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his education in Philadelphia, at the col- bly, any one of his contemporaries in the lege of which city he was graduated. In number and felicity of his bon mots. He entering into active life, he was a good was an exemplary husband, parent, neighLatin and Greek scholar, and acquainted bor, citizen and Christian. with the French and German languages. Peter's, St.; one of the largest tribuHe adopted the profession of the law, in tary rivers of the Upper Mississippi. Its which he obtained early and considerable course is in the Missouri Territory, and it success, particularly by means of his joins the Mississippi at the falls of St. Anintimate knowledge of the land laws of the thony. The length of the St. Peter's is commonwealth, and the fluency, with 250 miles. It affords good navigation for which he spoke German. Even in his boats, is 150 yards wide at its mouth, and youth, he was distinguished for wit and has 15 feet water. humor. His powers of pleasantry were PETERSBURG; a borough and port of felt even by the Indians, when he accom- entry in Dinwiddie county, Virginia, on panied a delegation from Pennsylvania to the south bank of the Appomattox. It is the Six Nations. The Indian chiefs, de- just below the falls on that river, twelve lighted with his vivacity, formally adopted miles above its junction with James river, him into their tribes. At the opening of at City Point; twenty-five miles south-bythe American revolution, Mr. Peters be- east from Richmond, and 146 from Washcame captain of a company of volunteers, ington; lat. 37° 14' N.; lon. 77° 20 W. but was soon transferred by congress to The river is navigable to this place for the board of war, in wbich he continued vessels of 100 tons. In 1815, this town until the year 1781, when he resigned his lost, by fire, about 400 buildings. It has post, and received from congress a vote since been rebuilt of brick, and the new of thanks for his services. He was closely houses are principally three stories high. connected with Robert Morris in all the The general appearance of the town inexertions and sacrifices which were made dicates business, wealth and enterprise, for supplying the necessities of the Amer- and it is of the first class of towns in Virican army. No one possessed more curi- ginia. The town contained in 1830, 3440 ous and instructive anecdotes of the dis- whites, 2850 slaves, and 2032 free blacks tresses and trials of the American govern- -total, 8322. ment. Some of these are well related in PETERSBURG, St., capital of the Russian the sketch of his life by Samuel Breck, empire, occupying more space than any esquire. After Mr. Peters quitted the war city in Europe, except London and Mosoffice, he was elected a member of con- cow, is situated at the mouth of the Neva, gress. When the new government was at the eastern extremity of the gulf of organized, under the present constitution, Finland ; lat. 59° 56' N.; lon. 29° 48' E.; president Washington offered him thé 485 miles north-west of Moscow, and place of comptroller of the treasury of the about 1400 miles north-east of Paris and U. States. This he declined, but accepted London. Petersburg is the seat of the that of judge of the district court of Penn- court, of the senate, the holy synod, of sylvania. He occupied this station for a university, &c., &c., and, for beauty and thirty-six years, until bis death, always as- splendor, surpasses every other city of siduous, and highly useful, particularly in Europe. The population, which, in 1818, admiralty cases. Agriculture and public was 313,000, amounted, in 1828, including works formed the chief objects of judge the garrison, to 422,166, of which only Peters, besides his duties on the bench. He 124,721 were females.

The stranger was the first president of the company at wanders with admiration through the whose expense the great bridge at Phila- broad, regular streets, surrounded with delphia, over the Schuylkill, was built the most magnificent palaces, churches

To him its preservation may be ascribed. with gilded towers, and other massive and The country is indebted to him, also, for colossal edifices; his eye every where rests the use of gypsum in agriculture. In on masterpieces of architecture. On en1797, he published a relation of his experi- tering the imperial gardens on the Neva, ments with it on his own farm, which was the majestic stream presents a fine proswidely circulated, and produced impor- pect, with its ships, boats and bridges. tant improvements in American husband- On both banks are rich palaces, churches, ry. He was president of the Philadelphia and towers glittering with gold, charming agricultural society, and enriched its me- islands, and beautifuð gardens. Each side moirs with many valuable communica- of the river is lined with a broad quay for tions. In private life, he was preëminent the distance of nearly three miles. The for convivial humor, and equalled, proba- excellent water of the Neva supplies the

