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possibility of ascertaining his course. By greatly enhanced by the reflection, that, his intrepidity and coolness, however, he whilst no victory was ever more decidedly succeeded, in a great measure, in saving the result of the skill and valor of the the guns and property, and got off all his commander, this was the first action of any crew. He was examined before a court kind he had ever seen. The moderation of inquiry, at his own request, in relation and courtesy which he displayed towards to this loss, and not merely acquitted of the enemy, after the termination of the conall blame, but highly applauded for his test, were worthy of the gallantry by which conduct. He also received a very com- it was gained, and caused the British complimentary letter, on the occasion, from mander, who had lost the battle by no fault the secretary of the navy, Mr. Hamilton. of his, to say that “the conduct of Perry Soon after this event, he returned to New- towards the captive officers and men, was port, where he married the daughter of doc- sufficient of itself to immortalize him." tor Mason. In the beginning of 1812, he In testimony of his merit, Perry was prowas promoted to the rank of master and moted to the rank of captain, received the commander, and ordered to the command thanks of congress and a medal, and the of the flotilla of gun-boats stationed at the like marks of bonor from the senate of harbor of New York. After remaining Pennsylvania. After the evacuation of there a year, he grew tired of the irksome Malden by the enemy, Perry acted as a and inglorious nature of this service, and volunteer aid to general Harrison, in his solicited to be removed to another of a pursuit of the British, and was present at more active kind. His request was com- the battle of Moraviantown, October 5. At plied with ; and, as he had mentioned the the time of the invasion of Maryland lakes, he was ordered to repair to Sack- and Virginia, he commanded a body of et's Harbor, lake Ontario, with a body of seamen and marines on the Potomac. He mariners, to reinforce commodore Chaun- was afterwards appointed to command the cey. Such was his popularity amongst Java frigate, built at Baltimore, and, on the sailors under his command, that, as the conclusion of peace with England, soon as the order was known, almost all of sailed, in 1815, in the squadron under comthem volunteered to accompany him. The modore Decatur, despatched to the Medrivers being completely frozen at the time, iterranean to settle affairs between the U. he was obliged, at the head of a large States and Algiers. While in that sea, number of chosen seamen, to perform the some difference arose between him and journey by land, which he safely accom- Mr. Heath, commandant of marines on plished. Not long after his arrival at board his ship. This produced a courtSacket's Harbor, commodore Chauncey martial, by which both were subjected to detached him to take command of the a private reprimand from commodore squadron on lake Erie, and superintend Chauncey; but the affair did not terminate the building of additional vessels. He until a hostile meeting had taken place. immediately applied himself to increase The duel was fought in New Jersey, ophis armament, and, with extraordinary ex- posite to New York, in the summer of ertions, two brigs, of twenty guns each, 1818. Neither party was injured, Heath were soon launched at Erie, the Ameri- having missed his aim, and Perry harcan port on the lake. When he found ing fired in the air. In June, 1819, comhimself in a condition to cope with the modore Perry sailed from the Chesapeake British force on the same waters, although in the U. States ship John Adams, for the the latter were still superior in meu and West Indies and a cruise, with sealed guns, he sought the contest, and, on the orders, and was subsequently joined by morning of the 10th of September, 1813, other vessels, the whole under his comhe achieved the victory which has given mand. His term of service, however, his name a permanent place in the history was near its end. In August, 1820, he of his country. The details of this fa- was attacked by the yellow fever, and, mous action, the manner in which it after a few days' illness, expired on the was brought to a fortunate issue by the twenty-third of the same month, just as intrepidity of the commander, in ex- the vessel in which he was, entered Port posing himself in a small boat, for the Spain, Trinidad. He was buried the next purpose of shifting his flag from a vessel day with due honor; and in his own counno longer tenable to one in which he try every