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ceeds on the ground that all certainty certain intuitive judgments of the mind; arises froin a comparison of ideas, and thus identity, cause, time, number, truth, the discovery of their unalterable rela- certainty, probability, are ideas peculiar to tions, which are resemblance, proportions a rational mind, and necessarily arise in in quantity and number, degrees of qual- the human understanding, when employed ity and contrariety, and none of which is in the exercise of its different faculties. implied in the proposition above stated. Reid, therefore, while he rejected the All the objects of knowledge are impres- Cartesian theory of ideas or images in the sions and ideas: the former are our inore mind being the only objects of thought, lively perceptions, when we hear or see, directed his inquiries to an analysis of love or hate, or desire or will; the latter the various powers and principles of our are the less lively perceptions of which constitution, in order to discover the we are conscious when we reflect on the fundamental laws of belief, which form former, and are copies of impressions. the ground-work of human knowledge. The existence of these perceptions as ob- Though professing to build only on expejects of consciousness cannot be denied; rience, he did not limit experience to the but to admit the existence of a percipient relations of sense and its objects. Withbeing, the I, is to assume that of mind, out claiming for man more than a relawhich is no inore an object of knowledge tive knowledge of existence, and restrictthan matter. There can, therefore, be no ing the science of mind to an observation objective knowledge ; and we are reduced of the fact of consciousness, he analyzed to consciousness, the phenomena of which that fact into a greater number of inore it takes cognizance, and their subjective important elements than had been recogrelations. Hume's system of scepticism is nised in the sensualist school. He showed not scepticism antecedent to study and that phenomena are revealed in thought, philosophy, but consequent to science and which cannot be resolved into any modifiinquiry, holding the absolute fallacious- cation of sense; that intelligence supposes ness of the mental faculties, bringing the principles, which, as the conditions of its senses themselves into dispute, and thus activity, cannot be the result of its operasapping the foundations of all knowledge, tions; and that the mind contains notions, and rejecting the existence of God, a which, as primitive, necessary and univerprovidence, and a future state. At about sal, are not to be explained as generalizathe same time, Hartley (q. v.) attempted to tions from the contingent and particular, account for all the phenomena of the about which alone our external experimind, by the single principle of the asso- ence is conversant. His enumeration of ciation of ideas, and for this principle by the faculties of the mind, which be does vibrations and vibratiuncles in the medul- not, however, give as complete, comprises lary substance of the brain. In connex- perception, memory, conception, abstracion with this plan of niaterialism, he de- tion, judgment, reason, taste, moral percepfended the doctrine of necessity, repre- tion, consciousness. The representation senting God as the only cause of all nat- of consciousness as a special faculty, when, ural effects and all human actions. To in reality, it is the generic condition of all the Hartleian school belong Priestley (9.v.), mental activity, was a pregnant error in Darwin, and Horne Tooke. The scepti- Reid's philosophy ;-while bis doctrine of cal conclusions which Hume had irresist- the immediate or intuitive knowledge of ibly shown to be the result of the ideal mind and matter, which involved the oversystem of philosophy, which had been re- throw of the ideal system, and the scepticeived since the time of Descartes and cism (or rather nihilism) deduced from it, Locke, leil Reid (Inquiry into the Human was an important step in the progress Mind, 1764; On the Intellectual Powers of philosophy. Stewart, with some devi1785) to the examination and refutation ations, followed in the track of his masof that system itself. The Scotch school ter; but Brown, while he adopted many of philosophy, modest and