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want of springs. The czar Peter the lection of works of art, among which are a Great laid the foundations of the city large number of original paintings of the during the northern war (1703), when he great masters; and attached to it is a garconstructed a fort on an island in the Ne- den, in which, as in the garden of Calypso, va, for its defence against the Swedes. reigns a perpetual spring. Some hundred To superintend the work in persor Peter paces distant, in the splendid street called built a small wooden hut opposite it, which the Great Million, is the Marble Palace, of is still standing, and is now surrounded colossal dimensions, which is built on a with a stone building to preserve it. Pub- granite basement, and was given by Cathlic and private buildings were soon erect- arine to her favorite count Orloff

. On the ed, and the nobles and rich merchants of other side of the admiralty, which, towards Moscow, Novgorod, &c., were induced to the land side, is enclosed by a ditch and settle there, so that, in a short time, the wall, is a walk planted with beautiful place assumed the appearance of a con- lime trees, and some of the finest buildsiderable city, which, during the succeed- ings of the city, particularly Isaac's church, ing reigns, particularly in those of Catha- built entirely of marble (1766—1812), at rine II and Alexander, reached an almost an expense of 26,500,000 roubles, and unexampled degree of magnificence. The which has, since its completion, been conenvirons are level and low, in many tinually receiving additional embellishplaces consisting of morasses: they there- ments. Not far off is seen the palace of fore suffer from inundations, which some. the prince Labanoff, a gigantic work, even times occasion great ravages : in 1824, for Petersburg, and built at an enormous ex15,000 persons perished by an inundation, pense. Farther down, near the Neva, is the which destroyed many villages, and caus- equestrian statue of Péter the Great, cast by ed great damage to the shipping. Peters. Falconet. It stands in a spacious square, burg is an open city, without walls, and on an immense block of granite, about the only in some places surrounded with a size of a small house, and weighing above ditch. Among the inhabitants there are a 800 tons. In Romanzoff place is a margreat number of foreigners, particularly ble obelisk, erected by Catharine, in honor Germans, who have intermixed much of Romanzoff's victories, and, in Suwarwith the Russians, and fill many civil and roff place, a bronze statue of Suwartoff. military posts.

The Neva divides the Among the numerous remarkable edifices city into two parts, of which the southern and institutions, we shall mention the or continental part is the largest and most academy of sciences, to which belongs populous: the northern part is again di- a very valuable library, a cabinet of natuvided by a branch of the Neva. The city ral science, and an observatory; the new is divided into nine quarters—the three exchange, finished in 1816, a splendid admiralty quarters, the foundery, the Mos- building, surrounded by a colonnade of cow, the Jæmskoy, the Vasili-Ostrov, the 44 pillars; the house of the first corps of Petersburg, and the Wiburg quarters. cadets, occupied by nearly 4000 men, and Each quarter is subdivided into districts, embracing a circuit of above a mile; the and these into inferior sections, at the spacious building of the academy of fine head of each of which is a police-officer, arts, which, besides accommodations for usually a retired major. The whole or- 300—400 pupils, who are maintained and ganization of the police is military; and educated at the expense of the crown, the military judges are too often entirely contains every thing suitable for such an ignorant of the laws. When they find establishment; the second, or naval, minthemselves embarrassed by the contradic- ing, artillery and engineer cadet corps; tory provisions of different ukases, they the university (instituted in 1819), with its cut the knot, and, if the parties show any collections, and above 50 public institudissatisfaction with the decision, it is sealed tions for education, supported at the ex. by a blow or a kick. These inferior pense of the state. These institutions lie officers of police are subordinate to the in the Vasili-Ostrov (Basil's island), to police court in the centre of the city, the which there is access from the continent presiding officer of which is a general. In by a bridge of boats. There are also simine admiralty quarter, which is the finest ilar institutions in other quarters of the part of the city, is the imperial winter city, particularly the great imperial gympalace, on the banks of the Neva, the nasium, and numerous benevolent estabinterior of which is adorned with statues lishments, such as military and other hosand mythological figures. Catharine add- pitals, the insane hospital, the institutions ed to it a smaller palace, called the Here for the blind, and for the deaf and dumb, mitage. This building contains a rich col- various medical and surgical establish

