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lucky omens. Such events are seen in the milfoil and tortoise, and affect the movements of the four limbs. When calamity or happiness is about to come, the good shall certainly be foreknown by him, and the evil also. Therefore the individual possessed of the most complete sincerity is like a spirit.
XXV. 1. Sincerity is that whereby self-completion is effected, and its way is that by which man must direct himself.
2. Sincerity is the end and beginning of things ; without sincerity there would be nothing. On this account, the superior man regards the attainment of sincerity as the most excellent thing
3. The possessor of sincerity does not merely accomplish the self-completion of himself. With this quality he completes other men and things also. The completing himself shows his perfect virtue. The completing other men and things shows his knowledge. Both these are virtues belonging to the nature, and this is the way by which a union is effected of the external and internal. Therefore, whenever he—the entirely sincere man
-employs them,—that is, these virtues,—their action will be right.
XXVI. 1. Hence to entire sincerity there belongs ceaselessness. · 2. Not ceasing, it continues long. Continuing long, it evidences itself.
3. Evidencing itself, it reaches far. Reaching far, it becomes large and substantial. Large and substantial, it becomes high and brilliant.
4. Large and substantial;this is how it contains all things. High and brilliant;—this is how it overspreads all things. Reaching far and continuing long ;—this is how it perfects all things.
5. So large and substantial, the individual possessing it is the coequal of Earth. So high and brilliant, it makes him the coequal of Heaven. So far-reaching and long-continuing, it makes him infinite.
6. Such being its nature, without any display, it becomes manifested; without any movement, it produces changes; and without any effort, it accomplishes its ends.
7. The way of Heaven and Earth may be completely declared in one sentence.—They are without any doubleness, and so they produce things in a manner that is unfathomable.
8. The way of Heaven and Earth is large and substantial, high and brilliant, far-reaching and long-enduring.
9. The heaven now before us is only this bright shining spot; but when viewed in its inexhaustible extent, the sun, moon, stars, and constellations of the zodiac, are suspended in it, and all things are overspread by it. The earth before us is but a handful of soil; but when regarded in its breadth and thickness, it sustains mountains like the Hwa and the Yoh, without feeling their weight, and contains the rivers and · seas, without their leaking away. The mountain now before us appears only a stone; but when contemplated in all the vastness of its size, we see how the grass and trees are produced on it, and birds and beasts dwell on it, and precious things which men treasure up are found on it. The water now before us appears but a ladleful; yet extending our view to its unfathomable depths, the largest tortoises, iguanas, iguanadons, dragons, fishes and turtles, are produced in them, articles of value and sources of wealth abound in them.
10. It is said in the Book of Poetry,“ The ordinances of Heaven, how profound are they and unceasing !” The meaning is, that it is thus that Heaven is Heaven. And again, “How illustrious was it, the singleness of the virtue of king Wan!” indicating that it was thus
that king Wan was what he was. Singleness likewise is unceasing
XXVII. 1. How great is the path proper to the sage!
2. Like overflowing water, it sends forth and nourishes all things, and rises up to the height of heaven.
3. All complete is its greatness! It embraces the three hundred rules of ceremony, and the three thousand rules of demeanour.
4. It waits for the proper man, and then it is trodden.
5. Hence it is said, “ Only by perfect virtue can the perfect path, in all its courses, be made a fact.
6. Therefore, the superior man honours his virtuous nature, and maintains constant inquiry and study, seeking to carry it out to its breadth and greatness, so as to omit none of the most exquisite and minute points a which it embraces, and to raise it to its greatest height and brilliancy, so as to pursue the course of the Mean. He cherishes his old knowledge, and is continually acquiring new. He exerts an honest, generous, earnestness, in the esteem and practice of all propriety.
7. Thus, when occupying a high situation, he is not proud, and in a low situation, he is not insubordinate. When the kingdom is well-governed, he is sure by his words to rise; and when it is ill-governed, he is sure by his silence to command forbearance to himself. Is not this what we find in the Book of Poetry,—“ Intelligent is he and prudent, and so preserves his person?”
XXVIII. 1. The Master said, “ Let a man who is ignorant be fond of using his own judgment; let a man without rank be fond of assuming a directing power to himself; let a man who is living in the present age go back to the ways of antiquity ;-on the persons of all who act thus calamities will be sure to come. 2. To no one but the emperor does it belong to order
ceremonies, to fix the measures, and to determine the characters.
3. Now, over the empire, carriages have all wheels of the same size; all writing is with the same characters; and for conduct there are the same rules.
4. One may occupy the throne, but if he have not the proper virtue, he may not dare to make ceremonies or music. One may have the virtue, but if he do not occupy the throne, he may not presume to make ceremonies or music.
5. The Master said, “ I may describe the ceremonies of the Hea dynasty, but Ke cannot sufficiently attest my words. I have learned the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, and in Sung they still continue. I have learned the ceremonies of Chow, which are now used, and I follow Chow.”
XXIX. 1. He who attains to the sovereignty of the empire, having those three important things, shall be able to effect that there shall be few errors under his government.
2. However excellent may have been the regulations of those of former times, they cannot be attested. Not being attested, they cannot command credence, and not being credited, the people would not follow them. However excellent might be the regulations made by one in an inferior situation, he is not in a position to be honoured. Unhonoured, he cannot command credence, and not being credited, the people would not follow his rules.
3. Therefore the institutions of the Ruler are rooted in his own character and conduct, and sufficient attestation of them is given by the masses of the people. He examines them by comparison with those of the three kings, and finds them without mistake. He sets them up before heaven and earth, and finds nothing in them contrary to their mode of operation. He presents himself with them before spiritual beings, and no doubts about them arise. He is prepared to wait for the rise of a sage, a hundred ages after, and has no misgivings.
4. His presenting himself with his institutions before spiritual beings, without any doubts about them arising, shows that he knows Heaven. His being prepared, without any misgivings, to wait for the rise of a sage a hundred ages after, shows that he knows men.
5. Such being the case, the movements of such a ruler, illustrating his institutions, constitute an example to the empire for ages. His acts are for ages a law to the empire. His words are for ages a lesson to the empire. Those who are far from him, look longingly for him; and those who are near him, are never wearied with him.
6. It is said in the Book of Poetry,—“Not disliked there, not tired of here, from day to day and night to night, will they perpetuate their praise.” Never has there been a ruler, who did not realize this description, that obtained an early renown throughout the empire.
XXX. l. Chung-ne handed down the doctrines of Yaou and Shun, as if they had been his ancestors, and elegantly displayed the regulations of Wan and Woo, taking them as his model. Above, he harmonized with the times of heaven, and below, he was conformed to the water and land.
2. He may be compared to heaven and earth, in their · supporting and containing, their overshadowing and curtaining, all things. He may be compared to the four seasons in their alternating progress, and to the sun and moon in their successive shining.
3. All things are nourished together without their injuring one another. The courses of the seasons, and of the sun and moon, are pursued without any collision among them. The smaller energies are like river currents; the greater energies are seen in mighty trans