perhaps timid of the principles of Reid, departed, in in its pretensions, has the merit of having many points of fundamental importance, first strongly and largely inculcated the from his philosophy. He assumes the absolute necessity of admitting certain existence of primary intuitions of direct principles as the foundation of all reason- belief, which are not only necessary to ing, and as being the indispensable condi- reasoning, but to thought itself: all our tions of thought itself. The Kantian phi- conceptions imply the idea of forin, which losophy is only a modification of it. Ac- is derived from relation in space (coëxcording to the Scotch philosophers, certain istence), and of power, which is derived simple ideas are implied and involved in from relativn iu' time (successive existence); cause is only the invariable ante- subjects beyond the reach of the senses cedent, effect the invariable consequent, (whether of a philosophical, religious, or power the invariable antecedence, in any poetical character), and turn it into ridisequence of phenomena. All feelings and cule. We would also remark, that, since thoughts are the mind itself existing in German philosophy has of late years dicertain states ; consciousness is not a dis- verged with unprecedented rapidity in all tinct faculty, but a general term for all the directions, and system after system has states of the mind. Mental (personal) been raised and overthrown, it has been identity is an intuitive law of thought, it often asked, What has been gained by it? being impossible to conceive of successive Have the philosophers settled any of the states but as modifications of the perma- mysteries which have always perplexed nent being—the I. The different states the mind of man; or have they acquired are divided by Brown into the external any clearer and deeper knowledge re. states (sensations), produced by the pres- specting the most important interests of ence of external objects, and the internal human society, government, law, and the states, arising in consequence of preced- civil ties in general, on which they write ing affections of the mind itself. The so much? We answer, that the Germans latter class is divided into intellectual have acquired, by their philosophy, a spirit states and emotions, which are all referri- of scientific liberty, unknown in other nable to one neric susceptibility-sugges- tions. Every nation and age has its task tion (association of ideas). The laws of and condition. As yet it has not been the suggestion are resemblance, contrast, and lot of Germany to enjoy the blessings of nearness in time or place, which are all civil freedom, and the manly spirit wbich reducible to proximity. That capacity of it generates ; but the spirit which pervades suggestion which revives conceptions, the best German works on religion, on Brown terms simple suggestion, and that literature, on natural philosophy, may well which gives rise to feelings of relation, challenge comparison. The spirit of sysrelative suggestion. To the former are tem and independent thought, which Gerreducible those mental states commonly man philosophy has infused into German called the faculties of conception, meino- literature, sometimes leads, indeed, to prory, imagination, and habit; to the latter, lixity of exposition, and sometimes to exthose of judgment, reasoning, and abstrac- travagance of speculation; but these are tion. But Brown's philosophy involves small disadvantages compared with the many radical inconsistencies, and would benefit which it has conferred ; and the hardly deserve to be mentioned in so gen- whole tone of the literature proves, what eral a sketch, were it not remarkable as we have had occasion to remark more an open revolt against the Scotch system, than once already, that civil liberty alone at the moment the latter seemed to be de- is wanting to hold the Germans up to the veloped with new power, and to acquire world as a noble and manly nation. While new authority on the European continent; we dwell on the good consequences and for the temporary popularity it pos- which German philosophy has had on the sessed in Great Britain, and particularly spirit of inquiry, we are far from pretendin this country. While France and Ger. ing that it has been productive of unmany have in recent times imbibed a new