ments, the great foundling hospital, in skoi (q. v.), the residence of the metropolwhich about 5000 children are nursed and itan, and which contains, in a silver tomb, educated, and in which the mother is per- the bones of the saint, and the Smolnui mitted to lie-in without charges, and then nunnery. The commerce and navigation to leave or take away her child, whether are very extensive : more than 110ð veslegitimate or not, without being questioned sels, from all parts of Europe and from as to her name and station. With this is America, arrive yearly. Vessels which connected the great pawn-house, in which draw much water cannot come up to Peloans are made, even on real property. tersburg, but unload by means of lighters In all the institutions for instruction (as at Cronstadt. (q. v.) Provisions are in is also the case with the high schools general very high. As sources of amusethroughout the empire), Russian, German ment, we inay mention the grand opera and French, and, in many, English, are and other theatres; in winter, sleigh-ridtaught : Latin and Greek are also publicly ing, and, in summer, sailing on the Neva; taught; and the young Russian shows a sliding down artificial elevations, &c., &c. decided taste for dancing, music and The climate is very severe: the sleighing painting. There are eleven public libra- continues nearly five months. (See Rusries: the most important is the imperial, sia.) In the neighborhood are several containing 300,000 volumes and 12,000 imperial palaces, such as Peterhof, Kammanuscripts. Among the palaces should menoi Ostrov, Pawloysk and Zarskoi Zelo. be mentioned the splendid Michailoff pal- PETER'S PENCE; a tax which England ace, built by Paul, near the summer-gar- paid, from the eighth century down to the den, at an expense of 10,000,000 roubles; time of Henry VIII, to the pope. The the Taurian palace, with its admirable Anglo-Saxon king Ira is said to have gardens, built and occupied by Potemkin, first granted it to the pope, in 725, in orand much enlarged and embellished by der to maintain a seminary of English Catharine during his absence. The roots ecclesiastics in Rome, and to keep in orof all the palaces, and most of the houses, der the tombs of St. Peter and St. Paul in are covered with thin iron plates, varnish- that city. It was collected every year on ed black or green. The summer resi- St. Peter's day, one penny on every house, dences also deserve to be seen on account and considerably exceeded the income of of their natural and artificial beauties. the kings of England in the thirteenth Petersburg contains 115 churches for the century. established worship, and 33 for other rites. PETERWARDEIN, or PETERWARADIN The most splendid are Isaac's church, and (anciently Acunum); a town of Sclavonia, that of Our Lady of Kazan: the latter is capital of a military district (see Military of great dimensions: the nave and cupola Districts), on the Danube, strongly fortiare supported by 56 granite columns, with fied, 38 miles north-west of Belgrade, 216 bronze capitals: the pavement is of differ- south-south-east of Vienna ; lon. 19° 37' ent kinds of marble, the steps to the choir E. ; lat. 45° 16' N.; population, 3847. It of porphyry, with a silver balustrade. consists of the upper fortress, overlooking Among the towers, the most remarkable the Danube, the lower fortress, the horn are that of the admiralty, and that of the work, and the suburbs. It is remarkable fortress, of a pyramidal form, and more for the defeat of the Turks by prince Euthan half covered with plates of pure gold. gene in 1716. (See