive his faults, and inwardly accuse himself.” XXVII. The Master said, “In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found one honourable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning.”

BOOK WI. YUNG YAY.

CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, “There is Yung!— He might occupy the place of a prince.” 2. Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Pih-tsze. The Master said, “He may pass. He does not mind small matters.” 3. Chung-kung said, “If a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business, though he may be easy in small matters, in his government of the people, that may be allowed. But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not such an easy mode of procedure excessive?” 4. The Master said, “Yung's words are right.” II. The duke Gae asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied to him, “There was Yen Hwuy; HE loved to learn. He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault. Unfortunately, his appointed time was short and he died; and now there is not such another. I have not yet heard of any one who loves to learn as he did.” III. 1. Tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to Tse, the disciple Yen requested grain for his mother. The Master said, “Give her a foo.” Yen requested more. “Give her an yu,” said the Master Yen gave her five ping. 2. The Master said, “When Ch'ih was proceeding to Tse, he had fat horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard that a superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the wealth of the rich.” 3. Yuen Sze being made governor of his town by the Master, he gave him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them. 4. The Master said, “Do not decline them. May you not give them away in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages?” IV. The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, “If the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, although man may not wish to use it, would the spirits of the mountains and rivers put it aside " W. The Master said, “Such was Hwuy that for three months there would be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect virtue. The others may attain to this on some days or in some months, but nothing more.” VI. Ke Kang asked, “Is Chung-yew fit to be employed as an officer of government?” The Master said, “Yew is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?” Kang asked, “Is Tsze fit to be employed as an officer of government?” and was answered, “Tsze is a man of intelligence; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?” And to the same question about Kew the Master gave the same reply, saying, “Kew is a man of various ability.”

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