mixed good, or that every system of Gerspirit of metaphysical inquiry, the science man philosophy which has acquired disof mind has been entirely neglected in tinction in its time, deserves its reputation. Great Britain, and all interest in psycholo- How often has a figurative expression gical researches seems to be extinct in been taken for a profound truth, and that country.

served as the basis of arguments and sysGerman Philosophy. To the remark al- tems, which sink into nothing before a ready made, of the impracticability of give critical investigation, and to which nothing a satisfactory view of German philos- ing but the imagination of Germans could ophy within the limits to which we are have given a short-lived existence! This confined, we must add, that if any science unsoundness, which is found in many requires to be studied in a spirit of can- German systems, is owing, in a great dedor, and with a sincere desire to under- gree, to the predominance of the speculastand its real merits (and what science can tive over the active life in that country. be properly studied without such a spirit?), Free institutions would soon enable them it is intellectual pliilosophy, particularly to shake off the dreaminess of the closet, German philosophy. Nothing is easier than by rousing them to vigorous action on to take a phrase or a passage relating to practical subjects. The ill repute in

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which German philosophy long stood delssohn, the works of Platner and Abbt, with foreigners, is owing, partly, to the together with the revived interest for art reckless independence with which most and criticism, and not less the sentimenof the German pbilosophers have created tality which reigned in poetry as well as and shaped their language according to in religion, excited and directed the attentheir systems, so as to render its study tion of the whole thinking world to the particularly difficult for strangers ; partly nature of their own souls, and prepared to the premature and partial applications the way for the system of Immanuel which inferior talents have made of those Kant. (q. v.) With him begins the second systems to other branches of literature, period of German philosophy. He showed and which have mostly been known that, instead of inquiring what the world sooner than the original system; partly was in itself, we ought first to inquire how to real extravagances; but greatly, also, we perceive it. Thus he began to examto the difficulty of justly estimating so ine all the means which man possesses large and so new a department of lit- for the perception of the external world, erature. A German philosopby, properly and determined the laws according to so called, could not appear until German which every organ operates, and the prose had received a certain degree of sphere to which it is limited. His criticultivation. As long as the German phi- cism denied to reason the possibility of losophers wrote chiefly in Latin, they con- finding and proving any truth, without fined themselves principally to the defence the sphere of consciousness and of physiof the predominating philosophy of the cal phenomena. The theory of Kant time-e. g. the scholastic philosophy, was extended by his followers in many else attacked it (after the fifteenth cen- directions, yet not with the barmony and tury), but without establishing new sys- comprehensive judiciousness with which tems. The proper German philosophy he united and arranged all the different is distinguished by an incessant striv- kinds and objects of mental activity. The ing for a systematic character, and the human mind, however, was not satisfied deduction of scientific conclusions from with learning only its own limits. The the simplest and most comprehensive relation between its own notions and realprinciples. It must be considered to ities, was again endeavored to be deterbegin with Leibnitz (q. v.), towards the mined in different ways. Fichte rejected end of the seventeenth century. Leib- the idea of any such relation, by admitting nitz (9. v.) endeavored to deduce philo- the absolute existence only of the thinking sophical truth from necessary and innate individual, by which be considered even ideas of reason, by the way of mathe- the objects of thought to be produced ; matical demonstration. This system he he denied the reality of an exterior world. opposed to the sensualism of Locke, His This system atoned for its exclusive chardoctrine of innate ideas, of the monads, acter by the high standard to which this of the preëstablished harmony of the vigorous spirit raised the moral dignity universe, his theodicea, furnished sub- of man. Between him and Kant stands jects of thought to the most thinking men Fries, in his Neue Kritic der Vernunft ; he of his time. His followers, in particular likewise was distinguished for the moral Wolf and Baumgarten, extended his sys- tendency of his philosophy. In oppositem, about the time of Frederic the Great; tion to Fichte, Schelling proceeds from and, by their endeavors to reduce philoso- the idea of the objective absolute (see phy to one principle, and by the precise Objective), and arrives at length at the idea formulas in which they carried on their of individual existence (the I), from which demonstrations, the formal side of philo- Fichte sets out. He begins a third period sophical science gained very much. The in the German philosophy with his docfault of this system was, that it sought trine of identity, in which he determines truth merely by the way of definitions the relation between subject and object. and demonstrations, as in mathematics. To him, mind and nature are only maniWolf's disciples carried this system almost festations of the Divine principle, and to absurdity. Lambert, Ploucquet, Rei- the knowledge of this identity between marus, and others, his followers, cultivated thought and outward existence rests on logic with great success. This school intellectual intuition. Oken has founded was followed by a period of eclectic phi- a natural philosophy on this system. losophy, in which, however, the scepti- Hegel* (q. v.) has sought to establish a cism of Hume, the examination of the understanding by Locke, the psychological * He died in Berlin, in the winter of 1831-2, investigations of Feder, Garve, Men- of the cholera.