Eugene.) Public worship is performed in tifteen lan- PÉThion, or PÉTION DE VILLENEUVE, guages, and according to eleven different Jerome, a French revolutionary statesrites. Organs and other instrumental mu- man, originally an advocate at Chartres, sic are not heard in the Russian churches, was chosen deputy, by the tiers état of that but singing is much cultivated. There city, to the states-general. The character, are no seats in them. The worshippers conduct and talents of Péthion have been come and go at pleasure, and are crowded variously represented; but his great influtogether without distinction of rank, each, ence over public affairs is a proof that he as his feelings dictate, crossing himself, was not destitute of ability. In the early falling upon his knees, touching his fore- part of his career, he acted with Mirabeau, head to the ground, and murmuring, for but did not, join in such of his measures the hundredth time, Hospodin pomillny as were calculated to impede the exten(Lord, have mercy upon me). The Lu- sion of liberty and equality of rights. In therans, Calvinists, Armenians, &c., have October, 1789, he was appointed a memchurches, and there is one Mohammedan ber of the first committee of general safehouse of prayer. The most remarkable ty, and, December 4, 1790, was elected monasteries are that of Alexander New- president of the national assembly. In June following, he became president of him as their chief, in preference to Christhe criminal tribunal of Paris, and, to- tophe, who became the leader of the gether with Barnave and Latour-Mau- blacks. Christophe, deeming himself enbourg, was appointed commissioner to titled to the undivided succession of Tousattend the return of the monarch. He saint and Dessalines, the two chiefs took was elected mayor of Paris, November up arms, and had many rencounters, in 14, 1791, and, in consequence of his impli- one of which particularly, a pitched battle, cation in the attack on the Tuileries, June fought January 1, 1807, Petion was de20,1792, was suspended from his functions, feated and pursued by Christophe to the July 6, but restored by the assembly on very gates of Port au Prince. This camthe 13th. His behavior on the 10th of paign secured to Christophe a decided August has, by some, been interpreted as and unquestioned ascendency in the the result of weakness, and by others as northern part of the island, where his the effect of design, to avoid betraying his chief strength lay. Still Petion's personal character as an abettor of the violence. popularity, and the hostility of the mulatBeing nominated a deputy from the de- toes to the negroes, enabled him to mainpartment of Eure and Loire to the con- tain his ground at the south; and a bloody vention which met in September, he war ensued between the rival chieftains, became the first president of that assem- of several years' duration, favorable, in its bly. Soon after the death of the king, issue, to Christophe on the whole, but not Péthion was accused of having contrib- sufficiently so to dispossess Petion of his uted to the massacres of September; but power. Wearied, at length, of their unaagainst this charge he successfully de- vailing struggle, both parties tacitly susfended himself. He now, however, be- pended the contest, and devoted themcame the object of jealousy to Robespierre, selves to the improvement of their reand was included in the proscription of spective dominions. Petion's government the Girondists, May 31, 1793. (See Gi- took the form of republican institutions, rondists.) He made his escape, with some consisting of himself