tribute of respect was paid to could continue the fight, and in which he his memory. Congress made a liberal did continue it, until the enemy's pennant provision for the maintenance and educawas lowered, are particularly described in tion of his family. the article Navy." The merit of Perry is PhilosoPHY (from pos, friend, and copia, wisdom). Philosophy owes its name ple, psychology (q. v.), pedagogics see to the modesty of Pythagoras, who re- Pedagogue), politics (q. v.). Philosc phy, fused the title copos (wise), given to his pred- properly so called, was generally divided by ecessors, Thales, Pherecydes, &c., as too the ancients into logic, or dialectics (as the assuming, and contented himself with the doctrine of the possibility, form andi methsimple appellation of pilocopos (a friend or od of philosophy); physics (at a later period lover of wisdom). The term was after- metaphysics, q. v.), the science of the ultiwards commonly applied to men eminent mate causes of all being; and ethics, the for wisdom, as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, science of the moral nature and destiny and others.—I. Idca and Object of Phi- of man. In modern times, the division losophy. Various as the idea of philoso- of philosophy into theoretical and practiphy may be, since it is the product of cal has been the most general. The theindependent thinking, which necessarily oretical or speculative philosophy was leads to opposite views and opinions, its considered to have for its object the invessubjects are the same in the minds of all tigation of the highest truths respecting reflecting men, and are the most impor- God, the world, nature and mind; the tant which can occupy human thought, practical, their application. But it was God, the world, man, and their relations soon seen how little the latter idea was in general. Its end is the highest knowl- adapted to the sciences comprehended edge which can be attained of these sub- under practical philosophy; and this was jects. With reference to its subjects, then defined to be the science of action, Cicero called it the “science of things hu- or of the moral nature of man in particular. man and divine.” Many modern philoso- Some, therefore, call theoretical philosophers have called it the "science of the phy the explanatory or illustrative philosfundamental truths of human knowledge,” ophy, as it has for its object that which or the “science of the essence of things;" exists without our aid, and is the subject others the “science of ideas,” believing that of our knowledge; while they term practhrough them we come to the knowledge tical philosophy the imperative, or preceptof the essence of things, and, as all ideas ive, as it gives precepts for the regulacentre in the idea of the absolute, the “sci- tion of human action. Æsthetics (q. v.), ence of the absolute" (thus it is called by which originated at a later period, has the school of Schelling). Considered been considered, at times, as belonging to with regard to its end, namely, the attain- the practical, at times to the theoretical ment of the knowledge of which we have philosophy. Where philosophy confines spoken, and the intellectual action by itself merely to the knowledge of the which this end is to be effected, it has been action of the human mind, theoretical designated as the “science of reason.” philosophy is the science of the laws of To philosophize, therefore, means, to re- conceiving and knowing (æsthetics, in flect intelligently on the most elevated this case, as being the science of taste, or subjects of human knowledge, and to rep- rather the science of the rules for judging resent clearly and coherently the ideas of the beautiful, has been added to it), and thus attained. The latter is required to practical philosophy the science of the laws constitute philosophy a science, which of acting, or of lawful acting. But this view necessarily requires system. The middle very easily sinks into formalism, by letting ages called this science sapientia sæcularis, the objects of knowledge escape out of as contradistinguished to theology, or reve- sight, while we reflect on its laws. At lation, that is, the Christian religion, least, it will be acknowledged, that the sciwhose origin is referred immediately to ence of the laws and criteria of knowledge God. The various views of the great aim is rather an introduction to theoretical of philosophy—the relation of the infinite philosophy than theoretical philosophy itto the finite, the absolute to the conditional, self. Those who define the latter in the of man to naturé, &c.