strict idealism, on Schelling's principles, of the French people, that their modern by considering the absolute as the under- philosophy may be said to have unfolded standing conceiving of itself, and makes itself in fashionable society. Towards the three divisions in his philosophy, logic, end of the seventeenth century, a tope the philosophy of nature, and the phi- of light philosophy was introduced into losophy of mind. Each of these systems polite circles, in opposition to the affected has, at different periods, found many fol- morality then in vogue, which, however, lowers, who, with more or less success, had some connexion with the old romanhave labored to extend them in different tic spirit. Both systems had adherents in directions. Krug has united all the prin- the world of fashion, under the patronage cipal doctrines of Kant systematically in of ladies : at the head of one party was his Transcendental Synthetics. Bardili the spirituel Ninon de l'Enclos, with her considered all philosophy as resting on philosophizing friend St. Evremond; at the the idea of the absolute, which he found head of the other, the amiable inarchioness in the act of thinking; he, therefore, de Sevigné. Both the circles acquired treated logic as a source of real knowl- literary celebrity ; language attained the edge. Wagner and Eschenmayer en- highest refinement, and conversation its deavored to correct or to extend the doc- greatest perfection; but the consequence trine of Schelling. Jacobi's doctrine on was, that a conversational tone was given to feeling and faith is of an original charac- literature. Descartes (q.v.), Arnauld (q.v.), ter. Schulze distinguished himself as an (to whom is ascribed the Art de Penser), opponent of Reinhold by a limited scep- Nicole, De la Forge, and the deep-thinkticism, Platner by his aphorisms, and ing Malebranche (q.v.), belong to another Herbart by his metaphysical fragments. time. The direction which modern In considering the many changes German French philosophy has taken originated philosophy has undergone in so short a from the English philosopher Locke. (q.v.) time, we shall naturally feel inclined to On the doctrines of this acute reasoner a reproach this mania for new systems; but system of sensualism was founded by Etithe truth or error of any comprehensive enne Bonnot de Condillac (born 1715, view cannot be appreciated justly, until it died 1780). He taught that the basis, the is developed in a consistent form, and the principle of all that is developed in our more different systems can be compared, mind, is sensation (la faculté de sentir). All the more comprehensive and impartial ideas, knowledge, faculties, even reflection, will be our knowledge.

actions and customs, are successive transFrench Philosophy. Totally opposite to formations of this principle. “The senGerman philosophy is the modern French sation only changes its form, as the philosophy. While the former strives to ice when it is dissolved into water, and explore the abysses of existence, and to evaporated in vapor.” (See Condillac.) comprehend the mysteries of human The simplicity of his niethod, and the nature, and thus often loses itself in flights clearness of his exposition, awakened the of imagination, the French, of late, have greatest interest. He became the leader understood by philosophy little more than of a school still predominating in France. the critical investigation of those subjects The Encyclopædists (see Encyclopédie