, as president for life, other deputies of the same party, to the and a legislative body so constituted as to department of Calvados, where they in be completely under his influence. Pevain endeavored to avail themselves of tion was a man of fine talents and of the insurrections against the terrorists. honorable feelings and intentions, but not Some time after, the body of Péthion, with well adapted for the station which he was that of Buzot, one of his confederates, called upon to fill. The Haytians, just was found in a field, in the department of liberated from absolute slavery, without the Gironde, half devoured by wolves, the education, habits of thought, moral and it was supposed that he had perished energy and rectitude of character, which from hunger. His works were printed in are necessary in a government perfecuy 1793, in 4 vols., 8vo.

republican, stood in need of a ruler less Petion, Alexandre, president of the kind, gentle and humane than Petion. southern parts of the island of Hayti, was In consequence of this, his people relaxa mulatto, and received his education in ed in their attention to agriculture, his the military school of Paris. Being a fina es become disorganized, and his man of cultivated understanding and at country impoverished; and, disheartened tractive manners, and moreover well in- at a state of things which he saw no structed in the art of war, he served in means of remedying, he sank into a state the French, and afterwards in the Haytian of despondency, which ended in voluntaarmies, with success and reputation. He ry death. His final illness lasted only was in high credit as a skilful engineer, eight days, during which he resolutely in which capacity he rendered the most refused all remedies, and every species of essential services to Toussaint and Dessa- aliment, even to water, dying, at length, lines, from whom he received many of mere inanition and despondency. Hits inarks of attention, and rapid advance- physicians, upon examining his body atter ment in his profession. He succeeded death, found all its functions perfectly Clervaux in the government of Port au sound, and without any trace of malady. Prince, and the command of the mulat- He died March 29, 1818, and was snietoes, and held this post at the time of ceeded by president Boyer.-Malo, Hait Dessalines' death. Petion was highly (published 1825); Franklin's Hayti, ch. 8. respected by the people for bis talents PETITION, in politics. The right of and virtues; and upon the dissolution of petitioning is indispensable to complete the government by the death of Dessa- the constitutional or representative system. lines, the people of color rallied around In absolute governments, and in those founded upon the ancient three estates, tion James, with his own hand, tore out this right is often, or, we may say, almost of the jourval. The arbitrary measures always, denied to the citizen. As the of the first Stuart reign, the forced loans, present constitutional governments in Eu- benevolences, taxes imposed without rope originated from one or the other of consent of parliament, arbitrary impriethese forms, it has been considered neces- onments, the billeting of soldiers, &c., sary to provide for this right by express finally determined the commons to prearticles in their charters; otherwise it pare a law which should protect the would be strange to mention this right rights of the subject against further invaany more than thousands of others which sion ; this they called a petition of right, are not mentioned; for how can citizens be as implying that it contained merely a reasonably refused the liberty to make re- corroboration or explanation of the adquests to governments established for cient constitution, not any infringement their benefit? In England, there are cer- of the royal prerogative, or acquisition of tain laws enacted to prevent disorder, in new liberties. li passed the commons case many citizens assemble to deliberate and the upper house (1628), and, after on the propriety of petitioning govern- some attempts, on the part of Charles ment for particular enactments. Since I, to evade it, received the royal assent. Charles II (1662), it has been necessary for After reciting the grievances above emat least three justices of the peace of the merated, it provides against their repeticounty to give their consent if more than tion as contrary to the laws and statutes twenty persons wish to sign a petition. of the realm, and the rights and liberties It cannot be presented by more than ten of the subject, and prays the king to depersons, and must be written in a respect- clare that his officers and ministers should ful tone. Large assemblies must abstain serve him according to the laws and from any breach of the peace, else the riot statutes of the realm. The petition is act may be read. In respect to meetings given in full by Hume (note xx to ch. 51.) in the open air, some laws were enacted Petit Jury. (See Jury.). in 1819, to remain in force for five years; Petitio PRINCIPII, in logic; the taking for instance, that no one should appear a thing for true, and drawing conclusions armed; that the inhabitants of but one from it as such, when it requires to be parish should meet; that the meeting proved before any inferences can be doshould be advertised six days beforehand; duced from it. that the petition should be signed by seven Petit TREASON. (See Treason.) householders at least, &c. The justices PETRARCA, Francesco, or, as be is genof the peace may also divide large parishes erally called by English writers, Petrarch, of more than 20,000 souls into districts of an Italian poet and scholar, the ornament 10,000, that the assemblies may not be too of the fourteenth century, was born of

Lately, however, meetings Florentine parents at Arezzo, in Tuscany, have been beld attended by many more. July 4 (or, according to some, July 20) In France, before the revolution, when 1304, and spent his youth at Ancisa in the three 'estates assembled to choose the Val d'Arno, Pisa, Carpentras and deputies to the general estates of the realm, Avignon, which was then the residence it was customary to provide them with of the pope. The beauty of the environs cahier de griefs et de doléance, which, at of Avignon kindled his imagination. In the breaking out of the revolution, became 1318, he studied law at Montpellier, and, important. The right of petitioning was in 1322, at Bologna ; but he was far more then pronounced, and was greatly abused inclined to the study of the ancient elasduring the revolution, as may be easily sics, though his father burned many of the imagined, on account of the disordered works which the young Petrarch had state of society. The right of petitioning procured. Soon after his father's death, by large numbers was then abolished. he left Bologna and the study of law, The charter reëstablished it.

and, in 1326, returned to Avignon, and Petition OF Right. The conflict be- entered the ecclesiastical state. His dilitween the crown and the parliament had gence, talents, learning and eloquence already begun, in the reign of James 1, soon procured him distinction, while his when (1621) 'the house of commons pleasing person and manners made him framed the famous protestation that the the favorite of the ladies and the great. liberties, franchises, privileges and juris- Not being much confined by the duties dictions of parliament are the ancient and of his several benefices, he followed the undoubted birthright and inheritance of impulse of his genius, which led him to the subjects of England. This protesta- literary pursuite. Me resided alternately

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Dumerous.

VOL. X.

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