-form the ground last-mentioned manner, consider logic and of the various philosophical systems, metaphysics as belonging to theoretical whose mutual connexion is shown by the philosophy, ethics and natural law to history of philosophy:-11. Division of practical. Finally, philosophy may also Philosophy. Philosophy may be divided be divided, with reference to the three into pure philosophy, or philosophy strict- highest ideas of man,—the ideas of the true, ly so called, which forms general notions, of the good, and of the beautiful,-into theand investigates the laws of the mind, and oretical, practical and æsthetical philosoapplied philosophy, which applies the re- phy.-11). History of Philosophy is the sults of the former to the subjects of expe- relation of the most important attempts to rience. To the latter belong, for exam- realize the ideas of philosophy, or, according to Tennemann, the pragmatical rep- (9. v.) school; and, d. by the union of resentation of the gradual developement both in the atomic school. Socrates of philosophy as a science. It is of great (about 422 B. C.) opposed the notions of value, as one of the most important the Sophists, which threatened to destroy branches of the history of human civiliza- moral principle, and turned his inquiries tion, and from the aid which it affords to to the moral nature and destiny of man, philosophical genius, because it presents in which many of his pupils followed the most important problems of philoso- him. Philosophy thus received quite a phy in their true meaning, extent and new direction, which was first made manconnexion, illustrates the various philo- ifest in a systematic form by his pupil, sophical systems, and affords a survey of particularly Plato and Aristotle. The the progress and aberrations of the human second division of the first period begins, mind, which teaches the most instruct- therefore, with Socrates and his pupils: ive lessons. The history of philosophy a. Plato (the founder of the academy, is commonly divided into the ancient, q. v.), and, b. Aristotle (the founder of the middle and modern. Some divide it peripatetic school, q. v.). It is characinto the Greek (including the Greek terized by a systematic striving to embrace philosophy in the Roman empire) and all the objects of philosophy. Plato laid the modern European. In this division, the foundation of a systematic philosophy; the philosophy of the middle ages forms, Aristotle developed the system. The foras is obvious, the transition. The first mer was distinguished for the warmth period begins with the Greek, because, and vividness of his conceptions; the latthough the disposition to philosophize is ter aimed at cool and patient reflection on confined to no particular nation, but is the nature of things. By the side of inherent in all
, so that every tribe forms the academic and peripatetic schools, pliilosophical notions as soon as its reli- c. the Stoic (q. v.) school, founded by gious conceptions pass over into reflec- Zeno, and, d. the Epicurean (q. v.), placed tion, and its feelings into doubt, yet themselves in opposition. All these philosophy was first studied scientifically systems were attacked by the sceptie by the Greeks. The philosophic notions school, founded by Pyrrho. (See Sceptiof the inhabitants of the East must be. cism.) The other Socratic schoolse the mentioned in such a history, principally Cyrenaic, Megarean, Cynian, Elian and as introductory, and with reference to Eretrian-followed the practical direction their connexion with the Greek philoso- of their master with more or less deviaphy, in which many_Oriental notions tion and peculiarity. “We see here." were incorporated. Tennemann char- says Schulze, speaking of this period, acterizes the first period (that of the “ the philosophic spirit, undertaking, Greek and Roman philosophy) as the pe- with manly circumspection, the solution riod of the free striving of reason for the of philosophical problems and the philknowledge of the ultimate causes of na- osophical investigation of all subjects ture and liberty. It forms a whole in important for mankind." For this resitself, which, to a certain degree, carries son the inquiries of this period into the in it the germs of all the subsequent grounds of human knowledge, are of philosophies. The Greek mind elevated great importance. In the third division, itself through poetry to philosophy. The the philosophic spirit appears, like an entheogonies, cosmogonies and gnomes feebled old man, striving only to unite the formed the introduction to philosophy, conflicting parties (with the Eclectics and connected it with religion. In the q. v.), or, in order to escape from sceptifirst division of this period—the youth of cism, flying to mysticism (with the Alerphilosophy, in which reflection was not andrians, q. v., and New Platonists, 4. r. yet systematized nor separated from po- whose founder was Ammonius Saccas, 193 etry-inquirers strove to solve the ques- B. C.). The Romans propagated and fos tion respecting the origin of nature and tered only the philosophy which they had the original matter of the world ; a. in received. (For more information respect, the Ionian (q. v.) school (beginning with ing this period, see Greek Literature, and Thales, 610 B. C.), by reflection on na- the articles on the different philosophers ture and the origin of natural things, or and sects.) 