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5. The Master said, “If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it.” 6. Tsae Go then went out, and the Master said, “This shows Yu's want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years mourning is universally observed throughout the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' affection for his parents?” XXII. The Master said, “Hard is the case of him, who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chessplayers? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all.” XXIII. Tsze-loo said, “Does the superior man esteem valour?” The Master said, “The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valour without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people, having valour without righteousness, will commit robbery.” XXIV. 1. Tsze-kung said, “Has the superior man his hatreds also 2°. The Master said, “He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valour merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determined, aud, at the same time, of contracted understanding.” 2. The Master then inquired, “Tsze, have you also your hatreds?” Tsze-kung replied, “I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their

wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward.” XXV. The Master said, “Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented.” XXVI. The Master said, “When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he

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CHAPTER I. 1. The viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The viscount of Ke became a slave to Chow. Pe-kan remonstrated with him and died. 2. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.” II. Hwuy of Lew-hea, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, “Is it not yet time for you, Sir, to leave this?” He replied, “Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal” If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?” III. The duke King of Tse, with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, “I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Ke samily. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Ke, and that given to the chief of the Mang family.” He also said, “I am old; I cannot use his doctrines.” Confucius took his departure. IV. The people of Tse sent to Loo a present of female musicians, which Ke Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure. W. 1. The madman of Ts'oo, Tsee-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, “Oh FUNG! Oh FUNG! How is your virtue degenerated As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government.” 2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Tsee-yu hastened away, so that he could not talk with him. WI. I. Ch'ang-tseu and Kee-neih were at work in the field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-loo to enquire for the ford. 2. Ch'ang-tseu said, “Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?” Tsze-loo told him, “It is K'ung Kew.” “Is it not K'ung Kew of Loo?” asked he. “Yes,” was the reply, to which the other rejoined, “He knows the ford.” 3. Tsze-loo then enquired of Kee-neih, who said to him, “Who are you, Sir?” He answered, “I am Chung Yew.” “Are you not the disciple of Kung Kiew of Loo?” asked the other. “I am,” replied he, and then Kee-neih said to him, “Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will change it for you ? Than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?” With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping. 4. Tsze-loo went and reported their remarks, when his master observed with a sigh, “It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these people, with mankind,-with whom shall I associate 2 If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.” VII. 1. Tsze-loo, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying, across his shoulder on a staff, a basket for weeds. Tsze-loo said to him, “Have you seen my master, Sir!” The old man replied, “Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:who is your master?” With this, he planted his staff in the ground, aud proceeded to weed. 2. Tsze-loo joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him. 3. The old man kept Tsze-loo to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons. 4. Next day, Tsze-loo went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master said, “He is a recluse,” and sent Tsze-loo back to see him again, but, when he got to the place, the old man was gone. 5. Tsze-loo then said to the family, “Not to take of. fice is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is aware of that.” VIII. 1. The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Pih-e, Shuh-tse, Yu-chung, Eyih, Choo-chang, Hwuy of Lew-hea, and Shaou-leen. 2. The Master said, “Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons; such, I think, were Pih-e and Shuh-tsoe. 3. “It may be said of Hwuy of Lew-hea, and of Shaou-leen, that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them. 4. “It may be said of Yu-chung and E-yih, that, while they hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words, but, in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times. 5. “I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined.” IX. 1. The grand music-master, Che, went to Tse. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ts’oo. Leaou, the band-master at the third meal, went to Ts'ae. Keueh, the band-master at the fourth meal, went to Ts’in. 2 Fang-shuh, the drum-master, withdrew to the north of the river. Woo, the master of the hand-drum, withdrew to the Han. Yang, the assistant music-master, and Seang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.” X. The duke of Chow addressed his son, the duke of Loo, saying, “The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment.”

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