, which are comprehensible at first view, the French) contributed most to its propaand have banished from philosophy all gation, particularly Diderot, D'Alembert that cannot be grasped by the plainest and Helvetius. The effect was striking: common sense; and so far have they car- the most difficult of all sciences, which ried this system, that at one time it proved requires the deepest study and the most most dangerous to morality, the original persevering reflection, was brought within principles of which are by no means sus- the reach of the multitude; every one ceptible of such plain and simple demon- could talk about metaphysics. But it was stration as was required by the French overlooked that this system did not lead school; and we have little doubt that, to men a step nearer to the solution of the this day, sensualism, or the French phi- highest and most important problems losophy, founded on Condillac's system, The system was carried farther and farproduces fatal effects. So much, indeed, ther, not always in accordance with the do the French and Germans differ, that views of the author, but according to the what the former call philosophy and ineta- direction given by him. Sensation (the physics is, in fact, totally different from lowest degree of intellectual action, and that which the latter designate by the that in which we are most dependent upon same terms. It is also very characteristic the external world) being now considered he essential principle in all the operations tempted to give philosophy a better characof the mind, the distinction between ter, Laromiguière is distinguished. His sensation and perception which Locke Leçons de Philosophie, ou Essai sur les Fahad made being rejected, and man being cultés de l'Ame (2d ed., Paris, 1820, 2 vols.), regarded only as an animal of a somewhat is valuable. He opposes the doctrine iner organization than the others, but of Condillac, as to the first and sole prinmoved only by sensual impulses (as in the ciple. He stands nearer to Locke than to system of Helvetius), the consequence Condillac. Count Destutt de Tracy has was, that the material world was consid- become well known by bis Idéologie (3d ered as the only form of existence, mind edit., Paris, 1817). Locke and Condillac as only a connexion of atoms, the basis of are his idols. He extends somewhat the its actions egotism, and the end of these principle of Condillac, and considers senactions a refined sensuality; thence the sations as predicable not only of the obbelief in moral freedom, virtue, God, jects of the external world, but also of providence and immortality, was looked those of the inner. Ch. Vict. de Bonstetupon as a folly unworthy of a reflecting ten's Etudes de l'Homme (Geneva, 1821, mind, and a complete materialism became 2 vols.) is a valuable work, written in the predominant. We have said that Condil- spirit of the higher psychology, but more lac's system continues to predominate in in the shape of sketches and hints than of France; still, however, several distin- a methodical system. Bonstetten strives guished philosophers follow another path, particularly to defend the emotions of the and we are far from asserting that the heart, the feelings, against the coldness of consequences which we have ascribed to logicians, who derive all the operations of the system still exist in their full extent. the mind from ideas only. "We must It may be safely said, that there prevails in mention also Degerando, whose Hist. France, at present, a deep-felt want of comparée des Systèmes de la Philosothe belief in a God, which not being able phié (Paris, 1804, 3 vols.) lately appeared to find satisfaction in the dogmas of the in a new edition. Victor Cousin has Catholic church, the religion of the over- opened a new path. He approaches whelming inajority is in an unsettled state. the German philosophy. (See bis article.) Of this want, even the propagation of the His introductory Cours de Philosophie extravagant doctrines of the St. Simonians, has lately been very well translated into which would be otherwise inconceivable, English by Mr. Linberg (Boston, 1832, is a strong proof. But there are still more 1 vol.). We ought to mention, also, the persons in France whose minds are un- works of St. Simon, as among the modern illumined by a belief in immortality, than works which have attracted most attention. in any other civilized nation. The acute (See St. Simon.) We shall conclude our understanding and inexhaustible wit of remarks with a passage of the article PhiVoltaire, the clear intellect of D'Alembert

, losophie, from the Encyclopédie Moderne : at the head of the Encyclopædists, spread “France cannot be said, at present, to through society the dangerous doctrines have any system of intellectual philosophy just mentioned. Rousseau's enthusiasm properly its own. Fluctuating between stands alone in the French literature of the spiritualism of Germany, which rejects that time. The revolution, which pro- empiricism, and the views of the Scotch duced so great a change in the character school, which admits the authority of exof the French, and made them more perience, it adopts some views from each, acquainted with foreign nations than their whence results a sort of eclecticism, farational pride had allowed, especially with vorable at least to investigation, even if it the Germans, had also considerable influ- is not, in all its parts, conformable to truth." ence upon their philosophy. The want For the Italian philosophers of the of a deeper, more earnest philosophy, is middle ages, see Italy, division Italian Litapparent even in Rousseau's works; still erature. There is no school of modern more in those of St. Pierre, Châteaubri- Italian philosophy. For a complete hisand, Claude St. Martin, and the marquis tory of philosophy, we refer to TenneBonald; also Prosper de Barante, in his mann's History of Philosophy (in German; work on the literature of France in the Leipsic, 1798–1810, 18 vols., in large oceighteenth century, was actuated by this tavo)

, of which a synopsis has been also idea; and De Gerando, Villers, and the published, and a translation of the latter, baroness de Staël-Holstein, from the same by Vict. Cousin (Paris, 1829, 2 vols., 8vo.); feeling, have directed attention to German also to Ritter's History of Philosophy (in philosophy. Among those who have at- German), not yet finished.

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