2. The history of the philose the first existence; further, b. by im- phy of the middle ages, from 800 10 aginary conceptions, as in the case of 1500, A. D., or of the scholastics (q. v. Pythagoras (q. v.) and his school (the shows the struggle of reason for philosoph Italian); c. by the dialectical opposition of ical knowledge, under the influence of a Teason and experience in the Eleatic principle elevated above it, and given by the Christian revelation, or acting in the ing final causes from physical inquiries; service of the church. (See Scholastic yet he made some detached psychological Philosophy.) The Arabians, the flourish- remarks of great value. Bacon is the ing period of whose literature falls in the father of experimental or empirical philosmiddle ages, only cultivated the Greek ophy. Hobbes, the friend of Bacon, a philosophy and some detached religious bold and profound thinker, was the founphilosophemes. 3. The third period, der of modern sensualism. Philosophy, which begins with the fifteenth century, according to him, is such a knowledge of is characterized, says Tennemann, by a effects or appearances as we acquire by freer, more independent spirit of inquiry, true reasoning from the knowledge we penetrating deeper and deeper into ulti- have of their causes or generation, or such mate causes, and striving for a systematic causes and generations as may be, from union of knowledge. First, the scholastic knowing first their effects. The object philosophy was attacked by those who of philosophy is any body of which we. called to mind the ancient Greek philos- cau conceive any generation, or which is ophy in its original purity. After this susceptible of composition or decomposistruggle, new views were presented. tion. It is therefore either natural or civil. Some built upon experience, as Bacon All knowledge is derived from the sense by and Locke. Opposed to them, Descartes, motion; thoughts are representations of with whom some begin modern philoso- the qualities of bodies without us; the pby, strove to establish it upon its own cause of sense is the pressure of the exground, by dialectic reasoning ; passing ternal object on the organ of sense ; what over from doubt to dogmatism, and taking we call sensible qualities are nothing but the consciousness of thought and existence motion, and can produce nothing but mo(cogito, ergo sum) as the foundation of his tion in us; imagination is nothing but dephilosophy, whence modern philosophy caying sense, and understanding is imfirst received its direction towards ideal- agination raised by words or other volunism. Spinoza and Leibnitz pursued the tary signs. Besides sense and thought, trodden path of reflection; the latter in and train of thoughts, the mind bas no the way of idealism, the former in that of other motion. Whatever we imagine is realism.-We intend now to give a brief finite; therefore there is no idea of any sketch of the philosophy of England, thing infinite. Reasoning is nothing but Germany and France. The celebrity of reckoning, that is, adding or subtracting. the German philosophy would seem to The passions are internal voluntary moentitle it to an extended notice. But tions; when appetites and aversions, hopes to give a satisfactory account of it would and fears, arise alternately about the same far exceed the limits of this work. The thing, the whole sum of these motions is very explanation of the terminology of the deliberation, and the last appetite or averGerman philosophers, which would be sion in deliberation, is will, not the faculty, necessary to qualify an English reader to but the act of willing. (See Hobbes's Hiunderstand their systems, would occupy man Nature, 1650, and Leviathan, 1651.) much more space than we can give to the From these principles Hobbes having whole of this article, so that we can barely concluded that right and wrong were untouch upon some of the most prominent real, because they are not perceived by the points of the subject.
senses, Cudworth (Intellectual System of English Philosophy. Modern philosophy the Universe, 1678) endeavors to refute in England must be dated from Bacon. the doctrines of the sensual theory. He In his Novum Organum (1620), he takes a maintains that there are many objects of path directly opposite to that universally fol- the mind which are not derived from the lowed in bis time, and, instead of appeal- sense, and could be formed only by a ing by dialectics to the notions of the un- faculty superior to sense; these are not derstanding, he attempts to restore knowl- fantastical (conceivable by the imaginaedge by the aid of observation, through tion), but only noëmatical. Cudworth was, induction. He was not the founder of a in most points, a follower of Plato; bis sect; he did not deliver opinions; he plastic nature, a vital and spiritual but untaught modes of philosophizing ; he did intelligent and necessary agent, created by pot attempt to discover new principles, the Deity for the execution of his purbut to render observation and experience poses, is Plato's soul of the world; and he the predominant character of philosophy. maintains the Platonic doctrine of innate His services consist in his dethroning ideas. Locke introduced into the
study of scholastic philosophy, directing the atten- the human mind the method of investigation to nature and observation, and reject- tion, which had been pointed out by Bacon,
and gave the first example of an ample enu- probable. The ethical consequences meration of facts, collected and arranged which had been deduced from the senfor the purpose of legitimate generalization. sualist school of Hobbes, and from a parWithout meddling with physiological hy- tial view of the doctrines of Locke, led potheses or transcendental metaphysics, he Berkeley, who was not less remarkable seeks, “in a plain, historical method, to give for the virtues of his character than for an account of the ways in which theurder- the acuteness of his pbilosophy, to the standing attains the notions i bus, for adoption of idealism (Theory of Vision, which,” says he, “I shall appeal to every 1709; Principles of Human Knowledge, one's own experience and observation.” 1710; Alciphron, or the Minute PhilosoThis cautious empiricism has been little ob- pher, 1732). His Theory of Vision, which served by those who have called themselves is the most valuable part of his labors, and his disciples in England and France, and which is an important addition to the who, neglecting his method, have seized knowledge of mind, was the first exposiupon some unguarded expressions to tion of the difference between the original build up systems of idealism (Berkeley), and acquired perceptions of the eye, and scepticismo (Hume), or sensualism and now forms an essential part of the science materialism (the French philosophers and of optics. His scheme of idealism was the Hartleian school). The true spir- founded on the Lockian doctrine of ideas. it of the Lockian philosophy was first Proceeding from the principle, that we revived in the Scotch school (Reid and are percipient of nothing but our own Stewart). Rejecting innate ideas, Locke perceptions and ideas, and that all the obteaches that sensation and reflection are jects of human knowledge are ideas of the only sources of knowledge, external sensation or reflection existing in the mind objects furnishing the mind with the ideas itself, he comes to the conclusion that the of sensible qualities, and the mind furnish- existence of bodies out of a mind perceiving ing the understanding with ideas of its own them, is not only impossible, and a contraoperations. Sezsation convinces us of the diction in terms; Lut, were it possible, and exis:ence of soliä extended substance, and even real, it were impossible we should reflection of the existence of thinking ones, ever know it. By hus "expelling matter of the cause and nature of which two out of nature,” he thought we should get kinds of being we can know nothing. rid of the chief cause of all error in phiPerception is a communication between losophy, and all infidelity in religion. the mind and external objects carried on Granting the premises of Berkeley, which by means of images present to the mind; were the commonly received pbilosophithese he calls ideas, which he defines to cal views, at least in England, his conbe the inmediate objects about which the clusions could not be refuted; but it was mind is employed in thinking. Having reserved for Hume to trace out, by a rig. treated at length of the origin, nature and orous and unshrinking logic, the legitimate qualities of ideas, he proceeds to consider consequences of the Cartesian and Lockjan the instrument by which men communi- philosophy to their ultimate results, and cate their ideas to each other; and his re- thus, though unintentionally, by a sort of marks on this subject (Book iii, of Lan- reductio ad absurdum, to produce the great guage) form the most valuable dogmatic metaphysical revolution, of which Reid part of his work. Knowledge is the per- and Kant were the first movers. This he ception of the agreement or disagreement did with such power of logic, acuteness of ideas, which consists in identity or and cogency of reasoning, boldness, prediversity, relation, coexistence, and real cision, clearness, and elegance, that scepexistence. Of the existence of ourselves ticism never appeared more formidable or and of God we have intuitive knowledge, more seducing than in his writings (Treawhich is the immediate perception of the tise of Human Nature, 1738, cast anew in agreement or disagreement of ideas : the Inquiry concerning Human Underdemonstrative knowledge is the discovery standing, 1748). After showing that all of it by the intermediation of other ideas: attempted demonstrations of the necessity and these two sorts of knowledge yield of a cause to every new existence are complete certainty. Sensitive knowledge fallacious and sophistical, Hume endeavleads to the belief of the existence of other ors to prove that the proposition, whatever beings, and carries with it a reasonable has a beginning has a cause, is not intuiconfidence. Judgment is a supposition tively certain, but is derived only from or opinion of the agreement or disagree- custom and belief, and is rather an act of ment of ideas, and supplies the want of the sensitive than of the cogitative part of knowledge. Its conclusions are only our nature. In this argument, he pro